# Total Quality Management

Management

Nov 20, 2013 (4 years and 7 months ago)

91 views

Session 2

Standardise an operation

Measure the standardise operation

Gauge measurements against requirements

Innovate to meet requirements and increase
productivity

Standardise the new, improved operations

Continue

Control Charts

Histogram

Pareto Chart

Check Sheet

Cause & Effect Diagram

Flowchart

Scatter Diagram

An effective method of monitoring processes
through control charts

Monitors processes and variations

Helps reduce waste

Identification of bottleneck, wait times

Reduction in time required to produce

Tool used to determine whether a
manufacturing or business process is in the
state of statistical control or not

Represents measurements of quality
characteristics in samples taken periodically

A mean is calculated from the data and
displayed

Tolerance limits

Variable Control Charts

Attribute Control Charts

R Chart

S Chart

p
-
chart

np
-
chart

c
-
chart

u
-
chart

CUSUM Chart (Cumulative Sum Chart)

Time Series Model

Regression Control

X
X

It is the method for determining the size and
frequency so that each sample represents a
point in time or space

It is a way to collect data that best represents
a process state that is unknown

chart tracks the subgroup average from the
process

R chart tracks the range within each
subgroup

Both the charts give the process level and
process variation at same time as well as
presence of special causes

X
x

Similar to X
-
bar and R chart but used when
subgroup size is 11 or more

It uses standard deviation instead of range

Used to monitor the effects of process
improvement theories

Is a control chart for attribute of data

Measures the proportion detective items in a
subgroup

Similar to P
-
chart, with two differences

All subgroup size must be same

Is used to track attribute data in terms of numbers
rather than proportion

Is used to track attribute data in terms of
counts per subgroup

All subgroups must be the same size

Graphically summarises and displays the
distribution of a process or data set

It is used to graphically summarise and display
the relative importance of the differences
between groups of data

It has two vertical axis

Left
-
side vertical axis is labelled frequency

Right
-
side of the vertical axis is the cumulative
frequency

It is used to represent the most common
occurring defect, most common source of
defects, most frequent reasons for customer
complaints, etc.

It is used to collect data in real
-
time and at the
location where data is generated

Types of check sheets

Classification

A trait such as a defect or a failure mode
must be classified into a category

Location

The physical location of a trait is indicated on
a picture of a part or item being evaluated

Frequency

The presence or absence of trait is indicated
along with number of occurrences

Measurement scale

Measurements are indicated by
checking on an appropriate interval on a pre
-
divided
measurement scale

Check
-
list

Items are listed so that as each is
accomplished, it is indicated by a check/tick
-
mark

Graphical representation of a process,
depicting inputs, outputs and units of activity

Represents the entire process at a high or
detailed level of observation, allowing
analysis and optimization of workflow

Reveals the relationship of association
between two variables

Are two variables related?

If yes, linearly or non
-
linearly

Capability Maturity Model

Capability Maturity Model Integration

IDEAL

Types of defects in software

Logical error

Incorrectly assigned variable

Typing errors

It is industry specific quality model for
software development

Focuses on “Zero
-
Defect” software
development

Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
provides a structured way to develop an
application and helps in early decision
making

SDLC helps reduce the total cost of software
development

Create and evaluate concept

Analysis to define requirements

Define architecture

Design tests

Specify computer program

Write and revise computer program, its
documentation and instruction

Put the program together, with inspection and
testing

For published software, release a beta test
version

Final release and customer support

Initial

Each person learns and does the job any way he/she can.
The organisation relies on heroes

Repeatable

Departments have their acts together, establish,
procedures, and are following them & keeping them up to
date. But methods are different in different places for no
good reason

Defined

The whole organisation has standard methods for standard
activities, and departments have unique procedures where
they are needed. This is centrally coordinated

Managed

The organisation eliminates defects by quality management
and constantly works in order to make things better

Optimising

Organisation uses, sustains and continuously improves best
practices

It is the integration of various CMMs

CMMI is a framework for business process
improvement

It is a suite of products used for process
improvements

It has

Models

Appraisal methods

Training Courses

Continuous

User focuses on the specific processes that are
considered important for organisation’s immediate

Staged

Provides a standard sequence of improvements and
can serve as a basis for comparing the maturity
level of different projects and organisation

It provides easy migration from the SW
-
CMM to
CMMI

CMMI best practices

documented are called
CMMI models

CMMI models cover the following areas

Development

Acquisition

CMMI for Development (CMMI
-
DEV)

CMMI for Acquisition (CMMI
-
ACQ)

CMMI for Services (CMMI
-
SVC)

Is a usable, understandable approach to
continuous improvement by outlining the steps
necessary to establish a successful improvement
program

Consists of 5 stages

I

Initiating

Laying the ground work for a successful improvement effort

D

Diagnostic

Determining where you are relative to where you want to be

E

Establishing

Planning the specifics of how will you reach your destination

A

Acting

Doing the work according to the plan

L
-

Learning

Learning from the experience and improving the ability to

ISO 9000 is a family of standards for quality
management systems

ISO 9000:2000

QMS

Fundamentals and Vocabulary

ISO 9001:2000

QMS

Requirements

ISO 9004:2000

QMS
-
Guidelines for performance improvements

Requirements

Scope

Normative Reference

Terms and definition

Quality management system

Management responsibility

Resource management

Product realisation

Measurement, analysis and improvement

Quality policy is a formal statement from
to customers needs

Quality policy is understood at all levels and
by all employees

Documentation and audits are conducted
periodically

Records should show how and where raw
materials and products are processed to allow
products and problems to be traced to the
source

Map all processes, monitor & control them

Monitoring, measurement and analysis tools
must be properly maintained and calibrated

Determine customer requirements and create
systems for communicating with customer

Perform periodic internal audits and meetings

developed by Motorola

It seeks to identify and remove the causes of
defects in manufacturing or business process

One Sigma = 690,000 DPMO

= 31% efficiency

Two Sigma = 308,000 DPMO

= 69.2% efficiency

Three Sigma = 66,800 DPMO

= 93.32% efficiency

Four Sigma = 6,210 DPMO

= 99.379% efficiency

Five Sigma

= 230 DPMO

= 99.977% efficiency

Six Sigma

= 3.4 DPMO

= 99.9997% efficiency

D
-
Define high level project goals and the
current process

M
-
Measure key aspects of the current process
and collect relevant data

A
-
Analyse the data to verify cause and effect
relationships. Determine what the relationships
are and attempt to ensure that all the factors
have been considered

I
-
Improve or optimise the process based on data
analysis using techniques like design of
experiments

C
-
Control to ensure that any deviations from
target are corrected before they result in defects

D
-
Define design goals that are consistent with
customer demands and the enterprise strategy

M
-
Measure and identify characteristics that are
critical to quality (CTQ), product capabilities,
production process capability and risks

A
-
Analyse to develop and design alternatives,
create high level design and evaluate design
capability to select the best design

D
-
Design details, optimise the design and plan
for design verification

V
-
Verify the design, setup pilot runs,
implement the production process and
hand it over to process owners

puneit.singh@gmail.com

9350832020

9953324595

http://www.scridb.com/puneit