VLSI The Ubiquitous Keystone of Electronics

connectionbuttsElectronics - Devices

Nov 26, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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VLSI
The Ubiquitous Keystone of Electronics
Ken Stevens
University of Utah
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Part One:
The Ubiquitous Nature of VLSI
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Definitions
Ubiquitous
1.
existing or being everywhere at the same time
2.
constantly encountered
VLSI the process of creating integrated circuits by combining
millions of transistors into a single chip.
integrated circuits (IC,silicon chip,microchip,...) miniaturized
electronic circuit containing active and passive components
which has been manufactured in the surface of a thin substrate of
semiconductor material.
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Definitions
transistor A three (or four) terminal solid state semiconductor
device that can be used for amplification,switching,voltage
stabilization,signal modulation,and many other functions.

a “switch” is often referred to as a “gate” when abstracted to
the mathematical formand used in logic equations.
semiconductor A material with electric conductivity that can both
source and sink electrons,and can operate as an insulator and
conductor.
g
d
s
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Integrated Circuits (VLSI)
Where do we encounter them?

computers
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Integrated Circuits (VLSI)
Where do we encounter them?

computers

cell phones
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Integrated Circuits (VLSI)
Where do we encounter them?

computers

cell phones

medical devices
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Integrated Circuits (VLSI)
Where do we encounter them?

computers

cell phones

medical devices

printers
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Integrated Circuits (VLSI)
Where do we encounter them?

computers

cell phones

medical devices

printers

cars
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Integrated Circuits (VLSI)
Where do we encounter them?

computers

cell phones

medical devices

printers

cars

satellites
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Integrated Circuits (VLSI)
Where do we encounter them?

computers

cell phones

medical devices

printers

cars

satellites

music (instruments?)
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Integrated Circuits (VLSI)
Where do we encounter them?

computers

cell phones

medical devices

printers

cars

satellites

music (instruments?)

television
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Integrated Circuits (VLSI)
Where do we encounter them?

computers

cell phones

medical devices

printers

cars

satellites

music (instruments?)

television

furnaces
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Integrated Circuits (VLSI)
Where do we encounter them?

computers

cell phones

medical devices

printers

cars

satellites

music (instruments?)

television

furnaces

watches
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Integrated Circuits (VLSI)
Where do we encounter them?

computers

cell phones

medical devices

printers

cars

satellites

music (instruments?)

television

furnaces

watches

ski lifts...
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Industrial Impact
ICs are an integral aspect of the following industries

computing

communication

manufacturing

transport

entertainment

business
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Social Impact
historical perspective

transistor radio

punch cards

...

space electronics

internet
VLSI is a substrate for the creation of almost anything electrical
engineers can do...
modern industrial revolution is based on the productivity growth due
to us engineers and our integrated circuits and VLSI.
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Scaling

Moore’s Law

transistor counts double every one to two years

Cost has followed inverse trend

Imagine this in other scenarios...
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Manufacturing
Size of wafers (single silicon crystal)
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Size Perspective
Theorem:
What you pay for a product is proportional to it’s weight
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Productivity Data
Output per hour of all persons (US Bureau of Labor Statistics)
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
bus.2.3 0.9 1.0 1.9 2.4 3.1 4.2 1.9 4.8 4.5 4.0 2.7
manuf.4.9 3.7 3.9 4.4 4.2 6.4 7.1 1.1 4.5 5.1 5.2 5.0
Aggregate improvement in productivity
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
bus.102.3 103.2 104.3 106.2 108.8 112.1 116.9 119.1 124.8 130.4 135.6 139.3
manuf.104.9 108.8 113.0 118.0 123.0 130.8 140.1 141.7 148.0 155.6 163.7 171.8
output likewise up,unit labor costs down...
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Ride VLSI to Anywhere You Want to Go
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Part Two:
VLSI:Studies and Employment
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Learn the rules so you know how to break themproperly.
Dalai Lama
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Research Cycle
Do
1.
learn technology or application
2.
build something novel and cool:a rule breaker!
3.
automate your learnings for productivity
Forever (or until we get alzheimers...)
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Why VLSI is Cool

Artistic and creative pursuit (quite figuratively and literally...)

Satisfaction in doing something new or better

General satisfaction in products that improve our existence

Pentium4’s all had circuits due to my work!
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Circuits and CAD
1.
take this simple transistor
2.
replicate it 10
8
times
3.
connect instances in ways that break traditional rules
4.
write software to support this
Transists and translates into all sorts of fun!
g
d
s
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Synopsis of my Research
These are the particular directions I’ve taken VLSI
1.
Asynchronous chips and design
2.
Relative Timing
3.
Transistor and circuit research
4.
CAD for VLSI
5.
Networks
6.
Biological designs
7.
Streaming video chips
8.
Reliable and Tamper Resistant Circuits
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Asynchronous Design
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Asynchronous Design
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Learn the Rules:Multiple Input Switching (MIS)






c
b
a
observe effects at this node


✠

average pushout of 21%(r00 lib)

average speedup of 47%

several sources of effects

this configuration shows a 28.8%
delay pushout
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CAD for automatic MIS vector generation
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Relative Timing (RT)
A huge difference in performance and power is derived by using
simple timing assumptions that are easy to represent as a logical
constraint and easy to validate in a design.
lo↓
li

lo↑
li










P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
Pq









✏✮

ro↓
ri

ro↑
ri










lo↓
li

lo↑
li










P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
Pq









✏✮

ro↓
ri

ro↑
ri










RTA9

RTA8



























❍❜








✟❜



✟❜



✟❜
li
lo
ro
ri
y1 y2
r
✛r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
✲r
r
r
r
Speed Independent FIFO Controller (SI)
li
r
ri
✟✟

❍❛
r









❍❛
r
lo



❍❛
r
ro

x
r
Relative Timed FIFO Controller (RT-BM)
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On Chip Networking
20mm
20mm


Start with your basic
20×20mm
integrated circuit in
a 65nm process

∃ blocks of 100k
gates which need to
communicate











③
Study
communication link
between pair of logic
blocks

























✏✶
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Networking ProblemFormulation

The critical repeater distance of this process is 600 microns
(optimal power/performance point)

This nominal wire will therefore contain ≈17 repeated segments

Each segment can be flopped

Bandwidth depends on pipelining
Total distance =10,000 microns,minimum delay =30 FO4











❍ s s s

























❍❍

❍❍

❍❍

❍❍ s s s













❍❍

❍❍

❍❍

❍❍
600µ
1.8 FO4 delays
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Representative Results
10,000µ 32-bit bus in a 65nm
process with low bit activity factor
and
moderate bus utilization
rate:
4-cycle least efficient.Clocked
and 2-cycle comparable,source-
synchronous better at high
frequency.
10,000µ 32-bit bus in a 65nm
process with low bit activity factor
and
light bus utilization
rate:
clocked protocols least efficient.
2-cycle and source-synchronous
clearly the best from energy
perspective.
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Post Office:On Chip Network Implementations
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Post Office:On Chip Network Implementation
“The good news is we’ve created a highly sophisticated,multi-processor
computer that’s the size of a doughnut.The bad news is...Fitsimmons just
dunked it in his cocoa.”
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We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking
we used when we created them.
Albert Einstein
This is what VLSI is all about.
Let’s think about our problems differently and use this rich canvas to
solve themin ways never previously dreamed.
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