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Feb 22, 2014 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

Water Research Inistitue

Water Research Inistitue

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

Abstract

Sedimentation in dams reservoir is one of the main problems facing too
many dams worldwide. According to the report published by International
Committee of Large Dams (ICOLD), over 40,000 large dams exists in the
world with a total storage capacity of 7,000 billion m3, operated for
different purposes such as water supply, hydroelectric power generation
and flood control. On the other hand, an average rate of 0.5 to %1 of their
storage capacity is lost each year due to sedimentation. In order to
compensate this reduction, between 300 and 400 large dams are required
to be constructed each year. Presenting and applying appropriate
treatment methods are strongly suggested to deal with this problem as well
as paying special attention to the problem. Any neglect in this regard



esp. in arid and semi
-
arid regions like Iran


will result in more
complicated situation and more problems regarding finding good solutions
and is considered a real threat for future generations.

Over 42 large dams are now under operation in Iran with a total storage
capacity of about 33,000 mm3. According to made measurements, yearly
rate of sedimentation in dams reservoir in Iran is estimated 0.5 to %0.75
which is equal to 175 to 250 mm3 per year.

In other words, about 200 mm3 of capacity of dams reservoir in Iran is lost
each year.

Some major dams in Iran and their specifications are presented in the
following.

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

Number of large dams in the world




40,000

Storage capacity

7,000 Milliard m3

Average rate of sedimentation worldwide %0.5
-

%1

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

Sedimentation in the
Reservoir of Large Dams
in Iran (by 2000)

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

Map of Dams in IRAN

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

Average rate of sedimentation in Iran


%0.75
-

%1

Number of large dams in Iran (under operation): 42

Storage capacity

33,000 million m3

Yearly rate of settled sediment in dams reservoir:







175


250 million m3

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

Dez Dam

Dam type

Concrete
arch dam

Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)

17.94

First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)


3460

Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)

681.83

First Operation date

1962

Current reservoir volume (MCM)

2778.17

Latest Sedimentation
Studies

1997

Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation

19.7

Sedimentation Period
(year)

35

Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation

0.52

Sediment rate (MCM)

628

Trap Efficiency (%)

100

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

Karun Dam

Dam type

Concrete
arch dam

Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)

30.74

First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)


3139

Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)

706.96

First Operation date

1977

Current reservoir volume (MCM)

2432.0
4

Latest
Sedimentation
Studies

1996

Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation

22.52

Sedimentation
Period (year)

19

Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation

0.98

Sediment rate (MCM)

584

Trap Efficiency (%)

-

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

Zayandehrud Dam

Dam type

Concrete
arch dam

Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)

2.53

First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)


1460

Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)

76

First Operation date

1970

Current reservoir volume
(MCM)

138

Latest
Sedimentation
Studies

1998

Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation

5.2

Sedimentation
Period (year)

28

Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation

0.17

Sediment rate
(MCM)

71

Trap Efficiency (%)

98

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

Dorudzan Dam

Dam type

Earth dam

Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)

2

First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)


993

Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)

58

First Operation date

1971

Current reservoir volume
(MCM)

935

Latest
Sedimentation
Studies

1998

Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation

5.84

Sedimentation
Period (year)

27

Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation

0.2

Sediment rate
(MCM)

54

Trap Efficiency (%)

-

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

Sefidrud Dam

Dam type

Concrete
buttress
dam

Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)

36.6

First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)


1760

Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)

700

First Operation date

1962

Current reservoir volume (MCM)

1060

Latest
Sedimentation
Studies

1980

Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation

39.77

Sedimentation
Period (year)

18

Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation

2.08

Sediment rate
(MCM)

660

Trap Efficiency (%)

-

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

Minab Dam

Dam type

Concrete
buttress
dam

Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)

7

First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)


350

Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)

118.9

First Operation date

1983

Current reservoir volume (MCM)

231.1

Latest Sedimentation
Studies

1998

Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation

33.97

Sedimentation
Period (year)

15

Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation

2

Sediment rate (MCM)

104.9

Trap Efficiency (%)

-

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

Karaj Dam

Dam type

Concrete
arch dam

Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)

0.53

First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)


205

Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)

20.77

First Operation date

1961

Current reservoir volume (MCM)

184.23

Latest
Sedimentation
Studies

1991

Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation

10.13

Sedimentation
Period (year)

30

Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation

0.26

Sediment rate
(MCM)

16

Trap Efficiency (%)

93

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

Lar Dam

Dam type

Earth dam

Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)

2.32

First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)


960

Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)

44.1

First Operation date

1981

Current reservoir volume (MCM)

915.9

Latest
Sedimentation
Studies

1995

Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation

4.59

Sedimentation
Period (year)

14

Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation

0.24

Sediment rate
(MCM)

32.5

Trap Efficiency (%)

-

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

Latyan Dam

Dam type

Concrete
buttress
dam

Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)

0.87

First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)


95

Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)

28.67

First Operation date

1967

Current reservoir volume (MCM)

66.33

Latest
Sedimentation
Studies

1995

Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation

30.18

Sedimentation
Period (year)

28

Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation

0.91

Sediment rate
(MCM)

24.32

Trap Efficiency (%)

-

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

Saveh Dam

Dam type

Concrete
arch dam

Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)

3.93

First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)


290

Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)

29.46

First Operation date

1993

Current reservoir volume
(MCM)

260.54

Latest
Sedimentation
Studies

1996

Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation

10.16

Sedimentation
Period (year)

3.5

Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation

1.35

Sediment rate (MCM)

13
\
.74

Trap Efficiency (%)

98

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

Golpayegan Dam

Dam type

Earth dam

Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)

0.17

First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)

42.3

Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)

7.34

First Operation date

1957

Current reservoir volume (MCM)

34.96

Latest Sedimentation
Studies

1998

Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation

17.35

Sedimentation Period
(year)

41

Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation

0.4

Sediment rate (MCM)

7

Trap Efficiency (%)

-

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

15 khordad Dam

Dam type

Earth dam

Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)

1.85

First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)

200

Probable sediment rate by
2000 (MCM)

9.25

First Operation date

1995

Current reservoir volume
(MCM)

190.75

Latest Sedimentation
Studies

1996

Percentage of reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation

4.62

Sedimentation Period
(year)

2

Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation

0.92

Sediment rate (MCM)

3.7

Trap Efficiency (%)

-

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

Chah nimeh Dam

Dam type

Earth dam

Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)

1

First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)

660

Probable sediment rate by
2000 (MCM)

18

First Operation date

1982

Current reservoir volume
(MCM)

642

Latest Sedimentation
Studies

1999

Percentage of reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation

2.73

Sedimentation Period
(year)

17

Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation

0.15

Sediment rate (MCM)

17

Trap Efficiency (%)

-

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

Qeshlagh Dam

Dam type

Earth dam

Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)

0.36

First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)

224

Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)

7.6

First Operation date

1979

Current reservoir volume (MCM)

216.34

Latest Sedimentation
Studies

1999

Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation

3.42

Sedimentation
Period (year)

20

Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation

0.16

Sediment rate (MCM)

7.3

Trap Efficiency (%)

97

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

Ekbatan Dam

Dam type

Concrete
gravity dam

Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)

0.12

First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)

8

Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)

2.82

First Operation
date

1963

Current reservoir volume (MCM)

5.18

Latest
Sedimentation
Studies

1995

Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation

35.25

Sedimentation
Period (year)

32

Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation

1.5

Sediment rate
(MCM)

3.92

Trap Efficiency (%)

90

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

Jiroft Dam

Dam type

Concrete
arch dam

Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)

11.5

First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)

425

Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)

92

First Operation date

1982

Current reservoir volume (MCM)

333

Latest
Sedimentation
Studies

1996

Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation

21.64

Sedimentation
Period (year)

4

Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation

2.7

Sediment rate
(MCM)

46

Trap Efficiency (%)

-

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

Voshmgeer Dam

Dam type

Earth dam

Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)

0.98

First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)

59.5

Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)

29.5

First Operation date

1970

Current reservoir volume (MCM)

30

Latest
Sedimentation
Studies

1995

Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation

49.58

Sedimentation
Period (year)

25

Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation

1.65

Sediment rate
(MCM)

24.6

Trap Efficiency (%)

83

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

Torogh Dam

Dam type

Concrete
dam

Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)

0.87

First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)

33.1

Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)

10.44

First Operation date

1988

Current reservoir volume (MCM)

22.66

Latest
Sedimentation
Studies

1996

Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation

31.54

Sedimentation
Period (year)

8

Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation

2.63

Sediment rate
(MCM)

6.96

Trap Efficiency (%)

-

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

Kardeh Dam

Dam type

Concrete
dam

Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)

1.11

First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)

28.2

Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)

14.44

First Operation date

1987

Current reservoir volume (MCM)

13.76

Latest
Sedimentation
Studies

1996

Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation

51.2

Sedimentation
Period (year)

9

Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation

3.94

Sediment rate
(MCM)

10

Trap Efficiency (%)

-

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

Bukan Dam

Dam type

Earth dam

Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)

4.17

First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)

648

Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)

120.85

First Operation date

1971

Current reservoir volume (MCM)

527.15

Latest
Sedimentation
Studies

1995

Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation

18.65

Sedimentation
Period (year)

24

Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation

0.64

Sediment rate (MCM)

100

Trap Efficiency (%)

90

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

Mahabad Dam

Dam type

Earth dam

Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)

0.78

First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)

220

Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)

22.5

First Operation date

1971

Current reservoir volume (MCM)

197.5

Latest
Sedimentation
Studies

1999

Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation

10.23

Sedimentation
Period (year)

28

Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation

0.35

Sediment rate
(MCM)

21.73

Trap Efficiency (%)

98

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

Arass Dam

Dam type

Earth dam

Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)

7.29

First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)

1366

Probable sediment rate by
2000 (MCM)

211.28

First Operation date

1971

Current reservoir volume
(MCM)

1154.72

Latest Sedimentation
Studies

1999

Percentage of reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation

15.47

Sedimentation Period
(year)

28

Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation

0.53

Sediment rate (MCM)

204

Trap Efficiency (%)

-

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

Pishin Dam

Dam type

Earth dam

Yearly average sedimentation
rate (MCM)

1.62

First Volume of the
reservoir (MCM)

175

Probable sediment rate by 2000
(MCM)

12.14

First Operation date

1993

Current reservoir volume
(MCM)

162.86

Latest Sedimentation
Studies

1997

Percentage of reservoir volume
reduction due to sedimentation

6.94

Sedimentation
Period (year)

4.5

Percentage of yearly reservoir
volume reduction due to
sedimentation

0.93

Sediment rate (MCM)

7.28

Trap Efficiency (%)

-

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

Grading from the viewpoint of the rate of yearly
reduction of reservoir volume

Dam Name

Grading from the
viewpoint of the rate of
yearly reduction of
reservoir volume

Dam Name

Grading from the
viewpoint of the rate of
yearly reduction of
reservoir volume

Kardeh

1

Bukan

13

Jiroft

2

Arass

14

Torogh

3

Dez

15

Sefidrud

4

Golpayegan

16

Gorgan

6

Mahabad

17

Ekbatan

7

Karaj

18

Saveh

8

Lar

19

Karun

9

Dorudzan

20

Pishin

10

zayandehrud

21

Latyan

11

Geshlagh

22

15 Khordad

12

Chah nimeh

23

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran

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