Know Your Computer

cottonseedfearnotElectronics - Devices

Nov 7, 2013 (3 years and 5 months ago)

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Know Your Computer

Presentation developed by

NCST

for Intel® Teach to the Future Beginner’s Training

Topics


IT and the information processing cycle


What are computers?


Kinds of computers


Components of a computer


Hardware


Software


Applications

What Can IT do?


IT can do at least three things:


Process raw data into useful information


Recycle processed information and reuse it
for other purposes


Package information in a new form that is
easier to understand.


The computer is at the very heart of
Information Technology.

What are Computers


Computers are electronic devices that
are capable of processing
data/information given in the form of
numbers, words, pictures, and even
sounds.


They can be programmed (given
instructions) to carry out various kinds
of information processing jobs.

What are Computers …


Various kinds of jobs that are done
using computers:


Scientific computations


Keeping track of information


Preparation of documents and multimedia
presentations


Simulation of real or imaginary world
scenes


Storing and sharing information

Different Kinds of Computers


Depending on the size and capacity,
computers are classified into three
types:


Mainframe computers


Minicomputers


Microcomputers or Personal computers.

Mainframe Computers


Large and powerful computers that are used by
many people (users) at the same time; typically
installed in large organizations.


Located in a central place and accessed by
users via computer terminals or other
computers placed at different locations and
connected to the mainframe computer.


Supercomputers
: Extremely powerful
mainframe computers used in scientific and
engineering applications.

Minicomputers


Minicomputers are medium sized
computers
--

Between Mainframe
computers and Microcomputers


Are also used by many users at the
same time


Used in small organizations.

What is a SERVER?


Because of its large size, the mainframe
computer is often the one where other
computers on the network look for data
and also the one that runs powerful
software and
serves

other computers.


Hence the term Server.

Microcomputers or Personal
Computers


Small computers that fit on your desk; meant to
be used by one user (at a time)


Workstation
: A microcomputer with enhanced
graphics and communication capabilities


Laptop
: A microcomputer that is small enough
to fit in a briefcase.


Network computer:

A small microcomputer with
no built
-
in disk storage, but makes use of larger
computers of the company’s network or the
Internet through a browser

Components of a Computer


Hardware
: The mechanical and
electronic parts that perform the various
tasks of the computer


Software
: The programs that tell the
hardware what tasks are to be done


and how.

Hardware components


The hardware of a typical computer
system, irrespective of its size, consists
of the following components:


Central Processing Unit
--

CPU


Memory and Storage devices


Input devices


Display and output devices.

Central Processing Unit (CPU)


The CPU performs arithmetic and logical calculations
and controls the operations of other parts of the
computer.


The CPU may be a single silicon chip or a series of
chips. A chip contains thousands of electronic
switching circuits.


Each circuit can be set
ON

or
OFF

and it represents
a
bit

whose value can be
1

or
0
.


Computer stores and processes data/information in
terms of these bits.

Memory and Storage Devices


Computer Memory, also known as internal storage


There are two kinds of memory


Read
-
Only Memory

or
ROM
: Contains basic
instructions of the computer stored permanently


Random
-
Access Memory

or
RAM
: In RAM
the computer copies and keeps
temporarily

user’s programs and data, in part or full,
at the time of execution.


Memory and Storage Devices …


In order to store user programs and data
permanently or as long as user wants,
computers use external storage devices.


The common storage devices used in
personal computers are:


Hard disks
: These are disks, fixed inside
the cabinet, used for storing very large
amounts of information. Typical sizes are
about 4 or 8 GB.

Storage Devices …..


Floppy disks
: Used by means of floppy disk
drive(s) attached to the computer. Floppy
disks in normal use today store about 1.4
MB of data.


CD
-
ROMs
: Used by means of CD
-
ROM
drive(s). Standard capacity is about 600
MB of data.

Input Devices


Input devices are used by the user to enter data,
commands and programs to the computer. Most
common devices are:


Keyboard
: Used to enter text data.


Mouse
: Used to point and click at any
location on the computer’s video display
screen. Normally a mouse will have two
or three buttons.

Input devices …


Other input devices


Joystick
: Similar functionality as mouse


Light pen:
Used to point or sketch directly
on the screen.


Scanners
: To scan (input) images


Digital cameras
: To capture pictures
directly.


Voice recognition systems
: These accept
spoken words as input.

Display and Output Devices


Monitor
or

Display
: It is the main output device of a
computer. It displays text as well as pictures in black
and white or color.


The monitor screen consists of an array of tiny
dots called
pixels

(picture elements). Typical
sizes of this array of pixels are
640 by 480

or
800
by 600

or
1024 by 768
. This is also referred as the
resolution.


Each pixel can be independently illuminated by a
color. The number of colors displayable on a
monitor can be 16 or 256 or 2
16

(high color) or 2
24

(true color).

Output Devices …


Printer:

Another output device to which the
computer can directly send the data to obtain
hard copy printouts of the results.


Laser printer
: Commonly used printer. In
general it will be black and white. There
are also color laser printers.


Other types of printers:
Ink
-
jet printer, Dot
-
matrix printer.

Modem


A device used to link two computers via
analogue telephone lines.


It converts digital signals into analogue
signals and vice
-
versa.

Computer Software


Computer software can be classified
into following categories:


Operating system


User Programs


Application programs

Computer Hardware

Operating System

Application
Programs

User
Programs

User

Operating System


Operating system (OS) is the basic software
responsible for interacting with the hardware.


It is the foundation on which user programs
and application programs are built.


It helps the user to enter programs or data,
store them in files and execute programs.


Two popular operating systems in use today
are


Unix


for mainframes and minicomputers.


Microsoft Windows


for personal
computers.

Programs


A program is a sequence of commands written
in a computer programming language that
specifies a task the computer will perform.


Some of the computer programming languages
are:


FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, C, C++, Java


User Programs
: Written by users or
programmers for themselves or for their
organization.

Application Programs


Application programs is the
catch
-
all

name for all programs
that are used for carrying out
specific tasks
-

office document
creation, pay roll processing, …


Word processing


A word processor is an application program
that supports the basic tasks of entering,
editing, formatting and archiving a text
document.


Microsoft Word includes a number of
powerful features, such as word wrap, find
and replace, tables, columns, spell check,
grammar and style analysis and mail merge.

Desktop Publishing


Provides functions that until ten years back
were only possible to be carried out at a good
printing house.


A basic function is page layout, the ability to
place text, diagrams and images on a page in
any way, easily and accurately.


Other functions include a variety of fonts,
styles, content and index generation, etc.

Spreadsheets


A spreadsheet application program is used to
enter numeric data in tabular format, along
with row/column labels and formulae that can
be combined to solve a variety of business
numeric problems.


Spreadsheet applications also include
facilities for drawing charts, etc. from
tabulated data.

Databases


Database application programs are used
when very large amounts of data are to be
stored in a structured manner, maintaining
various relationships among the data
-

for
example, information of all employees in a
company.


A very powerful feature is the ability to rapidly
answer a variety of queries from the user
about the data in the database.

Network


Network applications are programs that
enable us to communicate with and use
facilities of remote computers.


These applications have proliferated with the
spread of the Internet and the introduction of
the WWW.


Commonly used programs are
-

E
-
Mail,
Newsgroups, Chat, Games, File transfer,...

Multimedia


It all began with games, now it is dynamic
web pages, interactive courseware and
catalogues with sound and video
-

multimedia
application programs enable us to create
exciting content.


These programs include facilities to create,
edit and render on the screen, text, pictures,
sound, animation, video and 3D graphics