How The Internet Works

cornawakeSoftware and s/w Development

Nov 4, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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How does the Internet work? Many
people wonder. The Internet's
growth has become explosive in
people’s lives. Because the Internet
has become such a large part of our
lives, only a good understanding is
needed to use this new tool most
effectively.

On October 4, 1957, the Soviet
Union launched the world’s first
manmade satellite into orbit. The
satellite, known as Sputnik, did not
do much.



As well as the World Wide Web, the
Internet is used for email, file
sharing, online chat, phone and video
calls, online
gaining
and web
browsing. Over the last 10 years,
internet use has gotten very popular.
It is now used for things such as
paying bills online, online shopping,
advertising, travel information, more
games, social networking, Etc.



The
Internet is so important to
modern day life because it
provides information and news
that we need to know about. It
has information about everything
that is known to man, and can
serve various purposes based on
one's requirement.


The
Internet
is a massive network of networks. It connects
millions of computers together globally, forming a network in which
any computer can communicate with any other computer as long as
they are both connected to the Internet. Information that travels
over the Internet does so via a variety of languages known as
protocols. A protocol
is a system of rules that define how
something is to be done


The
World Wide Web
, or Web, is a way of accessing
information over the medium of the Internet. It is an information
-
sharing model that is built on top of the Internet. The Web uses the
HTTP protocol, only one of the languages spoken over the
Internet, to transmit data. The Web also utilizes browsers, such as
Internet Explorer or Firefox, to access Web documents called
webpages that are linked to each other through

hyperlinks. The
web documents also contain graphics, sounds, text and
video.

In 1991 the first Web Page was created.


Although the World Wide Web is also known at the
Internet, they are not the same. The internet is a network that
links computers together all over the world using a huge range of
wires and wireless technologies. Knowing that the internet is a
global network of computers each computer
must
be connected to
a unique address. This unique address is also known as a IP
address. Website addresses such as
www.google.com

is known
as a URL (Uniform Resource Locater).

Vannevar

Bush first proposed the basics of hypertext in
1945. HTML stands for
HyperText

Markup Language, it is the
authoring language used to create documents on the World
Wide Web. HTML is mainly used for defining the structure
and layout of a web page, how it looks and any of the special
functions needed. HTML does this by using tags that have
attributes. An example of this would be <p>, meaning a
paragraph break.


Ex
:


<body></body>

<a
href
="www.about.com"></a>

<title></title>



HTTP meaning,
H
yper
T
ext

T
ransfer
P
rotocol for short,
is used by the World Wide Web. HTTP defines how
messages are formatted and transmitted.

Java script is a scripting language that
was developed by Netscape. It can
interact with HTML source code.
Enabling web authors to spice up their
sites.


Known
as Uniform resource locators, are
the web browsers of Internet pages. A URL works
with IP addresses to help us name, bookmark,
locate pages and files for our browsers. URL’s
usually use three parts to address a page or a file.


Electronic mail. The sending and retrieving
of typewritten mail from one screen to
another. Email usually goes through
webmail such as Yahoo! Gmail or
Aol
.


Short for web browser, a
software application used to locate,
retrieve and also display content on
the World Wide Web. This includes,
web pages, pictures, videos and files.



EX: Google Chrome, Firefox,
Internet Explorer, and Safari.

Web cookies are messages given to a
web browser to a web server. The
browser then stores the message in a
text file. Then the message is sent
back to the server every time the
browser requests a page from the
server.

A blog or web log is a modern online writer’s column. Amateur and
professional writers publish blogs on any kind of topic they want.



Some blogging sites:


www.blogspot.com

www.blog.com

www.blogger.com

www.livejournal.com

www.tumblr.com

www.wordpress.com


The many different layers of
the Internet.


Downloading
is a term that is
used to describe when you or someone
else makes a personal copy of what
you found on the Internet or World
Wide Web. Downloading is legal as long
as you are careful not to download
pirated music or movies.


Hardware
device that acts as the traffic
cop for network signals into your home. A router
and be wired or wireless or both. Your router
provides protection against hackers. If your
router is set up correctly your Internet will be at
a fast speed, and hackers will be locked out. If
your router is not set up correctly your Internet
will be lagging and you will be at a somewhat
high risk of hackers.

A bookmark or favorite is a marker that you place on a
web page or file. You would normally bookmark something
because:




You want to return to the page or file later


You want to recommend the page or file to someone
else



Bookmarks/Favorites
can be made using your
right mouse click menu, or the menus/toolbars at the top
of your web browser.


Bookmarks/Favorites can also be
made on your Mac or Windows computer files.


Add
-
ons are custom software modifications.
Users usually decide if that want to add add
-
ons or not
to improve the power of their web browsers. An
example of a add
-
on would be a custom eBay toolbar
for your Firefox browser.

Plugins are a special kind of web browser add
-
on.
They are used to view highly specialized web
pages such as, Shockwave player, Adobe Flash,
Adobe Acrobat, ETC.


Spam has two meanings such as:


1.
Spam can mean 'the rapid
reptition

of a keyboard command'. But
more commonly,

2.
Spam is the jargon name of 'unwanted/unsolicited email'.


Spam
email

is usually comprised of two sub
-
categories: high
-
volume
advertising, and hackers attempting to lure you into divulging your
passwords
.




Filtering is the popular but imperfect defense against
spam.


Filtering uses software that reads your incoming email for keyword
combinations, and then

either deletes or quarantines messages that appear
to be spam.


Look for a 'spam' or 'junk' folder in your mailbox to see your
list of filtered email.


Firewall
is a generic term to describe a barrier
against destruction. It comes from the building term of a
protective wall to prevent the spreading of house fires
or

engine compartment fires.


In the case of computing,
'firewall' means to have software and/or hardware
protecting you from hackers and viruses.



Individuals
who gain unauthorized
access
to
computer
systems for
the purpose of stealing and corrupting
data.


A
program for the retrieval of data, files, or documents
from
a
database or
network especially the
Internet
.


Ex:

www.google.com

www.ask.com

www.bing.com

www.answers.com

www.eHow.com


.
edu


(Educational Institution)
-

Students or faculty members can also
publish personal pages on these web sites.


.com

(Commercial Entity)
-

This is the most common type of site for
companies and is often used to advertise and sell products.

.org

(Organization)
-

This designation is used for any type of
organization, including nonprofit organizations.


.net


(Network Provider, etc.)
-

Net can now be used by anyone
--

companies, organizations, and individuals. It is often used by
businesses when the desired name under ".com" is already registered
by another organization.


.
gov


(Government)
-

Originally only for the federal government, .
gov

is now used for any level of government. These sites are used to
publish tax forms, census information, legislation, and other
government news or information.



The first message ever relayed over
the internet was “LOG” which was
actually supposed to have been
“LOGIN” but there was a huge crash
and this difficult task couldn’t be
completed for the time being. This was
back in the 1960’s at the famous
research university known as MIT
.



Over 75% of all email messages are
considered total spam. It’s estimated
that only about 6% of these annoying
messages are actually opened.
Hopefully it’s not a virus!



Each day, about 20 million people
“tweet”. Internet experts speculate
that over half of all tweets are based
on controversial subjects
.



High school students spend an
average of six times as many
hours on the internet than they
do on homework. Most high
schoolers

are online for about
30 hours per week.



http://
www.oit.edu/libraries/help/internetguides/understanding
-
the
-
parts
-
of
-
an
-
internet
-
address



http://
www.google.com/imghp?hl=en&tab=wi



http://
internet
-
browser
-
review.toptenreviews.com/important
-
events
-
in
-
the
-
history
-
of
-
the
-
world
-
wide
-
web.html



http://
www.mediabistro.com/alltwitter/internet
-
history_b34362



http://dev.opera.com/articles/view/2
-
the
-
history
-
of
-
the
-
internet
-
and
-
the
-
w
/



http://hahanice.com/18
-
surprising
-
funny
-
facts
-
about
-
the
-
internet
/



http://
netforbeginners.about.com/od/internet101/u/inetbasics.htm