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© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e

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Chapter 3

Information System Fundamentals

© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e

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Our Agenda


Hardware for Information Systems


Software for Information Systems


Stored Data for Information Systems


Personnel for Information Systems


Procedures for Information Systems


Ethical Issues for Information Systems

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Learning Objectives


Explain why businesses need computer
and communications hardware in
information systems.


Distinguish between the three main
types of computer systems.


Explain the difference between
application software and system
software, and give an example of each.

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Learning Objectives (cont’d.)


Explain why businesses need software
in information systems.


Describe the way stored business data
is commonly organized in information
systems.


Explain why businesses need stored
data in information systems.

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Learning Objectives (cont’d.)


Identify the types of personnel in
information systems and explain why
businesses need personnel in
information systems.


Identify the types of procedures used in
information systems and explain why
businesses need procedures in
information systems.

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Learning Objectives (cont’d.)


Describe different approaches to ethical
decision making.


Explain several ethical issues for
information systems.

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Hardware for Information
Systems

Information System Fundamentals

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Computer and
Communications Hardware


Computer hardware


Input devices


Output devices


Primary storage


Secondary storage


Central Processing Unit (CPU)


Communications hardware


Network
devices

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The Need for Computer
Hardware


Important elements of computer
hardware


Speed


Accuracy


Capacity

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The Need for Communications
Hardware


Important elements of communications
hardware


Remote access


Information sharing


Resource sharing (printers, file servers)


Interorganizational communication

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Types of Computer Systems


Personal Computers


Desktop


Laptop


Handheld


Personal Digital Assistant

(PDA)


Workstations

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Types of Computer Systems
(cont’d.)


Multiple
-
user computer systems


Minicomputer


Typically between $5,000 and $200,000


Mainframe

computer


Typically between $100,000 and $10,000,000


Both are multi
-
user environments

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Types of Computer Systems
(cont’d.)


Networked computer systems


Many computers connected to a network
which is used by many people at one time.


Servers



provide services to other
computers on the network.


Clients



a user’s workstation connected to
the network.


Client
-
server computing



servers and
clients used cooperatively.

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Software for Information
Systems

Information System Fundamentals

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Types of Software


Application

software


designed for
specific computer applications for a
business or organization.


System

software


designed to make
computers usable. Also known as an
operating system
.


Communications

software


designed to
permit computers to “talk” to each other.

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Sources of Software


Two main sources of software


Packaged software



available
commercially for personal, multiple
-
user
and networked systems.


Custom software



created to address very
specific requirements of the users.

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Stored Data for Information
Systems

Information System Fundamentals

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Data Organization


Elements of data storage


Characters



letters, numerals, special
symbols, a blank space.


Fields



a group of related characters.


Records



a group of fields about a single
entity.


Data file
, or
file



a group of records about
a single purpose.


Database



a group of related files.

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Data Organization (cont’d.)


While data can be organized in a
database, there are other types of data.


Multimedia


Audio


Video


Images

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Need for Stored Data


Three main reasons businesses need
stored data


Data is available


Data is modifiable


Data is controllable

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Personnel for Information
Systems

Information System Fundamentals

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Users and Operating
Personnel


Users


Supply data input


Receive output


Operating personnel


Perform technical functions such as


Manage networks


Run software


Pass output to users

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Procedures for Information
Systems

Information System Fundamentals

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Types of Procedures


Two main types


First tells people how to use and operate
the system under normal circumstances.


Second tells people what to do if the
system does not function normally.


Documentation

is written instructions
on the use and operation of the system.

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Ethical Issues for
Information Systems

Information System Fundamentals

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Ethical Decision Making


The Golden Rule


Utilitarianism


Categorical Imperative


Ethical Egoism


Code of Ethics

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Ethical Issues


Privacy


Accuracy


Property


Access

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Ten Commandments

1.
Do not use a computer to harm other people.

2.
Do not interfere with other people’s computer
work.

3.
Do not look in other people’s computer files.

4.
Do not use a computer to steal.

5.
Do not use a computer to bear false witness.

6.
Do not copy or use proprietary software for
which you have not paid.

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Ten Commandments (cont’d.)

7.
Do not use other people’s computer
resources.without authorization or proper
compensation.

8.
Do not appropriate other people’s intellectual
property.

9.
Think about the social consequences of the
program you are writing or the system you are
designing.

10.
Always use a computer in ways that ensure
consideration and respect for your fellow man.

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Information Systems
Fundamentals

Key Terms

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Key Terms


Application Software


Bug


Character


Client


Client
-
Server Computing


Code of Ethics
Communication
Hardware


Communication
Software


Custom Software


Database


Data File


Desktop Computer


Documentation


Field


File

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Key Terms (cont’d.)


Handheld (Palmtop)
Computer


Mainframe Computer


Matching


Microcomputer


Minicomputer


Multimedia


Notebook (Laptop)
Computer


Operating System


Packaged Software


Personal Computer (PC)


Personal Digital
Assistant (PDA)


Platform


Record


Server


Supercomputer

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Key Terms (cont’d.)


System Software


Workstation

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Summary


Hardware for Information Systems


Software for Information Systems


Stored Data for Information Systems


Personnel for Information Systems


Procedures for Information Systems


Ethical Issues for Information Systems

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