The Evolution of Management

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Nov 20, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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The Evolution of Management



Business Management

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Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.

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Management Defined


The process of accomplishing the goals of an
organization through the effective use of people
and other resources


Manager vs. Leader


Why management?

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Early Management


Pyramids (2500
-
2000 B.C.)


Railroad (early 1800s)


Industrial Revolution (late 1800s


early 1900s)


Assembly line


20
th

century management theories


Scientific


Taylor (1880)


Human Relations


Mayo


Hawthorne Studies (1932)


Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (1954)


McClelland


Achievement Theory (1950s)


Herzberg
-

Hygiene Factors (1959)


McGregor Theory X and Theory Y (1960)


Drucker

& the knowledge worker (1959)


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Levels of Management


Management Pyramid


3 Levels


Supervisor


Many non
-
managerial activities


Mid
-
manager


Spends most time on one

management function


Executive


Spends almost all time


on management functions






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Influences on Management


Changing nature of business


Entrepreneurship


Social considerations


Ethical considerations


Human resource issues


Economic environment


Global competition


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Changing Nature of Business


Types of Businesses


Industrial


Produce goods used by other businesses to make
things


Manufacturing was major type of business until after
WWII


Commercial


Marketing, finance, and providing services


More prevalent today


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Entrepreneurship


Someone who starts, manages, and owns a
business


Many major corporations were started by
entrepreneurs.


Mostly involved in retail and service businesses,
as opposed to manufacturing


> 90% of all businesses are classified as small.


Franchises have risen in popularity since the
1950s with Ray Kroc and McDonald’s.


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Social Considerations


Poverty


Increases to minimum wage and unemployment
benefits


Societal values


Transformation of family


higher divorce rates


Generation X


post baby
-
boom workers who expect
to change jobs many more times than previous
generations


Net Generation (also Generation Y and Generation
Next)


born approximately between 1977
-
1997, very
familiar with virtual worlds, more dependent on
teamwork, less loyal to employers than in the past


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Ethical Considerations


Environmental Issues


Recycling


Pollution


Business Ethics


a collection of principles and rules that define
what is right and wrong conduct for an
organization


decisions of whether certain actions may be legal
or illegal


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Human Resource Issues


Growing population, especially with an increase
in immigration


Changing population


Increased diversity


# of people >55 have increased substantially


Moving population


Increased movement to the sun belt


Increased movement from cities to the suburbs


New employment laws in recent decades


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Economic Environment


Economics


the body of knowledge that relates
to producing and using goods and services that
satisfy human wants


Economic systems have changed in many other
countries during recent decades, especially the
countries of the former Soviet Union


Increase in competition among American
products and services


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Global Competition


Expansion to Pacific Rim countries


Multinational firms


Headquarters in a home country (parent firm)


Facilities in a foreign location known as a host
country


Foreign branches called subsidiaries

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Global Competition (continued)


Increase in imports, especially since the 1980s


Tariffs


taxes on foreign goods to protect
domestic industries


Quota


limits the quantity or value of units
permitted to enter a country, designed to protect
market share of domestic producers


Dumping


selling goods in a foreign market at a
price that is below cost or below what it charges in
its home country, often prevented by imposing
tariffs which then increase the price of the goods


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Global Competition (continued)


Increase in foreign business:


European Union


North American Free Trade Agreement


International Monetary Fund


World Bank


International communications facilitated
through technological advances

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Management Functions


Planning


setting goals


analyzing information


Organizing


accomplishing plans


arranging resources


Implementing (includes Directing and Leading)


communicating


motivating


Controlling


establishing
standards


evaluating performance

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Independent Practice Assignments


Management Timeline Document


Students will use
information from the PowerPoint as well as information they
discover after conducting Internet research to create a timeline
covering at least 10 different decades. The goal of this research is to
identify milestones in history, such as inventions, and explain the
importance and possible management structure utilized in that
situation, as well as the particular management movement popular
during the time period and how it applies to that invention.



Business and Community Report
-

A local business is about to
be bought by a competitor who will then close the local business.
Ask students to write a one
-
page, well
-
written report addressing the
following questions: 1) who will be affected in the community, 2)
how will these individuals be affected, and 3) your opinion of
whether or not the business that is closing and/or the competitor
business has any responsibility to the community.



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Independent Practice Assignments

(continued)


The Knowledge Worker Communiqué


Students will research Peter
Drucker’s

concept that he coined as “knowledge worker” and create a bulletin, or
communiqué, including the following components: 1) a definition of the term in
the student’s own words, 2) a specific business scenario or job where this
situation can be observed, that is, where an employee may have more technical
knowledge and information than their supervisor or manager, 3) the possible
conflicts that can arise as a result, and 4) possible resolutions of the conflicts as
well as ways to prevent the conflicts from occurring. The document should be
free of grammatical errors and have clearly identified sections that address each
component.



Management Functions Applied Diagram


Students will select an
important invention in history and create a diagram showing how that product
has evolved or improved over time. Part of the diagram will also be an
explanation at each step of
how any of the management functions
has had to
adapt to make the evolution of the product possible to what it is today.


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