Total Quality Management

confidencetoughManagement

Nov 20, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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Session 2


Standardise an operation


Measure the standardise operation


Gauge measurements against requirements


Innovate to meet requirements and increase
productivity


Standardise the new, improved operations


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Control Charts


Histogram


Pareto Chart


Check Sheet


Cause & Effect Diagram


Flowchart


Scatter Diagram


An effective method of monitoring processes
through control charts


Monitors processes and variations


Helps reduce waste


Identification of bottleneck, wait times


Reduction in time required to produce


Tool used to determine whether a
manufacturing or business process is in the
state of statistical control or not


Represents measurements of quality
characteristics in samples taken periodically


A mean is calculated from the data and
displayed


Tolerance limits


Variable Control Charts



Attribute Control Charts



R Chart



S Chart


p
-
chart


np
-
chart


c
-
chart


u
-
chart


CUSUM Chart (Cumulative Sum Chart)


Time Series Model


Regression Control

X
X

It is the method for determining the size and
frequency so that each sample represents a
point in time or space


It is a way to collect data that best represents
a process state that is unknown




chart tracks the subgroup average from the
process


R chart tracks the range within each
subgroup


Both the charts give the process level and
process variation at same time as well as
presence of special causes


X
x

Similar to X
-
bar and R chart but used when
subgroup size is 11 or more


It uses standard deviation instead of range


Used to monitor the effects of process
improvement theories


Is a control chart for attribute of data


Measures the proportion detective items in a
subgroup


Similar to P
-
chart, with two differences


All subgroup size must be same


Is used to track attribute data in terms of numbers
rather than proportion


Is used to track attribute data in terms of
counts per subgroup


All subgroups must be the same size


Graphically summarises and displays the
distribution of a process or data set



It is used to graphically summarise and display
the relative importance of the differences
between groups of data


It has two vertical axis


Left
-
side vertical axis is labelled frequency


Right
-
side of the vertical axis is the cumulative
frequency


It is used to represent the most common
occurring defect, most common source of
defects, most frequent reasons for customer
complaints, etc.


It is used to collect data in real
-
time and at the
location where data is generated


Types of check sheets


Classification


A trait such as a defect or a failure mode
must be classified into a category


Location


The physical location of a trait is indicated on
a picture of a part or item being evaluated


Frequency


The presence or absence of trait is indicated
along with number of occurrences


Measurement scale


Measurements are indicated by
checking on an appropriate interval on a pre
-
divided
measurement scale


Check
-
list


Items are listed so that as each is
accomplished, it is indicated by a check/tick
-
mark


Graphical representation of a process,
depicting inputs, outputs and units of activity


Represents the entire process at a high or
detailed level of observation, allowing
analysis and optimization of workflow


Reveals the relationship of association
between two variables


Answers the following questions


Are two variables related?


If yes, linearly or non
-
linearly


Capability Maturity Model


Capability Maturity Model Integration


IDEAL




Types of defects in software


Logical error


Incorrectly assigned variable


Typing errors



It is industry specific quality model for
software development


Focuses on “Zero
-
Defect” software
development


Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
provides a structured way to develop an
application and helps in early decision
making


SDLC helps reduce the total cost of software
development


Create and evaluate concept


Analysis to define requirements


Define architecture


Design tests


Specify computer program


Write and revise computer program, its
documentation and instruction


Put the program together, with inspection and
testing


For published software, release a beta test
version


Final release and customer support


Initial


Each person learns and does the job any way he/she can.
The organisation relies on heroes


Repeatable


Departments have their acts together, establish,
procedures, and are following them & keeping them up to
date. But methods are different in different places for no
good reason


Defined


The whole organisation has standard methods for standard
activities, and departments have unique procedures where
they are needed. This is centrally coordinated


Managed


The organisation eliminates defects by quality management
and constantly works in order to make things better


Optimising


Organisation uses, sustains and continuously improves best
practices


It is the integration of various CMMs


CMMI is a framework for business process
improvement


It is a suite of products used for process
improvements


It has


Models


Appraisal methods


Training Courses



Continuous


User focuses on the specific processes that are
considered important for organisation’s immediate
business objectives


Staged


Provides a standard sequence of improvements and
can serve as a basis for comparing the maturity
level of different projects and organisation


It provides easy migration from the SW
-
CMM to
CMMI


CMMI best practices


documented are called
CMMI models


CMMI models cover the following areas


Development


Acquisition


CMMI for Development (CMMI
-
DEV)


CMMI for Acquisition (CMMI
-
ACQ)


CMMI for Services (CMMI
-
SVC)



Is a usable, understandable approach to
continuous improvement by outlining the steps
necessary to establish a successful improvement
program


Consists of 5 stages


I


Initiating


Laying the ground work for a successful improvement effort


D


Diagnostic


Determining where you are relative to where you want to be


E


Establishing


Planning the specifics of how will you reach your destination


A


Acting


Doing the work according to the plan


L
-

Learning


Learning from the experience and improving the ability to
adopt new technologies in future



ISO 9000 is a family of standards for quality
management systems


ISO 9000:2000


QMS

Fundamentals and Vocabulary


ISO 9001:2000


QMS


Requirements


ISO 9004:2000


QMS
-
Guidelines for performance improvements


Requirements


Scope



Normative Reference


Terms and definition


Quality management system


Management responsibility


Resource management


Product realisation


Measurement, analysis and improvement


Quality policy is a formal statement from
management, closely linked to business and
to customers needs


Quality policy is understood at all levels and
by all employees


Documentation and audits are conducted
periodically


Records should show how and where raw
materials and products are processed to allow
products and problems to be traced to the
source


Map all processes, monitor & control them


Monitoring, measurement and analysis tools
must be properly maintained and calibrated


Determine customer requirements and create
systems for communicating with customer


Perform periodic internal audits and meetings



Its a business management strategy
developed by Motorola


It seeks to identify and remove the causes of
defects in manufacturing or business process


One Sigma = 690,000 DPMO


= 31% efficiency


Two Sigma = 308,000 DPMO


= 69.2% efficiency


Three Sigma = 66,800 DPMO


= 93.32% efficiency


Four Sigma = 6,210 DPMO


= 99.379% efficiency


Five Sigma


= 230 DPMO


= 99.977% efficiency


Six Sigma


= 3.4 DPMO


= 99.9997% efficiency



D
-
Define high level project goals and the
current process


M
-
Measure key aspects of the current process
and collect relevant data


A
-
Analyse the data to verify cause and effect
relationships. Determine what the relationships
are and attempt to ensure that all the factors
have been considered


I
-
Improve or optimise the process based on data
analysis using techniques like design of
experiments


C
-
Control to ensure that any deviations from
target are corrected before they result in defects


D
-
Define design goals that are consistent with
customer demands and the enterprise strategy


M
-
Measure and identify characteristics that are
critical to quality (CTQ), product capabilities,
production process capability and risks


A
-
Analyse to develop and design alternatives,
create high level design and evaluate design
capability to select the best design


D
-
Design details, optimise the design and plan
for design verification


V
-
Verify the design, setup pilot runs,
implement the production process and
hand it over to process owners

puneit.singh@gmail.com

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