Agricultural Practices, Katy and Rachael 97-03

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Dec 4, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Agricultural Practices:

Andhra Pradesh, India

Source: http://www.e
-
greenstar.com/India/Andhra
-
Pradesh
-
info.htm


Sustainable Watershed Management in Developing Countries

Andhra Pradesh: Agriculture



Why is agriculture important in Andhra Pradesh?


How does this compare to the US?


Andhra Pradesh: Agriculture


Farming is the main occupation and
major source of income


70% of the population depends on
farming


Largest rice
-
producing state in India


Referred to as “The Rice Bowl of India”

Source:
http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http
://www.hybridriceindia.org/images/whathybrid
.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.hybridriceindia.org/
whathybrid.htm&usg=__jaXPNM8c6y7MI3Xp
9WuBF_28HSU=&h=418&w=614&sz=130&hl
=en&start=1&um=1&tbnid=cGFlbBaSDp8MA
M:&tbnh=93&tbnw=136&prev=/images%3Fq
%3Drice%2Bcrop%26hl%3Den%26client%3
Dfirefox
-
a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en
-
US:official%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1


What percentage of the United States
population is involved in agriculture?


How does this compare to Andhra Pradesh?

Source: http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://ecoki.com/wp
-
content/uploads/organic
-
farm.jpg&imgrefurl=http://ecoki.com/o
rganic
-
farming
-
survey/&usg=__0zoozCrxtrinCeflXjM8KQgzHmc=&h=493&w=657&sz=360&hl=en&start=129&um=1&tbnid=cIVnWZVzMgyxoM:&tbnh=104&tbnw=138&pr
ev=
/images
%3Fq%3Dagriculture%2BUS%26ndsp%3D21%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox
-
a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en
-
US:official%26sa%3DN%26start%3D126%26u
m%3D1



0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
Percent Population

Labor Force by Occupation in India and the US

India
US
Source: http://i.biblio.com/i/en/biblio_usIM_final.gif

Source:
http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://img.alibaba.com/photo/100672242/Wheat_Flour.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.ichatcatering
.co
m/uncategorized/284/wheat&h
=300&w=400&sz=39&tbnid=YPApW0ifSXdJQM:&tbnh=93&tbnw=124&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dwheat&usg=__QBuZ6zrep66pOL0If9Og4ABt9Mo=&ei=5oVoSo
TKL
5P
6MeykkdAM&sa=X&oi=image_result&resnum=4&ct=image



Source: http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/57/India
-
locator
-
map
-
blank.
svg/300px
-
India
-
locator
-
map
-
blank.svg.png&imgrefurl=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kamet&usg=__lr3WUPWQzaGyjIEt96imje0
-
pT4=&h=350&w=300&sz=34&hl=en&start=80&um=1&tbnid=AYApei8XdSdzyM:&tbnh=120&tbnw=103&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dindia%2Bsimple%2Bcolore
d%2
Bmap
%26ndsp%3D21%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox
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a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en
-
US:official%26sa%3DN%26start%3D63%26um%3D1

India’s Environment

What is the climate like in India?


What are India’s growing seasons?

The Role of Climate in India


The majority of Andhra
Pradesh is ‘tropical wet & dry,’
which is suitable for high crop
productivity


Part of the state is ‘semi
-
arid’
and does not have the best
growing conditions


Cropping practices in the
‘semi
-
arid’ region differ from
those in the ‘tropical wet &
dry’ area, as farmers face
varying challenges

Source: http://cee45q.stanford.edu/2003/briefing_book/images/india_climate_map.jpg

India’s Tropical Wet & Dry Region


Winter and early summer
are long, dry periods with
temperatures averaging
above 18⁰
C

(64⁰F)


Summer is exceptionally
hot; temperatures may
exceed 50⁰
C

(122⁰F)
during May


Rainy season lasts from
June
-
September


Annual rainfall averages
750
-
1,500mm (30
-
59in)

India’s Semi
-
arid Region


Drought
-
prone due to sporadic lateness or failure
of the southwest monsoon


Significant post
-
monsoon rainfall occurs in October
and November


December is the coldest month, with temperatures
averaging between 20
-
25⁰
C

(68
-
75⁰F)


March
-
May are hot and


dry with 320mm (12in)


precipitation


Annual rainfall averages


450
-
700mm (16
-
30in)

India’s Seasons

Winter: December
-
February

Summer: March
-
May

Monsoon: June
-
late September

Post
-
monsoon: Late September
-
November

Source:
http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://images.travelpod.com/users/indianature/11.1226624100.post
-
monsoon
-
scene.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.travelpod.com/travel
-
blog
-
entries/indianature/11/1226624100/tpod.html&usg=__iYDNHB6GVYgZfmR7F5XD1dfrGf0=&h=413&w=550&s
z=132&hl=en&start=98&um=1&tbnid=97fWPM4vChLktM:&tbnh=100&tbnw=133&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmo
nsoon%2Beastern%2Bindia%2Bandhra%2Bpradesh%26ndsp%3D21%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox
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a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en
-
US:official%26sa%3DN%26start%3D84%26um%3D1

Growing Seasons in India


Different from the 4 regular seasons


Two major cropping seasons


Kharif


Rabi


Third cropping season


based on monsoons


and availability of water


from manmade sources


Zaid

Kharif
(means “Autumn” in Arabic)


June
-
December


Lands are plowed during April and May


Sowing is done with the onset of the monsoon in June


Crops are harvested in November
-
December


Irrigation is required whenever possible


Major crops:


Rice


Corn


Groundnut


Cotton


Millets



Source: http://www.hindustantimes.com/Images/2007/6/b3f09d21
-
16a7
-
48ee
-
8b3d
-
46900c0fe57dHiRes.JPG

Rabi
(means “Spring” in Arabic)


October
-
March


Lands are plowed and sown during October and
November


Crops are harvested in January
-
March


Crops are rain
-
fed, but irrigation is used whenever
possible


Major crops:


Jowar


Wheat


Gram



Source:
http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.hindu.com/2008/01/14/images/2008011456310501.j
pg&imgrefurl=http://www.hindu.com/2008/01/14/stories/2008011456310500.htm&usg=__K1ID3ZP8zsOrg
MxbwI2XQjhaHIY=&h=148&w=227&sz=22&hl=en&start=15&um=1&tbnid=aHgxAcxy5otygM:&tbnh=70&t
bnw=108&prev=/images%3Fq%3Drabi%2Bandhra%2Bpradesh%2Bjowar%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfire
fox
-
a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en
-
US:official%26sa%3DG%26um%3D1

Zaid
(means “Abundance” in Arabic)


March
-
June


Preparatory tillage and sowing are completed in
March
-
April


Irrigation is necessary


Major crops:


Cotton


Corn


Groundnut

What type of crops are grown in Andhra
Pradesh?

Source: http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/clothing/pictures/cotton.jpg

Source:
http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://weblogs.newsday.com/sports/columnists/jimbaumbach/blog/thai_jasmine_ri
ce.jpg&imgrefurl=http://weblogs.newsday.com/sports/columnists/jimbaumbach/blog/baseball/&usg=__V
-
s2mq0SSTLeX4ehPgRatuljiYg=&h=375&w=500&sz=65&hl=en&start=9&um=1&tbnid=Lis3RHSpe70XeM:&tbnh=98&tbnw=
130&prev=/images%3Fq%3Drice%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox
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a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en
-
US:official%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1

Major Crops in Andhra Pradesh


Sugarcane


Rice


Corn


Cotton


Banana


Groundnut

Sugarcane


Perennial grass


Cultivated for its juice, from
which sugar is processed


Grown in subtropical and
tropical areas


Grown in red volcanic soils and
alluvial soils of rivers


Needs 2,000
-
2,300mm (78
-
90in) of rain

Source:
http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://img492.imageshack.us/img
492/3024/sugarcane1fa.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.chhavisachdev.com/ta
g/sugarcane/&h=600&w=400&sz=148&tbnid=n0LJGzn1gvzsUM:&tbnh=
135&tbnw=90&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsugarcane&usg=__OrF8TjdJ
-
QxLTFczyf2ZiLT
-
IZQ=&ei=tKdcSq
-
TMIuQNvGIta4C&sa=X&oi=image_result&resnum=6&ct=image

Rice


Annual grass


Edible, starchy cereal grain


About half of the world population
is dependent on rice as a staple
food


Grown on submerged land in the
coastal plains, tidal deltas, and river
basins


Seeds are sown in beds and
transplanted to a field enclosed by
levees and submerged under 50
-
100mm (2
-
4in) of water


Source:
http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://cafnr.missouri.edu/image
s/news/rice
-
bowl.jpg&imgrefurl=http://cafnr.missouri.edu/news/rice.php&usg=__pkM
wV_yGY522tD7nsBQeuaI5SWw=&h=450&w=300&sz=27&hl=en&start=
11&um=1&tbnid=t7dFDyGwNQTnDM:&tbnh=127&tbnw=85&prev=/imag
es%3Fq%3Drice%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox
-
a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en
-
US:official%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1

Corn


Annual grass


Cereal plant with an
edible grain


Used as livestock
feed, human food,
and raw material


One of the world’s
most widely
distributed food
plants


Cotton


Perennial plant


Seed
-
hair fiber


Native to most
subtropical parts of
the world


One of the world’s
leading crops



Source:
http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c6/Cotton_picking_in_In
dia.jpg&imgrefurl=http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cotton_picking_in_India.jpg&usg=__M4T_dvcVzygiYxrEC
fYLT5hQVn0=&h=465&w=698&sz=550&hl=en&start=3&um=1&tbnid=ZuQseOQp24F0NM:&tbnh=93&tbnw=139&pr
ev=/images%3Fq%3Dcotton%2Bindia%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox
-
a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en
-
US:official%26sa%3DG%26um%3D1

Banana


Fruit valued for its flavor,
nutritional value, and
availability throughout
the year


Thrives on deep, loose,
well
-
drained soils in
humid tropical climates


One of the most
important food crops in
the world

Source: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/51297/banana

Groundnut (Peanut)


Annual legume


Important cash crop


Seeds are a rich source of
edible oil and protein


2/3 of world production is
crushed for oil and the
remaining 1/3 is
consumed as food

Source: http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://product
-
image.tradeindia.com/00237523/b/0/Groundnut.jpg&imgrefurl=http://siddharthind.tradeindia.
com/Exporters_Suppliers/Exporter15772.237523/Groundnut.html&usg=__u8SJHMnNCz_W
xFIm11vAWTAbh6E=&h=450&w=450&sz=177&hl=en&start=10&um=1&tbnid=kB5XGr0dZH
ofYM:&tbnh=127&tbnw=127&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dgroundnut%2Bindia%26hl%3Den%26
client%3Dfirefox
-
a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en
-
US:official%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1

Major Crops

0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
Sugarcane
Rice
Corn
Cotton
Banana
Groundnut
Production (in 100,000 tonnes)

Crop

Production of Principal Crops in 2005
-
2006

Minor Crops

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Production (in 100,000 tonnes)

Crop

Production of Minor Crops in 2005
-
2006

Other Minor Crops


Bajra

(pearl

millet)


Ragi

(finger

millet)


Dry

ginger


Potato


Sesamum


Small

millets


Horse

gram


Coriander


Wheat



Sweet

potato


Safflower


Other

Rabi

pulses


Niger

seed


Other

Kharif

pulses


Rapeseed

&

mustard


Linseed


Arecan



Less than 1 lakh tonne of the following
crops were also produced:

Source:
http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=
http://sunshineexim.co.in/images/bajra.jp
g&imgrefurl=http://sunshineexim.co.in/sh
owHerbs.asp%3Fcate%3DGrains%26id
%3DGRA
-
008&usg=__vXm1ffLU
-
bJoEXde7LMb9HIq7W8=&h=300&w=400
&sz=31&hl=en&start=1&um=1&tbnid=Gs
WXYx7EjkocKM:&tbnh=93&tbnw=124&pr
ev=/images%3Fq%3Dbajra%26hl%3Den
%26client%3Dfirefox
-
a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en
-
US:official%26hs%3Di9p%26sa%3DN%2
6um%3D1

Cash Crops in India


Crops grown solely for sale rather
than the farmer’s own use


Tobacco


Cotton


Chillies


Castor seed


Many developing world countries
grow cash crops to meet their
debt repayments rather than
grow food for their own people


Major Crops in India and the US

Now we know what crops are grown in Andhra
Pradesh…


How does this compare to what’s grown in the
US?


More specifically, how does this compare to
the Chesapeake Bay Watershed area?

Major Crops in the United States

Area of Major Crops in the United
States (ha)

Corn
Cotton
Sorghum
Wheat
Hay
Soybeans
Source:
http://www.worldcommunitycookbook.org/season/guide/photos/corn.jpg

Source: http://www.kyagr.com/kyproud/images/edamame.jpg

Chesapeake Bay Watershed, U.S.

Source: http://www.agcensus.usda.gov/Publications/2007/Online_Highlights/Watersheds/ma02.pdf

Source:
http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.pserie.psu.edu/seagra
nt/ais/images/figure1_big.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.pserie.psu.edu/seagr
ant/ais/watershed/chesapeake.htm&h=444&w=341&sz=25&tbnid=xOLoy
jLV1qPJXM:&tbnh=127&tbnw=98&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dchesapeake
%2Bbay%2Bwatershed&usg=__xD5xCRkNdR2vwpLobBtpBdwGvsg=&e
i=GshUSrWMOo3PlAf39tHrCA&sa=X&oi=image_result&resnum=2&ct=i
mage


Comparison: Andhra Pradesh vs.
Chesapeake Bay Watershed

Corn
Small grains
Vegetables and melons
Fruit and tree nuts
Nursery, greenhouse, floriculture, and sod
Soybeans
Area of Major Crops in the
Chesapeake Bay Watershed (ha)

Area of Major Crops in Andhra
Pradesh (ha)

Corn
Cotton
Sugarcane
Rice
Banana
Groundnut
Cropping Practices in Andhra Pradesh

Now we know
what

is grown in Andhra Pradesh…


But
how

are crops grown? What are cropping
practices in Andhra Pradesh?


What are some problems associated with these
cropping practices?


What solutions does the International Crops Research
Institute for the Semi
-
Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)
propose to these problems and what are their
benefits?

Agricultural Practices


Zero Tillage


Retaining Groundwater


Nutrient Management


Pest Management

Source:
http://images.google.com/imgre
s?imgurl=http://www.cimmyt.or
g/whatiscimmyt/AR00_2001/asi
a/zerotillage/paki_zertill.jpg&im
grefurl=http://www.cimmyt.org/
whatiscimmyt/AR00_2001/asia/
zerotillage/zerotillage.htm&usg=
__7LZ_UvfKHme5cjgeK5DtfdrN
F1g=&h=286&w=200&sz=14&hl
=en&start=21&um=1&tbnid=By
0Gx8mgk45axM:&tbnh=115&tb
nw=80&prev=/images%3Fq%3
Dzero%2Btillage%26hl%3Den
%26client%3Dfirefox
-
a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en
-
US:official%26sa%3DN%26um
%3D1

Source: http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.ppi
-
ppic.org/far/farguide.nsf/%24webindex/06D73A4A098E67CA48256FBD0020303D/%24file/cover.jpg&im
grefurl=http://www.ppi
-
ppic.org/far/farguide.nsf/%24webindex/article%3D098E67CA48256FBD0020303D06D73A4A!opendocu
ment&usg=___eDHYe4X4vc3A63YrBIq4uR6fmY=&h=399&w=600&sz=103&hl=en&start=13&um=1&tb
nid=zhynfI6VwLYmQM:&tbnh=90&tbnw=135&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dnutrient%2Bmanagement%2Bin
%2Bindia%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox
-
a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en
-
US:official%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1

Zero Tillage


Problem: Inadequate management of soil has
resulted in declining fertility, erosion, and
reduced crop yields


ICRISAT’s solution: zero tillage

Zero Tillage: Process


Crop residues are distributed
evenly and left on the soil
surface


No implements are used to
turn the soil over, cultivate it,
or incorporate crop residues


Weeds and/or purpose
-
planted cover crops are
controlled by a pre
-
planting
application of a non
-
pollutant
desiccant herbicide


Source:
http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=
http://i.treehugger.com/images/2007
-
2
-
15/zero%2520tillage%2520planter.jpg&i
mgrefurl=http://www.treehugger.com/files
/2007/02/zerotill_brazil.php&usg=__sBev
27Nc6
-
xrmAYohZ7BtKsE3eo=&h=227&w=287&
sz=30&hl=en&start=1&um=1&tbnid=U4R
q12u9VNsHNM:&tbnh=91&tbnw=115&pr
ev=/images%3Fq%3Dzero%2Btillage%2
6hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox
-
a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en
-
US:official%26sa%3DX%26um%3D1

Zero Tillage: Process (continued)


A specialized planter or drill cuts through
the desiccated cover and residues
accumulated on the soil surface, slotting
seed (and fertilizer) into the soil with
minimum disturbance


Subsequent weed control is carried out
with some pre
-

but mostly post
-
emergent
herbicides which are also used in
conventional tillage


Crop rotation is fundamental to Zero
Tillage, since this promotes adequate
biomass levels for permanent mulch cover;
it also assists in the control of weeds, pests
and diseases, as well as in improving the
physical condition of the soil


Source:
http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.abc.net.au/reslib/200904/
r357316_1644923.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.abc.net.au/rural/content/2008/s25
32337.htm&usg=__Iq8CQ
-
BcEBVlDoEApkWYMhSSnBk=&h=400&w=600&sz=49&hl=en&start=14&um=1
&tbnid=PQN65Jj3Kfz37M:&tbnh=90&tbnw=135&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dzero
%2Btillage%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox
-
a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en
-
US:official%26sa%3DX%26um%3D1

Benefits of Zero Tillage

Source:
http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.fao.
org/DOCREP/004/Y2638E/y2638e02.jpg&imgrefurl=http:
//www.fao.org/DOCREP/004/Y2638E/y2638e04.htm&usg
=__ttmVv0BuCUncjpIMVqhz5JRmti4=&h=271&w=400&s
z=18&hl=en&start=17&um=1&tbnid=pK2GVHTSABJXO
M:&tbnh=84&tbnw=124&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dzero%2
Btillage%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox
-
a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en
-
US:official%26sa%3DX%26um%3D1

“…more tillage causes more erosion and soil
degradation, especially in warmer areas where the
topsoil layer is thin. In fact, soils in tropical
countries generally do not need to be tilled. The
most desirable form of tillage is to leave a
protective blanket of leaves, stems and stalks from
previous crop on the surface. Zero tillage systems
provide higher yields at less cost and also save on
fuel use and tractor wear and tear.”

José Benites,
AG’s and Plant Nutrition Management Service


“My total yield every
season has increased
by at least 20 percent,
and it saves me so
much money…All my
neighboring farmers
have seen this and also
have begun to use it.”

Arun Bhaku,
Uttaranchal, India


Benefits of Zero Tillage


Get yield at least two or three
weeks in advance


Saves money and time for
cultivation


Reduces tractor fuel use by 75%


Reduces water use by 50%


Farmers save at least $65 per
hectare in production costs


Soil erosion is reduced by about
90%


Soil biological activity and bio
-
diversity are maximized



Source:
http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.usaid.gov/
stories/images/ss_in_zerotill.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.usaid.g
ov/stories/india/ss_in_zerotill.html&usg=__g_b6XceeRzOfEIoE
tmSRGfG17vs=&h=341&w=250&sz=32&hl=en&start=13&um=
1&tbnid=5Fa_YszCOwut_M:&tbnh=120&tbnw=88&prev=/imag
es%3Fq%3Dzero%2Btillage%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox
-
a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en
-
US:official%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1

Retaining Groundwater


Problem: Water availability is declining as
groundwater levels drop, leaving little water
for irrigation


ICRISAT’s solution: retaining groundwater and
reducing runoff by increasing the percolation
of rainwater to recharge groundwater

Declining Water Availability


Irrigation was emphasized during the Green
Revolution, and now accounts for over 80% of
India’s water consumption


Ground water is diminishing, and the
productivity gains in cereal production
achieved in certain areas during the Green
Revolution are now showing signs of decline or
stagnation


Reema, The Langarhall

Content source: Shiferaw, et. al., ICRISAT Working Paper Series no. 17

Declining Water Availability


Projections indicate declining trends in
irrigation investments and growth
rates for areas under irrigated
agriculture


Reasons: high costs of new water
development, inter
-
sectoral




competition for water,



environmental degradation


Growth opportunities in more
favorable zones are exhausted, and
the need to improve the productivity
of less
-
favored regions is increasingly
important…



Content source: Shiferaw, et. al., ICRISAT Working Paper Series no. 17

Declining Water Availability


Why is groundwater important?


43% of crop lands are under irrigation


Irrigation contributes to 66% of agricultural
output



Retaining Groundwater


Watershed development as a
means to increase groundwater
availability


Proposed as a viable strategy for
improving productivity in
drought
-
prone and water
-
scarce
rain
-
fed areas


Studies have been conducted by
government organizations, as well
as NGOs (for example, ICRISAT)

Content source: Shiferaw, et. al., ICRISAT Working Paper Series no. 17

Retaining Groundwater


Methods of retaining groundwater/reducing
runoff water by increasing the percolation of
rainwater to recharge groundwater:


Check dams


Percolation tanks


Ponds


Water
-
harvesting structures


Soil
-
conservation (harvesting)

techniques

Content source: Shiferaw, et. al., ICRISAT Working Paper Series no. 17

Benefits of Retaining Groundwater


The depth of groundwater in wells is the
most widely used parameter for estimating
the level and ability of groundwater

Although
groundwater
levels continue to
diminish, treated
watersheds show
higher
groundwater
levels than
untreated
watersheds

Content source: Shiferaw, et. al., ICRISAT Working Paper Series no. 17

Multimedia: NPR Clips


India’s Farming ‘Revolution’ Heading for
Collapse:
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.ph
p?storyId=102893816


‘Green Revolution’ Trapping India’s Farmers in
Debt:


http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.ph
p?storyId=102944731


Nutrient Management


Problem: Increased use of chemical fertilizer as
a source of major nutrients, combined with the
declining use of organic sources of nutrients
over time, has led to a deficiency of nutrients
in soils


ICRISAT’s solution: Nutrient Management to
increase soil nutrients

Nutrient Management:

Macro and Micro Nutrients


Plants require both
macro
nutrients
and
micro
nutrients for proper


growth and development


Most farmers in India only


apply fertilizers that supply
macronutrients


Micronutrient deficiencies in crops
result in poor soil fertility and
therefore negatively affect growth

Benefits of Nutrient Management:

Macro and Micro Nutrients


A study compared a control group, which
consisted of crops with farmers’ nutrient inputs,
with a treatment group, which consisted of crops
treated with micronutrients


30 kg S/ha, 0.5 kg B/ha,


and 10 kg Zn/ha were


applied to the treatment


group


All of the treated crops


produced higher yields

Nutrient Management: Groundnut
(Peanut) Shell Manure (GSM)


Groundnut shells are spread under
cattle as bedding


Shells become soaked with urine
and mixed with dung


Manure is removed, heaped, and
allowed to decompose for 2 months


Manure is spread in fields before
preparatory cultivation

Source:
http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://img.21food.com/userImages/rainbowexports/rainbowexports%241214133
59.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.21food.com/product/search.jsp%3Fcat1%3D1029%26country%3DIndia&usg=__N3yVn4_O
X8LCH53M00FDJ0QKQNE=&h=456&w=600&sz=48&hl=en&start=1&um=1&tbnid=ytfFfhqMQxVXMM:&tbnh=103&tbnw=
135&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dgroundnut%2Bshell%2Bmanure%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox
-
a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en
-
US:official%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1

Benefits of GSM


Shells kept floor of cattle
sheds dry, which led to
better hygienic conditions


Farmers reaped a better
harvest


Soil structure and water
holding capacity
improved


Application of groundnuts
loosened the soil, which
made weeding and
harvesting easier


Nitrogen was conserved

Source:
http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.kvkkarad.com/About%2520U
s/gai%2520gotha.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.kvkkarad.com/About%2520Us/About
%2520KGT%2520Trust.htm&usg=__dzrf8ag7utb4FGutwFsRDYaZ0ds=&h=427&
w=624&sz=52&hl=en&start=1&um=1&tbnid=nEIYSv58vtnFrM:&tbnh=93&tbnw=13
6&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dcattle%2Bshed%2Bin%2Bindia%26hl%3Den%26client
%3Dfirefox
-
a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en
-
US:official%26sa%3DG%26um%3D1

Benefits of GSM


No significant
improvement
after using GSM
for one year


Significant
improvement in
available Nitrogen
after 4 years


Significant
improvement in
pod yields after 4
years


Source
of
Soil samples

Organic
Carbon
(%)

Available
Nitrogen
(kg ha)

Available
Phosphorus
(kg ha)

Available
Potassium
(kg ha)

Pod
Yields
(kg ha)

Untreated
(Groundnut
shells not
applied)


0.30


180


18.5


120


400

Soil
application
of
groundnut
shell manure
for 1 year



0.35



190



25



140



450

Soil
application
of
groundnut
shell manure
for 4 years



0.4



230



27



156



600

Pest Management


Problem: Past use of pesticides was
detrimental due to:


Resistance to insecticides


Harmful residues in food products


Resurgence of secondary pests


Increasing dependence on chemicals


ICRISAT’s solution: Use of pest management
techniques to develop eco
-
friendly
alternatives to chemicals



Pest Management: Methods


Use of pheromone traps to
manage insect pests


Use of
biopesticides

(insect
pathogens such as nuclear
polyhedrosis

virus, bacteria and
fungi)


Shaking of pigeon pea plants


Pest tolerant crop varieties


Plant
-
based pesticides


Bird perches

Benefits of Pest Management

Results:


Pigeonpea
: 27% less pod damage in BIPM
plots compared to non
-
IPM techniques


Chickpea: the use of BIPM and an
improved variety led to an over 300%
increase in yield compared to non
-
IPM
fields


Cotton: BIPM fields on average yielded
30% more than non
-
IPM fields, and
farmers using BIPM saved an average of
3,800 Rupees (US $106) per hectare

Content source: Rao et. al.,
Pesticide News

No. 76, 2007

Bt Cotton


Genetically modified
cotton


Bt,
Bacillus thuringiensis,

kills the American
bollworm, a moth larva
that devours cotton


Many pros and cons


Source:
http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.wellnessuncove
red.com/joomla/images/stories/cotton.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.well
nessuncovered.com/joomla/index.php%3Foption%3Dcom_content%
26view%3Darticle%26id%3D113:the
-
devastating
-
effects
-
of
-
gmos
-
on
-
the
-
future
-
of
-
soil%26catid%3D34:articles
-
on
-
gmo
-
safety%26Itemid%3D15&usg=__SZGatKHjYreywGTYZueJ95T1Ru4
=&h=356&w=333&sz=20&hl=en&start=4&um=1&tbnid=fQLaLKea2oj
bPM:&tbnh=121&tbnw=113&prev=/images%3Fq%3DBT%2Bcotton
%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox
-
a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en
-
US:official%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1

Bt Cotton: Pros


Effective method of pest control


Toxins are contained within the plant, and
therefore only insects that feed on the plant
perish


Decreases use of insecticides


Lowers the risk of poisoning people who apply
pesticides or work in the fields


Improves crop yields


Increased profit for farmers


Crops are safe for farmers and


consumers

Source: http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.ens
-
newswire.com/ens/aug2007/20070824_cottonplants.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.ens
-
newswire.com/ens/aug2007/2007
-
08
-
24
-
insdutt.asp&usg=__MuYMdzLMeisRrgcZs172R_2khSo=&h=274&w=300&sz=89&hl=en&start=14&u
m=1&tbnid=pBijMzkhCho1EM:&tbnh=106&tbnw=116&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbt%2Bcotton%26hl
%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox
-
a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en
-
US:official%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1

Bt Cotton: Cons


Seeds are very expensive and cannot be
saved


If yields do not increase, farmers fall into a
cycle of debt


Risk of losing markets if transgenic crops are
not accepted by governments, buyers
and/or consumers


Pests may become resistant if


cross
-
pollination occurs


Risk of losing a valuable pesticide

Source:
http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.hindu.com/2007/02/1
6/images/2007021617501301.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.hindu.com/2007/0
2/16/stories/2007021617501300.htm&usg=__IR9HDm_zTNjAGUi5MlH5E
LH
-
92Q=&h=278&w=350&sz=15&hl=en&start=17&um=1&tbnid=Pb7Fw4V2t5
TLnM:&tbnh=95&tbnw=120&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbt%2Bcotton%26hl%
3Den%26client%3Dfirefox
-
a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en
-
US:official%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1



Multimedia: PBS Video


“The Dying Fields”:


http://www.pbs.org/wnet/wideangle/episode
s/the
-
dying
-
fields/video
-
full
-
episode/1952/