Site Tracking NABC Proposal

confidencehandElectronics - Devices

Nov 27, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Site Tracking

NABC Proposal

Jan. 12, 2010



Background:


A standard and reliable method for indoor geolocation tracking, has been elusive. A number of unique
problems, when compared outdoor tracking exist:




GPS signals are too weak after penetrating co
mmercial buildings for use with consumer grade
GPS hardware (e.g., smart phones).




High levels of electromagnetic radiation from indoor appliances and computing devices create
signal interference.




Line of sight blocked by walls and other indoor obstacles.


Indoor GPS Tracking:


Indoor GPS tracking systems utilize commercial grade GPS hardware in specialized handheld tracking
devices to reliable detect the weaker indoor GPS signals. The signal strength can be boosted by
installing GPS signal repeaters.


RFI
D Tracking:


RFID tracking systems utilize place short
-
range radio frequency (RF) tags on items being tracked.
These systems are typically used for inventory tracking or close
-
proximity wayfinding.


Low cost systems can be deployed using passive RFID tags

(non
-
self powered) but have limited range
on average of 2 meters. Active RFID tags have ranges extending from 7 to 20 meters, but are more
expensive and require more power. Other factors that may limit reliability indoors include line
-
of
-
sight
obstacles a
nd noise filtering from other electromagnetic resources.


UWB Tracking:


Ultrawide bandwidth (UWB) RFID tracking systems are an emergent solution. These systems are able
to enhance the distance range, reduced interference from electromagnetic radiation and

less sensitive to
line of sight obstacles.




WiFi Real
-
Time Location Systems:


WiFi real
-
time location systems (RTLS) use WiFi based tags for tracking. The WiFi tags are battery
powered and communicate through existing WiFi networks, eliminating the need

to add additional
infrastructure for transmitters and readers in buildings with existing WiFi infrastructure. These systems
can be integrated with consumer grade mobile devices which have WiFi capability.


Camera Tracking:


Camera tracking systems track i
ndividuals or objects using visual tagging by locating a unique feature.
For individuals, non
-
identifying facial recognition can be used. For objects (e.g., inventory) unique
features can be a visual tag (e.g., QR code, barcode) or geometric shape, size an
d color patterns.


These systems are limited by factors such as line
-
of
-
sight obstacles, CPU power for video analysis, as
well as requiring a plurality of cameras.


Big Box Retailing


Deployment of indoor tracking infrastructure within big box retailers is

an emergent trend. Leaders in
deployment are Walmart and Best Buy.


Need:


Due to the diverse and disparate systems for deploying indoor tracking, there is a need for a
comprehensive approach for transparent handling and managing these systems to deploy s
ervices for:




A unified geolocation coordinate system for mapping sensory based location data into a single
coordinate system, regardless of sensor type.




Tracking objects of interest across diverse and disparate systems and locales.




Scale and expand to f
uture geolocating sensory and coordinate systems.




Integration with inventory, point
-
of
-
sale systems, and loyalty card systems.




Targeted advertisement based on consumer location and activity.


Approach:


The NWS site locator and in
-
site tracking and posit
ioning service is built on a representation using the
international standard WGS84 latitude/longitude geolocation model, the system used by GPS. The
system is hosted as a cloud service and provides centralized management for both public and
proprietary geo
location and associated metadata and workflows.


The service supports real
-
time updating and querying of geolocation data within one meter of
accuracy.



Indoor GPS Tracking:


Figure 1 shows an exemplary configuration of an indoor GPS based tracking system

utilizing both a
GPS booster for tracking with consumer grade GPS enabled devices (i.e., mobile phones) and
unassisted commercial grade GPS handhelds for tagging objects of interest.


GPS data collected and queried is directly interfaced with a GPS based
database.


Figure 1
























Inventory Items








Box Retailer or Warehouse


GPS
Boost
er

Commercial
GPS Handheld

Consumer
GPS Phone


GPS Database


RFID Tracking:


Figure 1 shows an exemplary configuration of an indoor GPS based tracking system utilizing both
commercial handheld RFID transceivers for inventory control and

RFID enabled consumer devices
(mobile phones) for wayfinder applications.


Fixed located RFID tags are stored in a RFID database with relative offset to a GPS reference points,
such as the building perimeter (i.e., building left/right and front/back corne
rs). RFID data collected and
queried is first interfaced with RFID based database, and then mapped to/from GPS data with a GPS
database based on predetermined and dynamically sampled offsets relative offsets to the GPS reference
points.


Figure 2



Fixed

RFID location reference tags

B
-
LB GPS(1)









B
-
RB GPS(4)



















B
-
LF GPS(1)









B
-
RG GPS(2)





Inventory Items

I
tem RFID tags













Box Retailer or Warehouse


Commercial
RFID Handheld

Consumer
RFID Phone


RFID Database


GPS D
atabase


Benefit:


There are a number of benefits to big

box retailers, warehouse owners and application developers for a
common system for collecting and managing indoor tracking data:




Offline management of mixed GPS and non
-
GPS coordinate data.
-

<TODO>




Compatibility with 3
rd

party GPS based applications.
-

<TODO>




Scalable with future deployments of indoor tracking infrastructure.
-

<TODO>




Competitors:



TRX Systems



non
-
GPS location system


dead
-
reckoning using mobile device acceleraters



http://www.trxsystems.com/


Nokia Research



non
-
GPS location s
ystem



Indoor Location Services
-

Future tech from Nokia World 2010



Using fixed indoor transmitters and existing WiFi/Bluetooth receivers with new software to
calc location


within a building.



http://www.allaboutmeego.com/features/item/12145_Indoor_Lo
cation
-
Future_tech_fr.php#



Ubisense



non
-
GPS location system



Ultra Wide Band (UWB) signal transmitter tags to fixed inbuilding sensors



http://www.ubisense.net/






In
-
Door LBS Market Research


Since 2003, indoorLBS.com has been monitoring and evalu
ating the Location
-
Based Services industry,

specifically the convergence of location technologies like WiFi, Bluetooth, RFID,

and sensor technologies like accelerometers and gyroscopes as alternative or complimentary
positioning technologies to GPS.

For

example, 75% of iPhone devices use WiFi geolocation and not GPS to locate the device.

In 2006, indoorLBS.com produced the highly anticipated and groundbreaking book on indoor LBS,

Local Positioning Systems: LBS Applications and Services.


http://www.ind
oorlbs.com/



InLocality

http://www.inlocality.com/