Introduction to Networking

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Nov 7, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Introduction to
Networking

CCNA 1, Module 1

By

Steven Beckwith

Aims


By the end of this chapter you should be
able to:


Understand the fundamentals of Internet Connectivity


Describe the basic components of a PC’s Hardware and
Software


Demonstrate TCP/IP Configuration and testing


Diferentiate between High Speed and Dialup Connectivity


Understand and demonstrate Decimal, Binary and
Hexadecimal conversion and Boolean Logic


Show a basic understanding of IP Addresses and Subnet
Masks

Internet Fundamentals


The Internet


A network of Interconnected Networks


Computers can exist without the Internet but the Internet
cannot exist without computers


The Internet can be thought of as a Tree


The trunk and branches are the pathways connecting networks


The leaves are the computers


Internet Connectivity


Computers connect to the internet in a
number of ways, can you list them?


Dial
-
up (Modem)


ISDN


DSL


Cable


Network

PC Basics (Components)


Electronic components


Transistor


Integrated Circuit (IC)


Resistor


Capacitor


Connector


Light Emitting Diode (LED)

PC Basics (Components)


PC components


Printed Circuit Board (PCB)


CD
-
ROM drive


Central Processing Unit (CPU)


Floppy Disk Drive


Hard Disk Drive


Microprocessor


Motherboard


Random Access Memory (RAM)

PC Basics (Components) Contd.


PC components


Read Only Memory (ROM)


Bus


Expansion Slots


System Unit


Power Supply

PC Motherboard Components


Backplane


Memory Chip


Network Interface
Card (NIC)


Video Card


Sound Card


Parallel Port


Serial Port


Mouse Port


Mouse Port


Keyboard Port


Power Cord


Universal Serial Bus
(USB) Port

Desktop Vs Laptop


Desktop


Comes in two styles


Desktop


Tower


Used in the home and at work


Not suitable for mobile use


Connects directly to network via NIC


Can connect to network via a modem

Desktop Vs Laptop


Laptop


Comes in a variety of styles


Laptop


Palmtop


Compact


Gives flexibility to mobile users


Connects directly to network via NIC


Can connect to network via modem and Cellular Telephone

Selecting a NIC


Points to consider


Type of network


Ethernet


Token Ring


FDDI


Type of Medium


Twisted pair


Coaxial


Fiber


Wireless

Selecting a NIC (Contd).


Points to consider


Type of System bus


ISA


PCI


USB


PCMCIA

High Speed and Dialup

Year

Speed
(bits/sec)

Application

1960’s

300

Connecting Dumb terminals to
Mainframe computer

1970’s

300

Bulletin boards introduced

1980’s

4600

Transferring files and graphics

1990s

28800

Widening use of the internet

1998

56000

More graphic based web pages
and file transfers

2000s

2,000,000

Introduction of broadband for
home users

TCP/IP


A set of Protocols to allow computers on
different networks to communicate


Used to access the Internet


PC Requires:


An IP Address


Subnet Mask


Default Gateway


This information is obtained from the
network administrator

TCP/IP Configuration

TCP/IP Testing

Ping


A protocol used to test TCP/IP Connectivity


Stands for Packet Internet Groper


Sends multiple IP packets to destination computer
(typically 4
-
packets)


Will receive the same number of replies


Information obtained will allow you to ascertain network
connectivity

IPConfig


Used to verify current IP configuration


Lab 1.1.6

Ping


Procedures for verifying connectivity


Ping 127.0.0.1


Internel loopback address


Ping IP Address of host computer


Verifies own configuration


Ping default gateway IP address


verifies router can be accessed


Ping remote IP address


verifies connectivity to remote host

Tracert


Traces the route traffic takes from source to
destination


Lab 1.1.7

Decimal Notation


All Number systems consist of symbols and
rules for using them


We use the Decimal number system


Consists of the symbols 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9.

Binary Notation


Computers use Binary notation


Information is stored in memory as a 1
(on) 0r 0 (off)


Has only 2 symbols 0 and 1


Called
B
inary dig
ITS


Usually represented in groups of 8 BITS


8 BITS = 1 Byte or Octet


1024 bytes = 1 Kilobyte (Kb)


1024 Kb = 1 Megabyte (Mb)


1024 Mb = 1 Gigabyte (Gb)

Binary Notation


Possible combinations of 1s and 0s in 8 bits






= 0
-
255


Hexadecimal Notation


Computers represent large numbers as
Hexadecimal


Has 16 symbols, numbers 0
-
9 and A, B,C, D, E, F
representing 10


15.

Number Conversions


Lab 1.2.5
Decimal to Binary Conversion


Lab 1.2.6
Binary to Decimal Conversion


Lab 1.2.8
Hexadecimal Conversions

Boolean Logic


Boolean logic is based on digital circuitry
that accepts one or two incoming
voltages.


Based on the input voltages, output
voltage is generated.


For the purpose of computers the voltage
difference is associated as two states,
on

or
off
.


These two states are in turn associated
as a
1

or a
0
, which are the two digits in
the binary numbering system.

Logic Gates


NOT


The NOT operation takes whatever value is presented, 0 or 1, and
inverts it.


A one becomes a zero and a zero becomes a one.

Logic Gates


AND


The AND operation takes two input values.


If both are 1, the logic gate generates a 1 output.


Otherwise it outputs a 0.

Logic Gates


OR


The OR operation also takes two input values.


If at least one of the input values is 1, the output value is 1

IP Addressing


An IP Address is a 32 bit address represented in Decimal
notation for ease of reading


eg. 192.168.10.143



Has 2 parts


Network portion


Host Portion


Has a Subnet Mask


255.0.0.0


255.255.0.0


255.255.255.0

Subnet Masks


Subnet Mask is used to identify the network
portion if the address


Converting the IP address 10.34.23.134 to binary would result in:



00001010.00100010.00010111.10000110



Performing a Boolean AND of the IP address 10.34.23.134 and the
subnet mask
255.0.0.0

produces the network address of


this host:



00001010.00100010.00010111.10000110

11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000

00001010.00000000.00000000.00000000



Network Address = 10.0.0.0

Subnet Masks


Performing a Boolean AND of the IP
address 10.34.23.134 and the subnet
mask
255.255.0.0

produces the network
address of this host:


Answer


00001010.00100010.00010111.10000110

11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000


00001010.00100010.00000000.00000000



Network Address = 10.34.0.0

Good luck in the test!