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conversesoilBiotechnology

Dec 3, 2012 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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4
th

meeting for COST Action 636

WG
3


Impact Assessment


Xenobiotics in the Urban Water Cycle

29
-
30 March 2007 in Karlsruhe, Germany

Min
utes


P
ARTICIPANTS

Triantafyllos
Albanis

University of Ioannina, Department of
Chemistry

GR

Anders
Baun

DT
U, Institute of Environment & Resources

DK

Marlen Ines Vasquez
Hadjilyra

University of Cyprus

CY

Ralph
Hobby

University Duisburg
-
Essen, IEWT

DE

Verena
Höckele

Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH

DE

Joanna
Kalka

Environmental Biotechnology Department
Siles
ian University of Technology

PL

Ivana
Ivancev
-
Tumbas

University of Novi Sad, Chemistry Department

YU

Markus
Lehmann

LUBW, Karlsruhe

DE

Irina

Lucaciu

National Research and Development Institute
for Industrial Ecology

RO

Sureyya
Meric

University of Saler
no

IT

Ricardo Manuel Nunes
Salgado

Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da
Universidade Nova de Lisboa

PT

Ivana
Teodorovic

University of Novi Sad, Department of Biology
and Ecology

YU

Milda Zita
Vosyliene

Institute of Ecology of Vilnius University

LT


Th
e meeting in Karlsruhe was a joint meeting of WG 4 with WG 3 “Impact
assessment”.

At first Ralph Hobby gave an overview of the work of WG 3
from

September
2005 till this day
.
The main goals of WG 3 are



To define the state of the art for assessment of xenob
iotics



To clarify if the available methods are suitable to assess xenobiotics with
regard to adverse effects for ecosystems and human beings

WG 3 meeting in Karlsruhe COST Action 636 Xenobiotics in the Urban Water Cycle

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If the methods are suitable the WG 3 has to recommend the best
methods.



If the methods are not suitable WG 3 must

o

d
efine the gaps (what do we need for assessment?)

o

propose R&D projects to develop the suitable methods


The main results

of the work of WG 3

and the resulting questions
are:



WG 3 team developed an EXCEL data file with
nearly
available biotests
arranged with

regard to the used animals/plants (microorganisms, algae,
plants, rotifer, crustaceans, fishes, amphibians and others).



For each tests the effects are listed, which can be assessed.



It has to be discussed how to use these data for the impact assessment,
e
. g.

monitoring results,

complex composition effects,

treatment,
treatment efficiency

with the aims of risk assessment and protection of
aquatic and human life.



These data are also suitable for the decision whether the available tests
are suitable or not.
This data file is the first step to achieve one of the
main goal of WG 3, which is to answer / deal with the questions:

o

Which effects (of substances) are caused and are important for the
ecosystem and human beings?

o

How it is possible to measure these effec
ts?

o

Do we know the suitable methods for assessment?

o

Do we need new assessment methods?


The following topics
were scheduled for the WG 3 meeting:



Presentations as initiation of the discussion to meet the goals mentioned
above



Identification of gaps in the

present knowledge with regard to the
assessment of Xenobiotics in urban environment

o

Discussion

with the focus on



Present knowledge of assessment



Assessment of effects or substances?



Are there tracer substances for assessment?



Gaps of knowledge?



How to dea
l with the gaps?



“Impact assessment in the EU WFD”
,

joint session with WG
4



Game of gaps
(together with WG
4
)

WG 3 meeting in Karlsruhe COST Action 636 Xenobiotics in the Urban Water Cycle

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Future actions and topic
s

of
the
next meeting


Results of the meeting
:


Presentations as initiation of the discussion to meet the goals
mentioned
above


Marlene Vasques Sureyya Meric:

Impact assessment of pharmaceuticals in
water and waste water complex mixture matrices

Topics of the presentation:



Categories of pharmaceuticals



Use of pharmaceuticals in different countries



Environmental concentration
s in water bodies



Impact assessment of pharmaceuticals to aquatic organisms



Modelling related to pharmaceuticals



Pre
vious, on
-
going research projects and related links for going research
projects and related links for

pharmaceuticals pharmaceuticals



G
aps r
egarding research on pharmaceuticals



Conclusions

As results of the presentation the following gaps were identified:



New models are necessary to describe/predict imp
acts

(e. g. QSAR)



Development of new biotest

systems for predicting fate and systems and
eff
ects of API
(
Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient
)

and metabolites



I
ncrease understanding in mixture toxicities



Implementation of field studies



Increase understanding of mode of action of API in other
aquatic
organisms how?



Linkage between existing data (regar
ding humans, mammals)

and new
data (regarding other organisms)



Increase understanding of mechanisms of degradation and elimination in
WWTPs

(Waste Water Treatment Plants)
and also fate in sludge line



Tests have to be payed, costs !




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Ivana Ivancev
-
Tumbas:

Some knowledge gaps on physico
-
chemical aspects of
xenobiotics assessment in environment



Topics of the presentation:



F
ate and transport of organics in water cycle (polar vs nonpolar
substances)



Overview of different projects and results



Poseidon project

o

S
tructure/effects of ox products

o

”Formation of resistance” as a toxicological endpoint

o

Chronic tests

o

Groundwater mobility



EU P
-
three project

o

Monitoring of pharma
ceuticals

and industrial

chemicals

o

Highest conc
.

from municipal WWTP

o

40 polar compounds were as
sessed


removal processes

o

No effects of by
-
products was seen



Study on EDCs in DW, Wenzel et al 2003, Final report based on
published literature and survey of waterworks in EU
; Gaps which were
found:

o

For final conclusions regarding the European wide exposu
re of
consumers to endocrine disrupters through drinking water, the
database is too small.

More data from a grater number of
waterworks in Europe are required.

o

In the case study only a limited set of highly relevant substances
could be analysed. Informatio
n on other drinking water
contaminants with potential endocrine activity is limited. Therefore,
additional studies on the occurrence of further endocrine disrupting
compounds should be performed.

o

It should also be examined, whether pesticides other than th
e
most frequently measured exceed the limit value of the Drinking
Water Directive.

o

There is a need for research on the removal efficiency of different
water treatment processes in order to better understand the
removal of potential EDCs.




COMPREHEND

o

YES as
says


not in accordance with chemical measurements; SPE
yielded higher effects

WG 3 meeting in Karlsruhe COST Action 636 Xenobiotics in the Urban Water Cycle

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o

For most of pollutants it is possible to achive 85% removal or even
more within wastewater treatment either by sorption or
biodegradation processes.

o

However there are substance
s which can be formed during
wastewater treatment (e.g. alkyl phenol ethoxylates) or with
removal less than 50 % (carbamazepine, iodinated contrast media,
chlorinated organophosphorous compounds, etc).




Sediments

o

River sediments studied in Aquaterra projec
t


background conc,
adsorption

o

I
nvestigat
ion

of
the pollutant burden of Danubian sediments and
suspended solids, including the determination of surface bound
nutrients.

o

Sorption/desorption behavior of hydrophobic organic compound
(HOC) onto sediment organ
ic matter (SOM)
, s
orption is a major
process determining the fate and bioavailability of HOCs in
sediments and soils.

Desorption parameters could be used as a
better predictor for HOC sorption behavior. This is an important
finding since the desorption pro
cess has a significant
environmental impact during the remediation of contaminated
sites, with the rate and the amount of pollutants sorbed to SOM
which can be released to the water phase mainly affected by this
process.

o

Questions / gaps:



Chemical transfor
mations ?



Effects of products?



Chronic toxicity assessment



Physico
-
chemical interactions:



Problems with measurements



Problems in isotherm testing



Aging



Interactions with NOM and SOM and implications for tretmant
and fate /behavior in environment



Sediment p
article size influence




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Joanna Kalka: Endocrine disruptors occurence in urban waters and possible
methods for assessment



Topics of the presentation:

o

Definition of endocrine system, EDC

o

OECD guidelines for EDC identification



Mammals, birds, fish: No scree
ning level test



Mammals OECD 421/422 (subchronic), OECD 414/415/416
(chronic)



Birds OECD 206 (chronic)



Fish: no OECD subchronic or chronic tests



Reptiles, amphibian


no test, none under development in
OECD



Invertebrates


no tests, but recommended by OECD


o

Identified gaps



Development of further methods is necessary



Results from different countries using same test don’t
correlate


The afternoon session started with the presentation by
Anders Baun:

The best
“biotest battery” Status of the EXCEL data file co
ntaining all available biotests
which was developed by WG 3

:

o

Actual EXEL sheet was presented by Anders Baun

o

No one of the participants seems to be able to propose the best
biotest battery

o

Further WG 3
members
agreed to
add experiences of successful
applic
ation of biotests in the Excel sheet. In doing so it should also
be classified according
to the kind of the aquatic system (often
used, sometimes used, not used)

o

WG 3 agreed not to consider the quality of standardisation



Identification of gaps in the pre
sent knowledge with regard to the
assessment of Xenobiotics in urban environment

Discussion

In the following discussion
the results of the presentations were discussed and
also
the fact, that quite often there is no correlation between the measured
effect
caused by a substance and the concentration of the substance due to
WG 3 meeting in Karlsruhe COST Action 636 Xenobiotics in the Urban Water Cycle

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different materials and animals. May be the matrix of the water may impact
the effects.

Water matrix affecting outcome of standardized toxicity tests:



Temperature dependency of sorption


locally increased temperature
during the day



pH, hardness influence results of toxicity tests



Organic acids & bases


ion

trap



Organics in soil act as catalysts for photolysis, but not in water where
sorption is protecting



Temperature dependence on toxicit
y ?



Types of matrices


standardized categorization and effect


The main results of the discussion are:



New methods are necessary to assess Xenobiotics especially for complex
mixtures. There are no EQS (Environmental Quality standars) for
complex mixtures,

only for single substances.


“Impact assessment in the EU WFD”, joint session with WG 4

This session was hold together with WG
4

members.
After a presentation of
TZW by Frank Sacher, Markus Lehmann from LUBW, a regional authority for
environment and natur
e conservation in Germany (section for rivers and
integrated water protection), gave an overview about the impact assessment
in the EU Water Framework Directive. In his very interesting presentation, he
explained how priority substances are selected accord
ing to the WFD and how
ecotoxicological data are used to determine
Environmental Quality Standards
(EQS).
The presentation will be uploaded soon to the website of COST Action
636.
After the presentation, the implementation of the WFD in other EU
member sta
tes and the inclusion of new compounds in the list of priority
compounds were
extensively
discussed.


Game of gaps (together with WG 4)

Together with
the members of
WG
4
,

a “Game of Gaps” was played. This game
was excellently
developed and
organised by And
ers Baun

with the support of
Ralph Hobby and
Ivana Ivan
č
ev
-
Tumbas
. The objective of the game was to
deal in a trans
-
disciplinary approach with a scenario of environmental pollution
from different sources, to evaluate the available information and to identify the
existing gaps.

The major outcome of the game was

increased discussions within and between
WG 3 and WG 4 and a focus on our current gaps in knowledge regarding
chemical and biological issues of xenobiotics in the urban environment. It was
WG 3 meeting in Karlsruhe COST Action 636 Xenobiotics in the Urban Water Cycle

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decided that the results of this exercise will be presented to all

WGs at the
next meeting in Santiago de Compostela.


Future actions and topics of the next meeting

The next
meeting of WG 3 will take place together
with the Management
Committee meeting and the meetings of the other WGs in Santiago de
Compo
stela on Septe
mber 11/12, 2007.

The topics of the next meeting are:



Follow up of the game of gaps



After the next meeting it will be decided about enlarge the game of gaps
to the other groups (WGs) (WG drinking water treatment)



Results of the actualized EXCEL data sheet
will be discussed

o

How to proceed with the data set?



Can we recommend a part of the met
h
ods for the
assessment of Xenobiotics?



Can we use the data set to draw conclusions with regard to
new methods, which have to be developed?



Is the quality of the data set high enough to prepare a
common publication by the real experts of the WG 3?



Are we able to recommend R&D topics to the COST Action?



New methods to assess Xenobiotics are necessary: How to proceed
(
Which are the most importan
t new methods for which issue, do we nee
additional experts?)