Computer Software and Systems

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Nov 7, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Chapter 5


Computer Software and Systems


Nursing Informatics


Software


Is the general term applied to the
instructions that direct the computer’s
hardware to perform work.



Its consist of instructions communicated
electronically to the hardware.


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Types of Software


System Software



boots up the computer
system; controls input, output and storage; and
controls the operations of the application
software; consist of programs that controls the

operation of the computer and its devices.



Application Software


includes the various
programs that users require to perform day
-
to
-
day tasks.



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Types of System Software


Operating System


a set of programs containing
instructions that coordinate all the activities among
computer hardware resources.


“A computer cannot function without an operating
system”.



Utilities/Utility Program


software that

performs

specific task, usually related

to managing

your computer, its

devices, or its programs.


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User Interface


Is a part of the software with which you
interact; it controls how data and
instructions are entered and how
information is presented on the screen.



Types of User Interface


Command Line Interface


Graphical User Interface (GUI)


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Types of user interface


Command Line Interface

-

you type keywords or press
special keys from the keyboard to enter data and
instructions.



Command language



are set of commands you use to interact
with the computer.




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Types of user interface



Graphical User Interface



allows you to use menus and
visual images such as icons.




Icons

are small images that represents a program,
instructions or information.


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Language Translation
Utilities




Translation programs are needed to convert
instructions written in English
-
like language
into binary. These translation programs are
called
assemblers
,
compilers

or
interpreters
.


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Application Software

Types of Application Software


Word processor


Spreadsheet


DBMS (Database
Management System)


Graphics


Educational


Games


Accounting Package



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Programming Language




Is a means of communicating with the
computer.



Is a set of words, symbols, and codes
that enables a programmer to
communicate a solution algorithm to
computer.


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Generations and level of programming
language

The term
“level”

refers to how close the language
is to the actual machine.

First level includes the first two generations of
programming language:

Machine language

and
assembly language


Second level includes
high
-
level procedural

and
nonprocedural language


Third level (fifth generation) is
natural language
.


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Machine Language


Is the true language of the computer.



Its consists only of binary numbers 1’s and
0’s, representing the on and off electrical
impulses.

Byte is consist of 8 bits.


For example no.3 has an 8 bits of 00000011


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Assembler Language


Its far more English
-
like language.


Assemble language instructions have a one
-
to
-
one
correspondence with a machine language instructions.

Sample Code:

PRINT_LOOP:


CALL WRITE_CHAR


INC DL


LOOP PRINT_LOOP


MOV AH,4CH


INT 21H;21H


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Third Generation Language



Procedural language


requires the
programmer to specify both what the
computer is to do and the procedure on
how to do it.



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Fourth Generation Language



Specialized application programs that
require more involvement of the user in
directing the program to do necessary
work.


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Fifth Generation Language



Are also called natural language.



The user tells the machine what to do in
the user’s own natural language or
through use of a set of very English
-
like
commands.


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Software Packages




Package Software is designed to meet the
needs of a wide variety of users, not just a
single user or company.



Is sometimes called commercial
-
off
-
the
-
shelf software.


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Software Useful to Nurses


It includes :


Admission, discharge and transfer (ADT) systems


Medication administration record (MAR) software


Charting Software


Computerize acuity system


Hospital email system


Chat rooms


Electronic bulletin boards


Listservs


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Computer Programming


Refers to the process of writing a
computer program, which is a series of
instructions written in proper sequence to
solve a specific problem.



Program encompasses the program
instructions and is generally written by a
computer programmer.


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Steps in writing a computer
program


Problem definition


Program design


Writing the code and program
documentation


Alpha Testing


Beta Testing and program documentation



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System Elements


Six elements :


Interdependent parts


Input to the system


System processes


Output of the system


System control


feedback


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System Elements

Interdependent

parts
.

The

most

defining

attribute

of

a

system

is

that

its

parts

interact

to

conduct

some

process
.

Without

interaction,

the

system

process

could

not

occur
.

In

the

production

of

the

system’s

process,

the

parts

are

interdependent
.


Input

is

any

factor

from

the

external

environment

that

is

taken

into

the

system
.

Input

in

a

computer

system

may

serve

to

initiate

system

functioning
.



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Process

is

the

activity

of

the

system
.

The

system

performs

process

on

its

inputs

to

procedure

outputs,

or

create

some

sort

of

results
.


Output

is

any

product

or

waste

produced

as

a

result

of

system

process
.


Control

refers

to

any

component

or

activity

that

serves

to

prevent

or

correct

problems

or

errors

in

the

system’s

input,

process

or

output
.


Feedback

is

the

output

from

one

part

of

a

system

process

that

serves

as

input

to

another

part

of

a

system

process
.



Nursing Informatics


System Elements

Information System


Is the collection and integration of various pieces
of hardware and software and the human
resources that meet the data collection, storage,
processing and report generation needs of an
organization.


Are found almost everywhere in health care,
including hospitals, clinics, community health
agencies, research facilities, and educational
institutions.


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Information Systems


Management Information System (MIS)


Bibliographic Retrieval System


Stand
-
alone system


Transaction system


Physiologic monitoring system


Decision support system


Expert system


Artificial Intelligence System


Natural Language System



Nursing Informatics


MIS


Provides managers information about their business
operations.



Is defined as an organized system for managing the flow
of information in an organization in a timely manner.



Have programs that support strategic planning,
management control and operation support.



Strategic planning refers to the policy decisions made by
the top
-
level team of administrators.


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Bibliographic Retrieval
Systems


Is a retrieval system that generally refers
to bibliographic data, document
information or literature.


Primarily used to store and retrieve data
and not to conduct any computations per
se.


Is designed to provide bibliographic data
on journal articles, books, monographs
and textual report.


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Stand
-
alone systems


Is a special purpose system.



Is developed for a single application or set
of functions .


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Transaction Systems


Is used to process predefined transactions
and produce predefined reports.



It is designed for repeated operations
using a fixed list.



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Physiologic Monitoring
System


Are widely used in hospital patient care
units, in surgery, and more and more
commonly, in private homes.



Are being used more frequently to
measure and monitor continuous
automatic physiologic findings such as
heart rate.


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Decision Support System


Is a computer system that supports some
aspects of the human decision
-
making
process.



It works with the user to support, but not
replace, human judgment in a decision
-
making situation.


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Expert System


Is a computer system containing the
information and decision
-
making
strategies of an expert to assist non
-
experts in decision
-
making.



Is designed for a user to simulate the
cause and effect reasoning that a expert
would use if confronted with the same
situation in real live environment.


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Artificial Intelligence System


Is a system that attempts to a model
human reasoning processes.



A true AI system can also track the
accuracy of its predictions and judgments
and alter its decision
-
making rules, based
on new knowledge it generates for itself.


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Natural Language System


Is a system that can understand and
process commands given in the user’s
own natural, spoken language.



It requires the computer to understand a
wide range of words, speech styles,
syntax and sentence structure.



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Hospital Information System


Sometimes called medical information
system (MIS) or patient care system (PCS)



It provides support for a wide variety of
both administrative and clinical functions.



Its purpose is
to manage information
needed to facilitate daily hospital
operations by all health care personnel
.



Nursing Informatics


HIS Configurations


HIS can use several computer system
configurations.



The most common uses mainframe computer
with hardwired terminals or workstations.



Another configurations employs a LAN.



Many hospitals configuration include the
dedicated IS for special purposes, such as nurse
staffing, pharmacy or laboratory sysyems.


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Program modules available in
an HIS


Include a wide variety of administrative
applications (modules) as:


Admission and discharge


Patient tracking


Finance


Payroll


Billing


Budgeting support


Inventory


Management reporting programs



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Semiclinical modules


These both support administrative and
clinical operations.



ADT


Monitors and sometimes controls the flow of
patients in a hospital from admission to
discharge.


Automatically prepare the midnight census and
activity reports.



Order entry



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Order
-
entry
-
result
-
reporting
module


Means that the staff can enter laboratory,
pharmacy, and radiology orders online.



Results reporting means that the lab,
pharmacy and radiology can enter the
results into the computer system and have
those results available to the nursing unit.


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Clinical Support Modules


Charting systems



Point
-
of
-
service (POS) systems



Laboratory, Pharmacy and Radiology
Modules


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Charting Systems


Include :


Medication administration reports


Admission assessment


Shift assessments


Special assessments (neurologic assessment
and labor records)


Vital sign records


Wound care


Hygienic care records


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Point
-
of
-
service (POS)
system


Also known as point
-
of
-
care system.


Uses a hand
-
held or bedside PC to ensure
that data are entered at the point at which
they are collected.



Designed to save time by recording critical
clinical data such as patient assessment,
drug administration, vital signs.



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Laboratory, Pharmacy & Radiology
Modules


Are needed by all hospitals.


Laboratory system includes:


Laboratory test request


Generates the specimen labels


Track the specimen


Generates the result


Communicates the findings to patient medical record.


Pharmacy systems track medication orders and changes
in orders
.


Drug interaction warning programs


Dosage calculators


Radiology systems are usually separate products
develop by companies that specialize in diagnostic
computer imaging systems
.



Nursing Informatics