Thermal Fluctuations in Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics

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Oct 27, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Thermal Fluctuations in Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics


Jan V. Sengers


Institute for Physical Science and Technology

University of Maryland, College Park, MD, U.S.A.


The lecture will address the following three principles concerning fluctuations in flui
ds
and fluid mixtures that are in not in thermodynamic equilibrium:


1.

The principle of local thermodynamic equilibrium in nonequilibrium
thermodynamics is valid for the thermodynamic properties, but not for the
fluctuations of these properties.

2.

Fluctuatio
ns in fluids in stationary nonequilibrium states are always long ranged,
encompassing the entire system, even far away from any hydrodynamic
instability.

3.

Traditional hydrodynamic instability analysis does not yield a correct description
of fluctuations nea
r instabilities.


These principles will be illustrated by theoretical and experimental studies of fluctuations
in liquid and liquid mixtures subjected to a stationary temperature gradient