Identification and Biometrics

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Nov 17, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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Identification and Biometrics

By

Jay Eichler

Eichler

1

Table of Contents


i.

Introduction

................................
................................
.


2

ii.

Definition of Biometrics

................................
..............

2

iii.

Fingerprinting

................................
..............................

2

iv.

Voice Recognition

................................
.......................

3

v.

DNA Fingerprinting

................................
....................

4

vi.

Retinal Scanning

................................
..........................

6

vii.

Iris Scanning

................................
................................

6

viii.

Face Recognition

................................
.........................

7

ix.

Hand Geometry
................................
............................

7

x.

Interview

................................
................................
......

8

xi.

My

thoughts

................................
................................
.

8

xii.

Controversy

................................
................................
.

9

xiii.

Conclusion/
Summary

................................
.................

9

xiv.

Sources

................................
................................
.........

10

xv.

Appendix

................................
................................
.....

11


Eichler

2

Identification and Biometrics


i.

Introduction


What is biometrics? Honestly, I did not know myself until I did some research. I
actually thought biometrics
involved

a device that was
implanted into humans to make
them stronger. I
thought, embarrassed as I am
now, that biometrics had to do with
androids or genetic engineering. I guess that thought came from watching the Bionic
Man. It made perfect sense to me since it is easy to see
the
resemblance in the terms,
right?

Perhaps not, but I now know what biometrics truly

is. In the process of gathering
information I was able to further my knowledge of an important

tool in our lives today.

I
was also able to do a face to face interview

with a security expert to discuss biometrics
related to his job

a
nd his opinions on biometrics.
Generally, the purpose of this research
paper is to define biometrics, describe some of its uses, describe some methods used in
biometrics, and discuss issues
, such as security and privacy issues, related to biometrics.
In addition,
I will discuss beneficial uses and potential problems that various biometrics
pose and appropriate guidelines for their use.


ii.

Definition of Biometrics


I think it is best to start
by defining what biometrics
is
.

According to
www.
oberthurusa.com
,
biometrics is simply the technique of studying physical
characteristics of a person such as finger prints, hand geometry, eye structure or voice
pattern.
According

to
www.wikipedia.org
,
biometrics is the science and technology of
authentication (i.e. establishing the identity of an individual) by measuring the subject
person's physiological or behavioral f
eatures. The term is derived from the Greek words
"bios" for life and "metron" for measure.
Also, according to
www.thefreedictionary.com
,
"negative identification can only be accomplished th
rough biometric

identification".
Negative identification is evidence which proves t
hat
a person is

not who
he or she

say
s

he or she

is

not. In other words, it allows
a person

to prove that
he or she is

not a
suspected criminal in a police database based on
his or her

p
hysical features. A system
that uses negative identification and biometrics would

thus

make it
possible to eliminate
multiple identities
of

a single p
erson.

Some common forms of biometric identification include fingerprinting and voice
recognition. Voice

recognition is
known as
voiceprint

as well
. Other forms of biometric
identification include iris scanning,
DNA “fingerprinting”,
retinal scanning, face
recognition, signature recognition, and finger or fingerprint scanning. There is even
hand
geometry r
ecognition and
vein recog
nition, which is an analysis of
the pattern of veins in
the back of the hand and wrist according to
www.webopedia.com
.


iii.

Fingerprinting


The first form of biometric identification I will d
i
scuss is fingerprint matching.
It is
thought of as the oldest method of biometrics that has been used successfully over many
applications.
Fingerprint
identification methods began to be studied around the early
1800’s.
Fingerprint identification is use
d for anything from driver license registration to
Eichler

3

forensics. In fact
, f
ingerprint
-
based identification has been used by government agencies
for over a century in order to catch criminals. Fingerprinting is still the most commonly
used forensic evidence
technique today. A reason for this may be the fact that no two
fingerprints have ever been matched in the many billions of computer
and
human
comparisons that have been performed worldwide.
It is said that fingerprinting
outperforms DNA and all other ide
ntification systems when it comes to catching
criminals. Another benefit of fingerprinting is that a fingerprint does not change through
time.

A closer look at fingerprints may help in understanding why fingerprint

identification
works so well. The defin
ition of fingerprint matching would be identification found by a
print of the ridges in the skin of the finger.
A fingerprint is made up of a series
of
grooves and ridges located, of course, on the surface of a finger. The pattern of the
grooves and ridg
es, along with where each ridge starts and ends, called the minutiae
points, determines the uniqueness of the fingerprint. With this in mind,
many methods
are used to match fingerprints. I will discuss
two methods to match fingerprints called
minutiae
-
ba
sed and correlation based.

In the minutiae
-
based method, the minutiae points are found and then mapped to their
relative positions on the finger.

It is the most well know
n

and widely used method of
fingerprint matching.
The minutiae
-
based method is consi
dered the traditional way to
match fingerprints.
While the minutiae
-
based method is good and reliable,
it does have
some problems.

For example, a

low quality representation of a fingerprint can make it
difficult to spot the
minutiae points with accuracy.

Furthermore
, the minutiae
-
based
technique disregards the global pattern of the ridges and groves.

The correlation
-
based method uses
a gray
scale representation of a fingerprint and
characteristics templates to match fingerprints.
The gray
scale image gives

more details
about the depth and length of ridges, grooves, and other aspects of a fingerprint
than the
minutiae
-
based technique.
Moreover
, a

fing
erprint must match two template
s

positions
in order to say a fingerprint is a match. In other words, each f
ingerprint is seen in at least
two different views,
and then

an unknown fingerprint must match both views in order to
declare that the fingerprint is a match for the fingerprint in the record. Because the
correlation
-
based method views the entire fingerpr
int, low quality representations of a
fingerprint are not a problem.

However, the correlation
-
based method requires a precise
location of a starting point or registration point. Also, correlation
-
based techniques do
not work well when a fingerprint image

is rotated.

The best way to match a fingerprint is to use combinations of each method along with
other methods.
In addition
, to speed the process of finding matches, fingerprints are
classified into grou
ps with similar characteristics. Some of these cha
racteristics include
loops on the right or on the left, whirls, arches, and other various patterns that may
appear. Of course, each fingerprint matching system has its own way of determining
groups.


iv.

Voice
Recognition


Next I will discuss voice recognitio
n and voiceprint. According to
www.hitl.washington.edu

voice recognition is the
technology by which sounds, words or
phrases spoken by humans are converted into electrical signals
. T
hese

electrical

signals
Eichler

4

are
then
transformed into coding patterns that c
an be identified by a computer.
In other
words
,
a computer with a voice recognition system

allows a user to utilize

his or her
voice as input.
In addition
, a

computer system can then use voice recognition t
o do a
specific task.

For example, v
oice recognition is commonly used for dictating text and
giving commands to a computer.

Using voice recognition it is possible to write a research paper by simply speaking
into a microphone. It is estimated that newer
voice recognition software
application
s

can
recognize speech and dictation at around 160 words per minute. However, while the
accuracy of voice recognition applications have improved, most still suffer from
inaccuracy problems due to the way a person spea
ks, his or her accent, or simply the
nature of his or her voice.

In addition, it is import
ant

to note that a computer using voice
recognition is not able to understand the words that are spoken to it.

Understanding
spoken words would actually fall under
a topic in computer science called natural
language processing.

A person

ca
n, however, use voice recognition to input commands into the computer.
The computer is able to do this because it recognizes a coded pattern, not because it
recognizes the words th
at were given to it. A voice recognition application usually has a
special sequence of words that a user must say to give a command such as save or print.
The system then converts the spoken words into an electrical signal that a computer can
use. The p
attern of electrical signals determines whether the spoken words are a
command or another word in a sentence.

Another great aspect of voice recognition is the ability to respond

to

and recognize
specific voices. A system that can recognize individual voic
es is a great identification
tool. A system is able to do this by
simply
having a sample of a person’
s voice. Using
that

sample, a voice recognition
system can compare the spoken commands of a user to a
sound sample in order to identify that person.

This

leads me to voiceprint identification. According to
www.thefreedictionary.com
,
voiceprint is biometric

identification by electronically recording and graphically
representing a person’s voice. A voicepri
nt is a unique characteristic to each person.
Therefore, voice recognition systems using voiceprints can serve as great identification
tools. A voiceprint is made up of measurable features in a voice that can identify an
individual as unique. Some of th
ese features include the position of a person’s mouth and
throat along with other factors. These features are then placed into a mathematical
formula. A computer system can then use the formula to decipher a person’s identity.


v.

DNA Fingerprinting


The ne
xt form of biometric identification I will discuss is DNA fingerprinting, also
called genetic fingerprinting. According to
www.thefreedictionary.com

DNA
fingerprinting is
biometric identification obtained
by examining a person's unique
sequence of DNA base pairs
.

It can be thought of as a way of matching genetic material
to a particular individual.
DNA fingerprinting is often used as evidence in criminal cases
by forensic scientists.

DNA fingerprinting c
ame about in the mid 1980s due to the fact
that standard fingerprinting posed some flaws. For example, it was believed that a person
could surgically alter his or her fingerprints. It is also possible for a person to burn his or
Eichler

5

her fingerprints off. As

of today there is no known technique of altering a person’s DNA
structure.

DNA is made up of four basic building blocks, called base pairs. These base pairs are
adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine. They are better known as A, C, G, and T.
These p
airs are linked together into

long strands that form genes.
An A can only
combine with a T, and a G can only combine with a C. A person’s unique information is
determined on the sequence the pairs make along the DNA strand’s “backbone”.
Interestingly, a
bout 99 percent of a human DNA strand is exactly the same between each
individual. The remaining 1 percent is actually what differentiates individuals.

There are multiple methods of examining DNA. DNA can be found in the blood,
saliva, semen, and other b
ody fluids and tissue.
DNA electrophoresis is

one method

used

to

view DNA strands in a laborato
ry setting. A chemical
process

called
PCR,
Polymerase
Chain Reaction
,

is used to help the process along. PCR basically makes copies of genetic
material since
the electrophores
i
s process requires large qua
ntities of DNA to function
properly.

Other methods include
restriction fragmen
t length polymorphism

(RFLP)
,
AmpFLP
or
amplified fragment length polymorphism
, and using
short tandem repeats

(STR).

Once a strand of DNA is visible, it can be examined and checked for patterns. The
DNA will be in the form of bands, which can vary in number and size.

DNA strands also
repea
t themselves in different patterns. For example, one person may have a strand that
repeats itself eight times while someone else has a strand that repeats two times.

These
variations are what differentiate
individuals.

DNA fingerprinting has many uses in

society today. For example, it is used by
forensic scientist
s

to analyze genetic material found at a crime scene. DNA samples or
other genetic material found can be compared to a suspected criminal in order to see if
the genetic material came from him o
r her. The problem with this is that the genetic
information of an individual is only placed into a police database if that person has
already committed some sort of offense. If the genetic material found at a crime scene is
from someone with a clean rec
ord, it is very difficult to find that person using DNA
fingerprinting.

Another use of DNA fingerprinting is for heredity checking. It can give individuals
and
the
human

race

in general an idea on where we came from. An individual who just
met his or her

parents
might

want to make sure that the people he or she is looking at
are

truly his or her parents. DNA fingerprinting can prove family relations since DNA is
passed from parents to children. Thus, DNA strands will have similar features between
parent

and child. In fact, DNA fingerprinting has a near perfect accuracy rating. DNA
fingerprinting can
be used to

distinguish between identical twins if a situation calls for it.
Furthermore
, humans can use DNA fingerprinting to discover the evolution of hu
mans
and cultural and ethnic ties. Scientists have already made links between modern day
humans and Neanderthals and other “cavemen”. DNA fingerprinting has shown close
links between humans and other primates
, showing that we may have evolved from
monkey
s. DNA fingerprinting can also determine ethnicity. Each ethnicity has similar
DNA structures between its individuals that can be compared.

Another huge benefit DNA fingerprinting brings is future advancements in medicine
and health. Scientists are usin
g DNA fingerprinting to find the genes responsible for
certain diseases, such as diabetes. By knowing the root of the disease it may be possible
Eichler

6

to make medicine or find a genetic cure to fight diseas
es. DNA fingerprinting can

help
find genetic warnings
of diseases

as well, and
prevent a person from ever getting the
disease.


vi.

Retinal Scanning


The next biometric technique I will discuss is retinal scanning.
According to
www.thefreedictionary.com
, retinal
scanning

is simply biometric identification by
scanning the retina of an individual’s eye. This method is actually complicated due to
eye movements that can be involuntary. Retinal scanning actually involves the analysis
of the layer of blood vessels loc
ated behind the eye. Retinal scanning dates back to the
1930’s when scientists pointed out
that

each individual has a unique pattern of blood
vessels behind the eye. Of course retinal scanning was only a theory at the time. It was
not until 1984 when a
company named EyeDentify invented a device called
Eyedentification 7.5
P
ersonal
I
dentification unit

for commercial use.

The technology of retina scanners is interesting.
A low
-
intensity light is used along
with an optical coupler to read with great detail

and accuracy the patterns that form in the
back of the eye.

A person must place his or her eye close to the device and focus on a
certain point, which may be a light of some kind. Some devices actually do not require
the user to remove his or her glasse
s. The process usually takes around ten to fifteen
seconds to complete

and is safe to the eye
.
As with most biometric identification
methods, the retina does not change much during the course of a person’s lifetime.
One
problem these devices face is the

fact that they are uncomfortable. The user must look
into a light and hold his or her head still for several seconds or the process will not work.

Retinal scanning is a very expensive form of biometric identification. However, it is
considered one of th
e most accurate forms of biometric identification.
Retinal scanning
is used mostly in high security situations or purposes. The primary use of retina scanning
today is for entering high security rooms or buildings in military bases, power plants, and
oth
er companies or areas that are considered high

security areas.


vii.

Iris Scanning


I will now discuss a similar biometric called iris scanning.
According to
www.thefreedictionary.com
,
i
ris scanning is simply b
iometric identification by

scanning
the iris of the eye.
Essentially
, a picture is tak
en of an iris and compared to a
database

of
known irises
.

The idea of iris scanning dates back to 1936 when ophthalmologist Frank
Burch thought it could be used as a me
ans of identification. During the 1980s iris
scanning appeared in a James Bond film
, but remained merely a theory. In 1994
algorithms were developed that could finally make iris scanning a plausible biometric
identification tool. These algorithms are st
ill the basis of iris scanning technologies
today.

The iris of an eye is a very distinctive structure which

is unique to each individual.
An iris contains over two hundred different points that are suitable for comparison. The
iris is the colored tissue
that surrounds the pupil and contains rings, freckles, and furrows.
The pattern of the color, rings, freckles, and furrows as well as the location of these
Eichler

7

features on the eye is unique to every individual. This means that iris scanning is an
effective b
iometric identification tool.

Iris scanners are generally easier to use than retinal scanners

which means that iris
scanners can be used in more public settings. An iris scanner uses a regular video camera
style device that allows the user of the device t
o stand further away from the device rather
than up close like a retina scanner. In some devices, a person can stand up to two feet
away, while some allow only a couple of inches from the device. A person needs to look
into the device in such a way that
he or she can see a reflection of himself or herself. The
process usually takes around five seconds for verification; however, a person will usually
have to wait a few more seconds to allow the process to finish. Like retina scanners, a
user does not nee
d to remove his or her glasses for the iris scanner to function properly.
In fact, some iris scanners are so accurate that they can not only verify a person, but they
can also identify him or her.

However, it is po
ssible for

a person
to use

a fake eye to

trick
the scanner. If a person can make an exact copy of an iris, the scanner can be fooled. To
prevent this, many iris scanners have technology that will change light intensity and
measure different views of an eye when a pupil dilates.

Iris scanners a
re used by a wider group of people
than

retina scanners
because

they
are easier to use and
are
less expensive. Iris scanners are used in corrections facilities for
identifying prisoners and for booking criminals.
Furthermore, t
hey are used to identify
em
ployees in such places as prisons, airports, and other
areas where tighter security is
needed.

Iris scanners are
u
sed in airports to enhance security and make boarding
procedu
res go faster. Customs agents

use
them

to identify possible security threats.

Banks are considering using
them

at ATMs to better secure transactions
. Some banks
have even begun testing iris scanners at some

of their

locations.


viii.

Face Recognition


The next biometric identification tool I will discuss is face recognition.
According t
o
www.thefreedictionary.com
, f
ace recognition is simply
biometric identification by
scanning a person's face and matching it against a library of known faces
.

A face
recognition system makes a template of
a person’s face and compares that template to the
templates in a database. The templates consist of certain features on a persons face.
T
h
e
se features include the length of the nose, distance between eyes, and angle of the
jaw.

Face recognition systems a
re usually used together with
voice recognition systems for
security and non
-
security purposes. Face recognition systems are easily matched with
other biometric identification techniques and they are somewhat easy to use and
implement. However, face reco
gnition is expensive and is considered the most
inaccurate form of biometric identification available.


ix.

Hand Geometry


Finally, I will d
iscuss hand geometry. Hand geometry is
in essence

the analysis of an
individual’s hand. It is simple and
somewhat
accu
rate; h
owever, it is worth pointing out
that a person’s hand is not really unique.

By combining various features,
along with the
Eichler

8

measurements of an individual’s hand and fingers, it is possible to uniquely identify a
person.

Hand geometry uses a metal sur
face that has small pegs on it to determine a person’s
hand. The user places his or her palm on the surface and waits as the computer system
tries to match the hand attributes to a database containing

the

hand attributes of
individuals already in the syst
em.

Hand geometry is very easy to use and can be

easily

used with smart cards as well.
Moreover, i
t is said to be difficult to fool. However, hand
geometry systems are expensive and bulky.
Furthermore
, since it is not as accurate as
other biometric tec
hniques, it should only be
used in verification purposes, and

it should
only be used with smaller sized databases, such as those for a single company.


x.

Interview


As I was researching biometrics and identification I was lucky enough to do an
interview with

a security specialist at Moody Air Force Base. I did the interview face to
face with some questions already on hand. I asked Mr. Ortiz, the man I interviewed,
ahead of time if I could interview him and gave him an idea of what I would ask.
I
actually m
et Mr. Ortiz while going through the stages of a background check on myself
for a contracting job I received at Moody AFB.
I waited a few days in order to give us
both time to think about the questions I was going to ask.

I asked Mr. Ortiz many questions
regarding biometric technologies used at Moody
AFB and about his thoughts about the future of biometrics. He feels that biometrics will
increase dramatically in the near future. One of the biggest advances predicted was
keyless entry into all buildings o
n base and beyond. I asked for Mr. Ortiz’s opinion about
implanting a chip into people in order to identify them. He thought it was a
terrible idea;
however, h
e did see a good use for it in corrections and law enforcement.


xi.

My thoughts


I have to agree w
ith Mr. Ortiz over the chip issue. It seems a little extreme to place
radio transmitting chips into people in order to identify them.
With that in mind I think

other biometrics can prove to be very useful in the future. I also believe that biometrics
wi
ll become a common feature in our everyday life.

Biometric technologies have qualities that make them very desirable. Biometric
identification is unmatched when it comes to security and verification. It is nearly
impossible to forge a fingerprint, retina
, voice, and especially DNA. Like Mr. Ortiz said,
biometric identification gives almost undeniable proof of a
person’s

identity.
Another
great aspect of biometric identification is the fact that passwords will not be needed. Or,
a password can be used a
s a secondary identification tool in addition to a biometric
device.

Moreover
, biometrics like signature recognition, which automatically scans a
signature and matches it to a signature in a known database, will help stop forgery from
occurring.

It will
make forging a signature extremely difficult since the forger will have
to make the signature look
right
,
and

he or she must have the same pen strokes as well,
which makes forging even more difficult.



Eichler

9

xii.

Controversy


Biometric technology does have some nega
tive aspects. People fear that privacy will
be lost by the new technologies. Iris scanners and face recognition devices can be placed
in public places very easily to identify people on a street or in a building. The possibility
of implanting a chip that

transmits radio signals is also a scary possibility and

a

threat to
privacy. Also, criminals are trying to find new ways to beat biometric devices. It may be
possible that a criminal can exactly match another person’s iris and thus frame an
innocent per
son. Since biometric devices are so accurate, it would be difficult to prove
that person’s innocen
ce
.
If chips are implanted into people, identity theft could be done
easily by simply stealing an individuals chip and implanting the chip into someone else
.
DNA fingerprinting

can be

controversial when it comes to the topic of evolution versus
intelligent design.


xiii.

Conclusion/ Summary


Biometrics is the study of physical characteristics in people
. Common
biometric
methods include

fingerprinting, voice recog
nition, retina scanning, iris scanning, DNA
fingerprinting, face recognition, and hand geometry.

Each method can uniquely identify
an individual through his or her physical features accurately using various techniques to
do so.

Biometric methods have man
y security benefits that make them desirable to use
anywhere from law enforcement

to private businesses; h
owever, biometrics can lead to
lack of privacy.

I think biometrics will become the most widely used form of security in the world.
As I did my resear
ch I learned more than I could have ever imagined about some of the
different biometric techniques available. I think that
security systems will nearly be
impossible to fool if two or more biometric techniques are used at the same time.
Furthermore
, many

devices have extra security checks such as the iris scanners that check
for pupil dilation to prevent criminals from stealing a person’s identity.
While I do see a
threat that biometrics may pose on privacy when it comes to chips under the skin, I do not

think that will be the way biometrics will be used in the future. I think that biometrics
will make our lives better, not take them away from us.

Eichler

10

xiv.

Sources


www.oberthurusa.com/pns
-
sc
-
sc101
-
gloss.as
p


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biometrics

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/biometric+identification


http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/B/biometrics.html


http://biometrics.cse.msu.edu/fingerprint.html


http://onin.com/fp/fphistory.html


http://eprints.eemcs.utwente.nl/1569/


www.hitl.washington.edu/scivw/EVE/IV.Def
initions.html


http://www.education.uiowa.edu/icater/at_glossary.htm


www.angelfire.com/anime3/internet/comm
unications.htm


http://www.the
-
write
-
words.net/lexiques/lexique_v.html


http://searchsecuri
ty.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid14_gci946211,00.html


http://www.thenakedscientists.com/html/columnists/dalyacolumn8.htm


http://www.bergen.org/EST/Year5/DNA_finger.htm


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_fingerprinting


http://ctl.ncsc.dni.us/biomet%20web/BMRetinal.html


http://filebox.vt.edu/p/pbunt/Biometrics%20Site/Face%20Recognition.htm


http://ctl.ncsc.dni.us/biomet%20web/BMHand.html


Eichler

11

xv.

Appendix

The interview was face to face and I asked these questions:

Jay (me): What is your name and title, and how long have done this?

Mr. Ortiz: My name is Richard Ortiz and I am a
Security Specialist at Moody Air
Force Base. I have been doing this for two years now.

Jay: Do you enjoy it?

Mr. Ortiz: Yes, but I am not used to an office environment. I would rather be out in
the field.

Jay: Can you describe your job?

Mr. Ortiz: I proc
ess background investigations for the United States government. I
also train the base organization managers on how to facilitate paperwork
related to security issues. Basically, I manage the base security personnel
program.

Jay: How does the fingerprint
machine I used work?

Mr.

Ortiz: It makes a digital scan of fingerprints. It is highly magnified. Once that is
done, the scan gets transmitted to the FBI through an attached modem.
Within two to three weeks, the FBI gives an answer back with any results
it comes up with.

Jay: How accurate is it?

Mr. Ortiz: Very accurate. It is set to a point where it will take the image of stationary
fingers and match them to a rolling finger scan. It is almost equivalent to
DNA identification in that dots, or points, a
re used for the identification
process.

Jay: What other kinds of biometrics are used here at Moody?

Mr. Ortiz: Moody uses CAC cards, which are ID cards with chips that have finger
prints and personal information stored in them. They allows access
anywhere

from top secret machinery to buildings. Also, active duty
personnel have foot prints taken and dental records as well.

Jay: How have biometrics changed since you have been in this field?

Mr. Ortiz: The old finger print method was ink. Then you sent the
paperwork
through the mail. Now everything is digital and mail is sent through a
modem.

Jay: Where do you see biometrics going in the future?

Mr. Ortiz: I see high
-
tech fingerprint machines in all airports. Keyless entry into all
buildings will probably
happen as well. There will be a lot more
biometrics. It helps in law enforcement and it gives undeniable
identification.

Jay: For my research paper, the topic of implanting a small rice
-
sized chip into every
person in order to send a radio signal for ide
ntification purposes is raised. What
is your take on this? Do you think it is a good idea or a bad idea? Explain.

Mr. Ortiz: Wow. I am kind of against it. I do not want Uncle Sam tracking me. It
may lead into group think or people becoming cattle. It

is a bad idea. But,
it is something to look at in corrections. Instead of putting bracelets on
convicts a chip could be used. As a civilian, I am not into that. It is a little
too invasive.