Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
Water Research Inistitue
Water Research Inistitue
Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
Abstract
Sedimentation in dams reservoir is one of the main problems facing too
many dams worldwide. According to the report published by International
Committee of Large Dams (ICOLD), over 40,000 large dams exists in the
world with a total storage capacity of 7,000 billion m3, operated for
different purposes such as water supply, hydroelectric power generation
and flood control. On the other hand, an average rate of 0.5 to %1 of their
storage capacity is lost each year due to sedimentation. In order to
compensate this reduction, between 300 and 400 large dams are required
to be constructed each year. Presenting and applying appropriate
treatment methods are strongly suggested to deal with this problem as well
as paying special attention to the problem. Any neglect in this regard
–
esp. in arid and semi

arid regions like Iran
–
will result in more
complicated situation and more problems regarding finding good solutions
and is considered a real threat for future generations.
Over 42 large dams are now under operation in Iran with a total storage
capacity of about 33,000 mm3. According to made measurements, yearly
rate of sedimentation in dams reservoir in Iran is estimated 0.5 to %0.75
which is equal to 175 to 250 mm3 per year.
In other words, about 200 mm3 of capacity of dams reservoir in Iran is lost
each year.
Some major dams in Iran and their specifications are presented in the
following.
Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
Number of large dams in the world
40,000
Storage capacity
7,000 Milliard m3
Average rate of sedimentation worldwide %0.5

%1
Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
Sedimentation in the
Reservoir of Large Dams
in Iran (by 2000)
Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
Map of Dams in IRAN
Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
Average rate of sedimentation in Iran
%0.75

%1
Number of large dams in Iran (under operation): 42
Storage capacity
33,000 million m3
Yearly rate of settled sediment in dams reservoir:
175
–
250 million m3
Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
Dez Dam
Dam type
Concrete
arch dam
Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)
17.94
First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)
3460
Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)
681.83
First Operation date
1962
Current reservoir volume (MCM)
2778.17
Latest Sedimentation
Studies
1997
Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation
19.7
Sedimentation Period
(year)
35
Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation
0.52
Sediment rate (MCM)
628
Trap Efficiency (%)
100
Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
Karun Dam
Dam type
Concrete
arch dam
Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)
30.74
First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)
3139
Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)
706.96
First Operation date
1977
Current reservoir volume (MCM)
2432.0
4
Latest
Sedimentation
Studies
1996
Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation
22.52
Sedimentation
Period (year)
19
Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation
0.98
Sediment rate (MCM)
584
Trap Efficiency (%)

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
Zayandehrud Dam
Dam type
Concrete
arch dam
Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)
2.53
First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)
1460
Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)
76
First Operation date
1970
Current reservoir volume
(MCM)
138
Latest
Sedimentation
Studies
1998
Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation
5.2
Sedimentation
Period (year)
28
Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation
0.17
Sediment rate
(MCM)
71
Trap Efficiency (%)
98
Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
Dorudzan Dam
Dam type
Earth dam
Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)
2
First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)
993
Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)
58
First Operation date
1971
Current reservoir volume
(MCM)
935
Latest
Sedimentation
Studies
1998
Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation
5.84
Sedimentation
Period (year)
27
Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation
0.2
Sediment rate
(MCM)
54
Trap Efficiency (%)

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
Sefidrud Dam
Dam type
Concrete
buttress
dam
Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)
36.6
First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)
1760
Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)
700
First Operation date
1962
Current reservoir volume (MCM)
1060
Latest
Sedimentation
Studies
1980
Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation
39.77
Sedimentation
Period (year)
18
Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation
2.08
Sediment rate
(MCM)
660
Trap Efficiency (%)

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
Minab Dam
Dam type
Concrete
buttress
dam
Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)
7
First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)
350
Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)
118.9
First Operation date
1983
Current reservoir volume (MCM)
231.1
Latest Sedimentation
Studies
1998
Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation
33.97
Sedimentation
Period (year)
15
Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation
2
Sediment rate (MCM)
104.9
Trap Efficiency (%)

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
Karaj Dam
Dam type
Concrete
arch dam
Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)
0.53
First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)
205
Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)
20.77
First Operation date
1961
Current reservoir volume (MCM)
184.23
Latest
Sedimentation
Studies
1991
Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation
10.13
Sedimentation
Period (year)
30
Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation
0.26
Sediment rate
(MCM)
16
Trap Efficiency (%)
93
Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
Lar Dam
Dam type
Earth dam
Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)
2.32
First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)
960
Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)
44.1
First Operation date
1981
Current reservoir volume (MCM)
915.9
Latest
Sedimentation
Studies
1995
Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation
4.59
Sedimentation
Period (year)
14
Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation
0.24
Sediment rate
(MCM)
32.5
Trap Efficiency (%)

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
Latyan Dam
Dam type
Concrete
buttress
dam
Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)
0.87
First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)
95
Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)
28.67
First Operation date
1967
Current reservoir volume (MCM)
66.33
Latest
Sedimentation
Studies
1995
Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation
30.18
Sedimentation
Period (year)
28
Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation
0.91
Sediment rate
(MCM)
24.32
Trap Efficiency (%)

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
Saveh Dam
Dam type
Concrete
arch dam
Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)
3.93
First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)
290
Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)
29.46
First Operation date
1993
Current reservoir volume
(MCM)
260.54
Latest
Sedimentation
Studies
1996
Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation
10.16
Sedimentation
Period (year)
3.5
Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation
1.35
Sediment rate (MCM)
13
\
.74
Trap Efficiency (%)
98
Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
Golpayegan Dam
Dam type
Earth dam
Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)
0.17
First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)
42.3
Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)
7.34
First Operation date
1957
Current reservoir volume (MCM)
34.96
Latest Sedimentation
Studies
1998
Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation
17.35
Sedimentation Period
(year)
41
Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation
0.4
Sediment rate (MCM)
7
Trap Efficiency (%)

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
15 khordad Dam
Dam type
Earth dam
Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)
1.85
First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)
200
Probable sediment rate by
2000 (MCM)
9.25
First Operation date
1995
Current reservoir volume
(MCM)
190.75
Latest Sedimentation
Studies
1996
Percentage of reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation
4.62
Sedimentation Period
(year)
2
Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation
0.92
Sediment rate (MCM)
3.7
Trap Efficiency (%)

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
Chah nimeh Dam
Dam type
Earth dam
Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)
1
First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)
660
Probable sediment rate by
2000 (MCM)
18
First Operation date
1982
Current reservoir volume
(MCM)
642
Latest Sedimentation
Studies
1999
Percentage of reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation
2.73
Sedimentation Period
(year)
17
Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation
0.15
Sediment rate (MCM)
17
Trap Efficiency (%)

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
Qeshlagh Dam
Dam type
Earth dam
Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)
0.36
First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)
224
Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)
7.6
First Operation date
1979
Current reservoir volume (MCM)
216.34
Latest Sedimentation
Studies
1999
Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation
3.42
Sedimentation
Period (year)
20
Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation
0.16
Sediment rate (MCM)
7.3
Trap Efficiency (%)
97
Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
Ekbatan Dam
Dam type
Concrete
gravity dam
Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)
0.12
First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)
8
Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)
2.82
First Operation
date
1963
Current reservoir volume (MCM)
5.18
Latest
Sedimentation
Studies
1995
Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation
35.25
Sedimentation
Period (year)
32
Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation
1.5
Sediment rate
(MCM)
3.92
Trap Efficiency (%)
90
Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
Jiroft Dam
Dam type
Concrete
arch dam
Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)
11.5
First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)
425
Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)
92
First Operation date
1982
Current reservoir volume (MCM)
333
Latest
Sedimentation
Studies
1996
Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation
21.64
Sedimentation
Period (year)
4
Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation
2.7
Sediment rate
(MCM)
46
Trap Efficiency (%)

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
Voshmgeer Dam
Dam type
Earth dam
Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)
0.98
First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)
59.5
Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)
29.5
First Operation date
1970
Current reservoir volume (MCM)
30
Latest
Sedimentation
Studies
1995
Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation
49.58
Sedimentation
Period (year)
25
Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation
1.65
Sediment rate
(MCM)
24.6
Trap Efficiency (%)
83
Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
Torogh Dam
Dam type
Concrete
dam
Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)
0.87
First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)
33.1
Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)
10.44
First Operation date
1988
Current reservoir volume (MCM)
22.66
Latest
Sedimentation
Studies
1996
Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation
31.54
Sedimentation
Period (year)
8
Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation
2.63
Sediment rate
(MCM)
6.96
Trap Efficiency (%)

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
Kardeh Dam
Dam type
Concrete
dam
Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)
1.11
First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)
28.2
Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)
14.44
First Operation date
1987
Current reservoir volume (MCM)
13.76
Latest
Sedimentation
Studies
1996
Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation
51.2
Sedimentation
Period (year)
9
Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation
3.94
Sediment rate
(MCM)
10
Trap Efficiency (%)

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
Bukan Dam
Dam type
Earth dam
Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)
4.17
First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)
648
Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)
120.85
First Operation date
1971
Current reservoir volume (MCM)
527.15
Latest
Sedimentation
Studies
1995
Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation
18.65
Sedimentation
Period (year)
24
Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation
0.64
Sediment rate (MCM)
100
Trap Efficiency (%)
90
Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
Mahabad Dam
Dam type
Earth dam
Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)
0.78
First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)
220
Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)
22.5
First Operation date
1971
Current reservoir volume (MCM)
197.5
Latest
Sedimentation
Studies
1999
Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation
10.23
Sedimentation
Period (year)
28
Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation
0.35
Sediment rate
(MCM)
21.73
Trap Efficiency (%)
98
Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
Arass Dam
Dam type
Earth dam
Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)
7.29
First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)
1366
Probable sediment rate by
2000 (MCM)
211.28
First Operation date
1971
Current reservoir volume
(MCM)
1154.72
Latest Sedimentation
Studies
1999
Percentage of reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation
15.47
Sedimentation Period
(year)
28
Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation
0.53
Sediment rate (MCM)
204
Trap Efficiency (%)

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
Pishin Dam
Dam type
Earth dam
Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)
1.62
First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)
175
Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)
12.14
First Operation date
1993
Current reservoir volume
(MCM)
162.86
Latest Sedimentation
Studies
1997
Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation
6.94
Sedimentation
Period (year)
4.5
Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation
0.93
Sediment rate (MCM)
7.28
Trap Efficiency (%)

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
Grading from the viewpoint of the rate of yearly
reduction of reservoir volume
Dam Name
Grading from the
viewpoint of the rate of
yearly reduction of
reservoir volume
Dam Name
Grading from the
viewpoint of the rate of
yearly reduction of
reservoir volume
Kardeh
1
Bukan
13
Jiroft
2
Arass
14
Torogh
3
Dez
15
Sefidrud
4
Golpayegan
16
Gorgan
6
Mahabad
17
Ekbatan
7
Karaj
18
Saveh
8
Lar
19
Karun
9
Dorudzan
20
Pishin
10
zayandehrud
21
Latyan
11
Geshlagh
22
15 Khordad
12
Chah nimeh
23
Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran
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