Unit 9

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Nov 29, 2013 (3 years and 19 days ago)

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Unit 9

Construction Materials


Identify the basic components of
concrete


Explain different types of
masonry brick, block, and mortar


Classify wood as hardwood or
softwood



Learning Objectives

page 93

Unit 9

Construction Materials


Describe various types of glass,
plastic, and insulation


Identify symbols representing
materials on a drawing

Learning Objectives
continued

page 93


Recognize different structural
steel shapes

Concrete


one of the oldest building materials


used by the Romans
-

100 B.C.


cement, aggregates, & water

Unit 9

page 93

Concrete


when first mixed it is plastic


hardening caused by chemical
reaction between the cement

when water is added


set in 2
-

12 hours


held in place by forms

Unit 9

page 93

Types of Cement


Portland cement


white


colored


Low heat of hydration


High early strength

Unit 9

page 93

CEMENT TYPES

ASTM C 150


TYPE I


TYPE II


TYPE III


TYPE IV


TYPE V

normal cement

moderate sulfate resistance

high early strength

low heat of hydration

high sulfate resistance

CONCRETE

45%

25%

5%

10%

15%

Proportions

COARSE
AGGREGATE

CEMENT

FINE AGGREGATE

(SAND)

WATER

Mixture

ENTRAINED
+
ENTRAINED

Concrete Mixes


produced to meet a desired
result


mixed by volume with enough
water to make the concrete
flow into the forms


too much water will reduce the
strength of the concrete


water / cement
-

w/c

ratio

Reinforced Concrete


concrete is
great in compressive

strength but very
poor in tensile

strength


reinforcing steel overcomes the
weak tensile strength


bars with deformation


bars are placed prior to the
concrete being placed

Unit 9

page 94

Reinforced Concrete

Concrete Construction


Precast
-

cast at factory


Cast
-
in
-
Place
-

cast at job site


Prestressed


Pretensioned

-

prior to placing
concrete


Posttensioned

-

after placing
concrete

Unit 9

pages 94
-
95

Posttensioning

Masonry


building modular units


brick


tile


glass


gypsum


stone
-

not always modular

Unit 9

page 95

Stone Masonry


granite


limestone


marble


sandstone


fieldstone


slate


cut stone
-

removed from
quarry

Unit 9

page 96

Brick Masonry


adobe


kiln
-
burned


sand
-
lime


concrete


building brick


face brick


glazed brick


fire brick


paving brick

Unit 9

page 96

Mortar


Type M



high compressive good durability


Type S



high strength, strong bond


Type N


medium strength, general use


Type O


low strength, interior use


Type K


very low strength, interior use

Unit 9

page 96

Structural Clay Tile


open cell


various sizes & shapes


load
-
bearing


backup for curtain walls


fireproofing around structural
steel


Unit 9

page 97

CMU

Concrete Masonry Units


widely used in building
construction


made of cement, sand, gravel
expanded shale, & pumice


various size & shapes


7 5/8”x7 5/8”x15 5/8”

actual size


add
3/8”

mortar joint
8”x8”x16


Unit 9

page 97

Gypsum Blocks


made of gypsum & a binder of
vegetable fiber or wood chips


interior nonbearing walls


fire
-
resistant partitions


face size of 12” x 30” & come in
thickness of 2”, 3”, 4”, & 6”


Unit 9

page 97

Gypsum Wall Board & Plaster


made of
air
-
entrained gypsum

between
two layers

of treated
paper


typical size 4’ x 8’ sheets

Unit 9

pages 97
-
98

Wood Products


chief building material used
today


wood classifications


hardwoods


softwoods

Unit 9

page 98

Hardwoods


ash


ash
-
white


beech


birch


cherry


elm


gum


hickory


mahogany


maple


oak


walnut

Unit 9

page 98

Softwoods


cypress


fir, douglas


fir, white


hemlock


pine,
ponderosa


pine, southern


pine, white


poplar, yellow


red cedar, eastern


red cedar, western


redwood


spruce

Unit 9

page 98

Lumber


lumber is classified

rough
-
sawn
or
surfaced
to be sized

Unit 9

page 98



rough
-
sawn

has been
cut to
rough size

but
not dressed

or
surfaced


Lumber
continued


lumber is classified

rough
-
sawn
or
surfaced
to be sized

Unit 9

page 98



surfaced lumber

has been
dressed or
finished to size

by
running through a planer


S2S, S4S

refers to number of
sides finished

Plywood


made of
several layers

with
grain @
right angles

on each
layer


odd

number are glued to make
faces run in same direction


panels are finished to
1/8”

to
over
1”

in thickness


typically
4’ x 8’

panels

Unit 9

page 98

Plywood


interior plywood


water
-
resistant glue


cabinets, interior flooring


exterior plywood


waterproof glue


exterior wall sheathing


roof sheathing


concrete forms

Unit 9

page 98

Glue
-
Laminated Timber


bonding layers of lumber with
adhesives


wood beams


arches


many sizes


prefabricated at factory

Unit 9

page 98

Glue
-
Laminated Timber

Unit 9

page 98

Figure 9
-

6

Metal Products


used extensively in construction


structural steel


metal windows


doors


metal studs


look around

Unit 9

page 99

Structural Steel


is a term applied to
hot
-
rolled

steel sections, shapes, & plates


formed by hot steel strips
(billets,
blooms, &/or slabs)


run through
succession of rollers
,
gradually forming the shape


see Figure 9
-
7


available in many sizes & shapes

Unit 9

page 99

Structural Steel

typical designations



for wide flange


W12x16
-

indicates a beam 12”
deep that weighs 16#/LF


for angles


L3x3x1/2
-

indicates both legs 3”
by 1/2” thick

Structural Steel

W8x24

indicated by heavy line

Structural Steel

Unit 9

page 100

Figure 9
-

8

Structural Steel

Unit 9

page 100

Figure 9
-

8

Welded Wire Fabric


indicated by
WWF


prefabricated material used
mostly in concrete slabs, floors,
& pipe


consists of a mesh steel wires
welded together


smooth ‘
W
’ or deformed ‘
D


Unit 9

pages 99
-
101

Welded Wire Fabric

designation numbers


6x6
-
W1.4xW1.4

6x6
= wire spacing

W
= smooth wire

1.4
= gage of wire

Unit 9

pages 99
-
101

Welded Wire Fabric

Unit 9

page 102

Figure 9
-

12

Welded Wire Fabric

Unit 9

page 102

Figure 9
-

11

Welded Wire Fabric

slab section

slab chairs

Glass


ceramic material formed at
temperatures above
2300ºF


made from
sand
(silica)
soda

(sodium oxide) and
lime

(calcium
oxide)

Unit 9

pages 101
-
103

Glass

float glass


continuous ribbon of molten glass
flows out of furnace


and floats on a bath of molten tin


fire polished & annealed


90% of the glass is float

Unit 9

pages 101
-
103

Glass


sheet glass

-

window glass


SS

-

single strength 3/32” or 1/8”


DS

-

double strength 3/16”
-

7/16”


plate glass

-

heat treated &
polished


bent glass

-

heated and pressed
over a form

Unit 9

pages 101
-
103

Glass

safety glass



tempered glass

-

heat annealed
glass to near
melting point

&
then
chill rapidly




creating high compression on the
exterior surface & high tension
internally


shatters into small pieces


can not be cut, drilled, or ground

Unit 9

page 102

Glass

safety glass



laminated glass

-

consist of
layers of vinyl between sheets
of glass. . .bonded by heat &
pressure


the glass when struck & broken is
held together by the plastic

Unit 9

pages 102
-
103

Glass

safety glass



wire glass

-

wire mesh molded
into the center


when broken the wire holds the
glass together


can be obtained with etched
finish, sandblasted, or patterned

Unit 9

page 103

Glass


insulated glass

-

glass
separated by an air space that
is dehydrated & sealed.


good insulators against heat or
cold

Unit 9

page 103

Glass


patterned glass

-

sheet glass
with pattern rolled into one or
both sides


used to diffuse light or provide
privacy

Unit 9

page 103

Glass


stained glass

-

sometimes
called art or cathedral glass


produced by adding metallic
oxides to the glass while in its
molten state


cut to design & leaded together to
create stained glass windows

Unit 9

page 103

Ceramic Tile


ceramic tile

-

used on floors &
walls


glazed or unglazed


mosaic tile

-

used to make
design & patterns


quarry tile

-

wear resistant


fired
-
clay tile

-

used for floor
coverings

Unit 9

page 103

Ceramic Tile

tiles are set in


portland cement


latex adhesives


epoxy mortar

joints between tiles


grouted with mortar


may vary in color

Unit 9

page 103

Plastics


have many uses


counter tops


door veneer


texture on surfaces


gutters


pipes

Unit 9

page 103

Insulation


used to reduce heat transmission


R
-
value


resistance to heat transfer


flexible


loose
-
fill


reflective


rigid


structural


nonstructural

Unit 9

pages 103
-

104

Insulation

Unit 9

pages 103
-

104

Material Symbols

Unit 9

page 105

Figure 9
-

15

Material Symbols

Unit 9

page 105

Figure 9
-

15

Test Your Knowledge


take 10 minutes to complete the
test on
page 106

END OF UNIT 9