Essentials of Electronic Testing for Digital, Memory, and Mixed-Signal VLSI Circuits (Frontiers in Electronic Testing Volume 17)

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Nov 26, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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Essentials of Electronic Testing for Digital, Memory, and
Mixed-Signal VLSI Circuits (Frontiers in Electronic Testing Volume
17)
By M. Bushnell, Vishwani Agrawal
Essentials of Electronic Testing for Digital, Memory, and Mixed-Signal VLSI Circuits
(Frontiers in Electronic Testing Volume 17) Details:
Today's electronic design and test engineers deal with several types of subsystems, namely,
digital, memory, and mixed-signal, each requiring different test and design for testability
methods. This book provides a careful selection of essential topics on all three types of
circuits. The outcome of testing is product quality, which means "meeting the user's needs
at a minimum cost". The book includes test economics and techniques for determining the
defect level of VLSI chips. Besides being a textbook for a course on testing, it is a complete
testability guide for an engineer working on any kind of electronic device or system or a
system-on-a-chip.
Times are tough, and as a result, morale can suffer. So what can the leaders of an
organization do to help team members feel more confident and at ease? Below are a few
simple tips to improve teamwork and morale -- especially in a recession (or depression):
Give Sincere Compliments When times are tough, we can easily be distracted (sometimes
just trying to stay above water). That is the time that your team members need reassurance,
and a sincere compliment can go a long way in helping your team feel more comfortable.
Remember that the team member doesn't have to be perfect ? just improving. Most
managers and leaders follow the "If you don't hear anything from me, assume that you are
doing a good job" model. There are a few problems with this model, though. The biggest
problem is that if your team only hears from you when when they make mistakes, they will
begin to avoid you and withold important information -- "If I share this information with
my boss and it is good news, he won't give me credit, and if it's bad news, he'll hold be
accountable, so I'll just keep it to myself." There is no incentive to share information.
Another big problem is that a criticism only approach will stunt the growth of your team
members. When a team member takes a risk, has a success and gets praised, then his/her
confidence will grow. However, if that risk is likely to lead to criticism, then the team
member will likely avoid the risk. So as Dale Carnegie said, "Be lavish in your praise."
Share Information People fear the unknown a lot more than reality in most cases. If your
team knows what's wrong, they can often help you fix it. Often, leaders will try to protect
the team by keeping negative information to himself/herself, which just makes the team
wonder what you are hiding. Fear causes people to react aggressively, so share information,
and your team will help you. Let's say that you walk into your kitchen really late at night,
and it's pitch black. You hear a russelling sound in the corner. It could be the wind from a
window left open, it could be a rodent, or it could be a burgler. Since you are not sure
exactly what made the sound, you'll likely prepare for the worst and grab a golf club before
you turn on the light. You flip on the light and a little teenie-tiny mouse darts across the
counter. You start swinging the golf club to no avail. A mouse in the kitchen is pretty bad,
but not nearly as bad as an intruder. Because the cause was unknown, you weren't able to
prepare for it well. The fear that we have when we don't have enough information will
cause us to make improper decisions and make mistakes, so it's best to share information
with your team and let them help create a solution. Just like in this example, once you know
what the problem is, the solution to the problem is fair easy to create. Set a Goal A shared
goal can help the team work together toward a common result. A number of small successes
can improve morale dramatically. The goal doesn't have to be anything Earth-shattering. In
fact, it might be something as simple as earning an additional 1000 Facebook Fans this
month or having all of the cash registers balance for an entire week. Whatever the goal,
though, it needs to be something that everyone has a stake in. Once the goal is reached and
a reward is given, all who participated will feel a sense of accomplishment. Brain-Storm
Challenges are often opportunities in disguise. When challenges develop, get your team
together and brain-storm solutions. One big idea can open up additional revenue streams. If
your team is experiencing challenges in a down economy, there is a good chance that your
competitors are experiencing them as well, so the team who overcomes the most challenges
will have a competitive advantage now and an increased advantage as the economy turns
around. 20-minute or 30-minute brain-storming sessions from time to time can help harness
the creativity of your team, solve problems, and increase morale all at the same time. In
these sessions, spend just a minute or so talking about the problem. Then quickly move to
what the CAUSES of the problem might be. the more causes that you can identify, the more
creative (and clear) your solutions will be. Once the team understands what has caused the
problem, possible solutions will flow. Then you just have to pick which of the possible
solutions is most likely to lead to success. Regardless of whether the solution creates the new
iPad or not, the process will be great for morale -- especially if the solution is implemented
and leads to a successful outcome. Get your team working toward a common goal by
praising them and working on tough challenges together. Your team culture will grow, and
you will be way ahead of the game when things turn around.
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Today's electronic design and test engineers deal with several types of subsystems, namely,
digital, memory, and mixed-signal, each requiring different test and design for testability
methods. This book provides a careful selection of essential topics on all three types of
circuits. The outcome of testing is product quality, which means "meeting the user's needs
at a minimum cost". The book includes test economics and techniques for determining the
defect level of VLSI chips. Besides being a textbook for a course on testing, it is a complete
testability guide for an engineer working on any kind of electronic device or system or a
system-on-a-chip.
Times are tough, and as a result, morale can suffer. So what can the leaders of an
organization do to help team members feel more confident and at ease? Below are a few
simple tips to improve teamwork and morale -- especially in a recession (or depression):
Give Sincere Compliments When times are tough, we can easily be distracted (sometimes
just trying to stay above water). That is the time that your team members need reassurance,
and a sincere compliment can go a long way in helping your team feel more comfortable.
Remember that the team member doesn't have to be perfect ? just improving. Most
managers and leaders follow the "If you don't hear anything from me, assume that you are
doing a good job" model. There are a few problems with this model, though. The biggest
problem is that if your team only hears from you when when they make mistakes, they will
begin to avoid you and withold important information -- "If I share this information with
my boss and it is good news, he won't give me credit, and if it's bad news, he'll hold be
accountable, so I'll just keep it to myself." There is no incentive to share information.
Another big problem is that a criticism only approach will stunt the growth of your team
members. When a team member takes a risk, has a success and gets praised, then his/her
confidence will grow. However, if that risk is likely to lead to criticism, then the team
member will likely avoid the risk. So as Dale Carnegie said, "Be lavish in your praise."
Share Information People fear the unknown a lot more than reality in most cases. If your
team knows what's wrong, they can often help you fix it. Often, leaders will try to protect
the team by keeping negative information to himself/herself, which just makes the team
wonder what you are hiding. Fear causes people to react aggressively, so share information,
and your team will help you. Let's say that you walk into your kitchen really late at night,
and it's pitch black. You hear a russelling sound in the corner. It could be the wind from a
window left open, it could be a rodent, or it could be a burgler. Since you are not sure
exactly what made the sound, you'll likely prepare for the worst and grab a golf club before
you turn on the light. You flip on the light and a little teenie-tiny mouse darts across the
counter. You start swinging the golf club to no avail. A mouse in the kitchen is pretty bad,
but not nearly as bad as an intruder. Because the cause was unknown, you weren't able to
prepare for it well. The fear that we have when we don't have enough information will
cause us to make improper decisions and make mistakes, so it's best to share information
with your team and let them help create a solution. Just like in this example, once you know
what the problem is, the solution to the problem is fair easy to create. Set a Goal A shared
goal can help the team work together toward a common result. A number of small successes
can improve morale dramatically. The goal doesn't have to be anything Earth-shattering. In
fact, it might be something as simple as earning an additional 1000 Facebook Fans this
month or having all of the cash registers balance for an entire week. Whatever the goal,
though, it needs to be something that everyone has a stake in. Once the goal is reached and
a reward is given, all who participated will feel a sense of accomplishment. Brain-Storm
Challenges are often opportunities in disguise. When challenges develop, get your team
together and brain-storm solutions. One big idea can open up additional revenue streams. If
your team is experiencing challenges in a down economy, there is a good chance that your
competitors are experiencing them as well, so the team who overcomes the most challenges
will have a competitive advantage now and an increased advantage as the economy turns
around. 20-minute or 30-minute brain-storming sessions from time to time can help harness
the creativity of your team, solve problems, and increase morale all at the same time. In
these sessions, spend just a minute or so talking about the problem. Then quickly move to
what the CAUSES of the problem might be. the more causes that you can identify, the more
creative (and clear) your solutions will be. Once the team understands what has caused the
problem, possible solutions will flow. Then you just have to pick which of the possible
solutions is most likely to lead to success. Regardless of whether the solution creates the new
iPad or not, the process will be great for morale -- especially if the solution is implemented
and leads to a successful outcome. Get your team working toward a common goal by
praising them and working on tough challenges together. Your team culture will grow, and
you will be way ahead of the game when things turn around.
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