Know Your Computer
Presentation developed by
for Intel® Teach to the Future Beginner’s Training
IT and the information processing cycle
What are computers?
Kinds of computers
Components of a computer
What Can IT do?
IT can do at least three things:
Process raw data into useful information
Recycle processed information and reuse it
for other purposes
Package information in a new form that is
easier to understand.
The computer is at the very heart of
What are Computers
Computers are electronic devices that
are capable of processing
data/information given in the form of
numbers, words, pictures, and even
They can be programmed (given
instructions) to carry out various kinds
of information processing jobs.
What are Computers …
Various kinds of jobs that are done
Keeping track of information
Preparation of documents and multimedia
Simulation of real or imaginary world
Storing and sharing information
Different Kinds of Computers
Depending on the size and capacity,
computers are classified into three
Microcomputers or Personal computers.
Large and powerful computers that are used by
many people (users) at the same time; typically
installed in large organizations.
Located in a central place and accessed by
users via computer terminals or other
computers placed at different locations and
connected to the mainframe computer.
: Extremely powerful
mainframe computers used in scientific and
Minicomputers are medium sized
computers and Microcomputers
Are also used by many users at the
Used in small organizations.
What is a SERVER?
Because of its large size, the mainframe
computer is often the one where other
computers on the network look for data
and also the one that runs powerful
Hence the term Server.
Microcomputers or Personal
Small computers that fit on your desk; meant to
be used by one user (at a time)
: A microcomputer with enhanced
graphics and communication capabilities
: A microcomputer that is small enough
to fit in a briefcase.
A small microcomputer with
in disk storage, but makes use of larger
computers of the company’s network or the
Internet through a browser
Components of a Computer
: The mechanical and
electronic parts that perform the various
tasks of the computer
: The programs that tell the
hardware what tasks are to be done
The hardware of a typical computer
system, irrespective of its size, consists
of the following components:
Central Processing Unit
Memory and Storage devices
Display and output devices.
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
The CPU performs arithmetic and logical calculations
and controls the operations of other parts of the
The CPU may be a single silicon chip or a series of
chips. A chip contains thousands of electronic
Each circuit can be set
and it represents
whose value can be
Computer stores and processes data/information in
terms of these bits.
Memory and Storage Devices
Computer Memory, also known as internal storage
There are two kinds of memory
: Contains basic
instructions of the computer stored permanently
: In RAM
the computer copies and keeps
user’s programs and data, in part or full,
at the time of execution.
Memory and Storage Devices …
In order to store user programs and data
permanently or as long as user wants,
computers use external storage devices.
The common storage devices used in
personal computers are:
: These are disks, fixed inside
the cabinet, used for storing very large
amounts of information. Typical sizes are
about 4 or 8 GB.
Storage Devices …..
: Used by means of floppy disk
drive(s) attached to the computer. Floppy
disks in normal use today store about 1.4
MB of data.
: Used by means of CD
drive(s). Standard capacity is about 600
MB of data.
Input devices are used by the user to enter data,
commands and programs to the computer. Most
common devices are:
: Used to enter text data.
: Used to point and click at any
location on the computer’s video display
screen. Normally a mouse will have two
or three buttons.
Input devices …
Other input devices
: Similar functionality as mouse
Used to point or sketch directly
on the screen.
: To scan (input) images
: To capture pictures
Voice recognition systems
: These accept
spoken words as input.
Display and Output Devices
: It is the main output device of a
computer. It displays text as well as pictures in black
and white or color.
The monitor screen consists of an array of tiny
(picture elements). Typical
sizes of this array of pixels are
640 by 480
1024 by 768
. This is also referred as the
Each pixel can be independently illuminated by a
color. The number of colors displayable on a
monitor can be 16 or 256 or 2
(high color) or 2
Output Devices …
Another output device to which the
computer can directly send the data to obtain
hard copy printouts of the results.
: Commonly used printer. In
general it will be black and white. There
are also color laser printers.
Other types of printers:
jet printer, Dot
A device used to link two computers via
analogue telephone lines.
It converts digital signals into analogue
signals and vice
Computer software can be classified
into following categories:
Operating system (OS) is the basic software
responsible for interacting with the hardware.
It is the foundation on which user programs
and application programs are built.
It helps the user to enter programs or data,
store them in files and execute programs.
Two popular operating systems in use today
for mainframes and minicomputers.
A program is a sequence of commands written
in a computer programming language that
specifies a task the computer will perform.
Some of the computer programming languages
FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, C, C++, Java
: Written by users or
programmers for themselves or for their
Application programs is the
name for all programs
that are used for carrying out
creation, pay roll processing, …
A word processor is an application program
that supports the basic tasks of entering,
editing, formatting and archiving a text
Microsoft Word includes a number of
powerful features, such as word wrap, find
and replace, tables, columns, spell check,
grammar and style analysis and mail merge.
Provides functions that until ten years back
were only possible to be carried out at a good
A basic function is page layout, the ability to
place text, diagrams and images on a page in
any way, easily and accurately.
Other functions include a variety of fonts,
styles, content and index generation, etc.
A spreadsheet application program is used to
enter numeric data in tabular format, along
with row/column labels and formulae that can
be combined to solve a variety of business
Spreadsheet applications also include
facilities for drawing charts, etc. from
Database application programs are used
when very large amounts of data are to be
stored in a structured manner, maintaining
various relationships among the data
example, information of all employees in a
A very powerful feature is the ability to rapidly
answer a variety of queries from the user
about the data in the database.
Network applications are programs that
enable us to communicate with and use
facilities of remote computers.
These applications have proliferated with the
spread of the Internet and the introduction of
Commonly used programs are
Newsgroups, Chat, Games, File transfer,...
It all began with games, now it is dynamic
web pages, interactive courseware and
catalogues with sound and video
application programs enable us to create
These programs include facilities to create,
edit and render on the screen, text, pictures,
sound, animation, video and 3D graphics