CIL_Elderly_Mod1 - Responsible Use of ICT

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Nov 7, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Commission on Information and Communications Technology

HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT GROUP

Module 1

(ICT Basics)

Computer and Internet Literacy Course


Refers to the facts and
figures relating to events that
take place



refers to things “known”


a collection of independent raw
facts, numbers, letters, symbols

What is Data?

What Is Information?


Information is data made meaningful based on the
needs of the user through manipulation

8:00 a.m.

P10,000/month

Data versus Information


Data is a collection of facts in the forms of numbers, letters,
special symbols or combination

Data is a processed Information

Information Structures


When information is stored
electronically, it is structured
according to the way it is
used. Databases support all
kinds of information.

TIMELINES
S

Desirable Qualities of Information


Relevance


Completeness


Timeliness


Accuracy


Cost Effective

What is a System?


Is a group of organized interdependent components that
interact with and complement one another to achieve one or
more predetermined goals

Example


Digestive System


School System


Computer System


Information System


Operating System

Unitary
Whole

Composed

of Parts

Bounded

Goal
-
Oriented

Hierarchical

Parts Interact

Characteristics of a System

APPLICATION
SOFTWARE

INPUT

PROCESSING

OUTPUTS

PAYCHECK

ENVIRONMENT

Components of a System


The components of a system may be physical objects, but they
can equally well abstract concepts

PROCESS

DATA

INFORMATION

INPUT

OUTPUT

Data Processing Concepts

Input
-
Process
-
Output Model


Refers to a conceptual framework wherein input in the form of
data is processed which would result in the generation of an
output in the form of information

Flow of data from
the moment it is
recorded until the
time it becomes a
usable piece of
information

Origination

Input
Preparation

Processing

Output
Preparation

Storage

Data Processing Cycle

Feedback

Data Processing Steps


ORIGINATION PHASE

refers to the initial capture of data on some form or
document


Data Capture/Recording


INPUT PREPARATION PHASE

the accurate recording or transcribing of data forms to
permit convenient handling in whatever system the
forms are being used


Editing


Coding


Verifying

Data Processing Steps…
cont


PROCESSING PHASE

The actual conversion of data into useful and meaningful
information by means of one or more of the following
processes:


Classifying


Sorting


Calculating


Summarizing


OUTPUT PREPARATION PHASE

The process of generating the information and providing
it to the user. This may be done in the following:


Reproducing


Communicating


STORAGE & FEEDBACK PHASE


Storing


Feedback


Deals with the use of electronic computers and
computer software to convert, store, protect, process,
transmit, and retrieve information

Note: Information Technology is also known as
Information and Communications Technology (ICT)

What is Information Technology?

Evolution from the abacus to the modern
day computers

Computer Technology

MINIATURIZATION

-

is the most popular
application of microelectronics technology

Microelectronics Applications

Deals with the use of the latest advances in
microelectronics technology for data processing

Communications Technology


The electronic transfer of information from one location to
another


DATA COMMUNICATIONS

or
DATACOM

refers to digital
transmission.


TELECOMMUNICATIONS

or
TELECOM

refers to a mix of
voice and data, both analog and digital


NETWORKING

refers specifically to LANs
and WANs. Transmission of information
over the network

Trends in Information Technology


Increase In Raw Computing Power



Increase In Storage Capacity


Increasing Diversity


Falling Prices


Increasing Functionality And Flexibility


Increasing User
-
Friendliness


Improved Connectivity

What is a Computer?

An electronic data processing machine capable of
performing mathematical and logical operations and
processing large volumes of data at high speed

Speed

Accurate

Memory

Global Communication

Capabilities of Computers

Information is provided by a human being

Can detect but cannot correct an inaccurate entry by
itself

Subject to occasional breakdown

Limitations of Computers

According to Age and Component Generation

According to Size

According to Operation

According to Application

According to Design

Classifications of Computer

According to Age and Component Generations

First Generation Computers

(1951
-
1958)

using vacuum tubes

Second Generation Computers

(1959
-
1964)


introduction of transistors as a machine
component

According to Age and Component Generations

Fifth Generation Computers

(1990s to present)

A computer that would use artificial intelligence
techniques to learn, reason, and converse in natural
languages resembling human languages

Third Generation Computers

(1965
-
1970)

A computer that uses integrated circuits, disk
storage and online terminals

Fourth Generation Computers

(1970
-
1980)

A general
-
purpose digital computer, characterized
by very large
-
scale integrated circuits

Hybrid Computers

Accepts analog signals, converts them to
digital and processes them in digital form. It
is used in process control and robotics

According to Operations

Analog Computers


A numerical data are represented by measurable
physical variables, such as electrical voltage


Digital Computers

Performs calculations and logical operations
with quantities represented as digits, usually
in the binary number system

General Purpose Computers

Refers to computers that follow
instructions, thus virtually all
computers from micro to mainframe
are general purpose. Even computers
in toys, games and single
-
function
devices follow instructions in their
built
-
in program

According to Design

Special Purpose Computers


A computer designed to perform a
specific function or for a specific
operation and usually satisfies the needs
of a particular type of problem

According to Applications

Business Computers

A computer that handles large
volumes of data for input

Scientific Computers

A computer which has a very large memory and
is capable of handling extremely high
-
speed
arithmetic and a very large variety of floating
-
point arithmetic commands

According to Size

Mainframe

Computers used mainly by government
institutions and large companies for mission
critical applications, typically bulk data
processing

Minicomputer

Medium
-
capacity computer that is larger than a
microcomputer but smaller than most mainframes.
It can handle a larger amount of data than a
microcomputer and can perform most of the
functions of a mainframe

According to Size

Personal Computer

A single user computer. It was also synonymous with
"microcomputer." Today, the terms PC, desktop,
laptop and just plain "computer" are mostly used
instead

Supercomputer

A mainframe computer that is among
the largest, fastest, or most powerful
of those available at a given time

Components of a Computer System


Dataware

The systematic and organized collection of data and
procedures relevant to the organization


Peopleware

The personnel who manage the EDP system, who design
applications, who write and encode the programs


Hardware

The computer and all of its physical components such as
disk drives, printer, input terminals


Software

The non
-
physical components such as computer programs,
computer language and operating system


Specifies

the

manner

in

which

data

will

be

obtained

and

prepared

The Dataware


Personnel

involved

in

the

design,

development,

installation

and

maintenance

of

computer


Users


Programmers


Systems Analyst


System/Network Administrator

The Peopleware


Refers

to

the

equipment/devices

that

make

the

computer

system

perform

one

or

more

functions


Computer

and

all

of

its

other

physical

components

Functional Components


Input Devices


Output Devices


Central Processing Unit


Secondary Storage Unit


Data Communication Devices

The Hardware

Input Devices


Handle the entering in of programs and data through the
keyboard or other input devices

Output Devices


Translate the result of computer processing into human
readable form through the monitor or printer

Functional Unit of the CPU

-
Primary Memory


ROM (Read
-
only
-
memory)


RAM (Random
-
Access Memory)

-

Control Unit

-

Arithmetic/ Logic Unit

Central Processing Unit (CPU)


Heart of the computer which handles the entire operation of
the system


Also known as the central processor and sometimes the brain
of the computer system

Secondary Storage


Also known as the secondary memory which serves as
the storage area of the computer system

Types of Secondary Storage (for Desktop PC)


Hard Disk


Floppy Disk


CD
-
ROM/DVD
-
ROM


Flash Disk/Memory Stick

The Software


Refers to the non
-
physical components, such as the operating
system and the machine coded instructions that direct and
control the different hardware facilities

Example


Operating Systems


Games

Concurrency

of Operation

Resource
Sharing

Information

Sharing

Long
-
term
Storage

of Information

Software Systems Capabilities

Software Categories

It is divided into two categories, namely;


Applications Software


Systems Software

Application Software

Refers to programs designed to perform
specific data processing tasks for a
particular application

Usually written by the vendor or user
that contains the logic to update and
maintain a company’s records or files to
ease the burden of day
-
to
-
day operation
of the company

Types of Application Software

Applications Systems



A computer
-
based information systems prepared by each
organization to process tasks that are unique to their particular
needs or “tailor
-
fit” for their particular operation


Registration System

Application Packages



A software packages, programs prepared for applications that
are common to the needs of many organizations. Programs that
are made available to users by computer manufacturers and
may include the operating instructions and documentation


Word Processor


Electronic Spreadsheet


Database Management

System Software


Computer software involved with data and program
management, including operating systems, control programs,
and database management systems


Programs designed around the internal environment of the
computer, to directly or indirectly support program processing


Provides an interface between the
programmers and operators and between the
hardware system and the application software


Operating System

What is an Operating System?


A component of a computer system that is responsible for
the management and coordination of activities and the
sharing of the resources of the computer


The ultimate control of all resources and has responsibility
for system operation


Supervises the overall operation of the computer, controls
the flow of programs in and out of the system, switches
input/output machines and calls program from storage

Functions of an Operating System


User Interface



the method of interaction between the user
and the computer


Job Management



controls the order and time in which
programs are run


System Resource Management Or Task Management

-

Allowing several programs to share the resources of the
computer system. Allocates resources to the programs which
need them and resolves the conflicts or problems that occur


Data Management Or I/O Management

-

Controls the
utilization of space on disk for direct access and all I/O
operations must be scheduled and executed


Linux

Unix


Windows

Family

MacOS

Example of Operating Systems

Commission on Information and Communications Technology

HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT GROUP

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