Ravenstein's Laws of Migration - Crescent School

concretecakeUrban and Civil

Nov 29, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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Chapter 3

“Migration”

Relocation Diffusion
: Spread of characteristics
through the bodily movement of people from
place to place.

Migration
: Permanent move to a new location.


Immigration
: to a location


Emigration
: from a location


Net Migration
=Immigration
-
Emigration



Immigration by Country

Define the following:


Human Mobility
-

Circulation, Migration


Place Perception
-



Distance Decay
-



Space Time Compression


we have seen this
before


Gravity Model
-



Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration
-


Distance Decay

Discuss the above graph!

One important aspect of the movement of people is
Spatial Interaction
.


Spatial Interaction decreases with distance
-

distance decay


With improved communication and transportation
this is now changing
-

space time compression


Migrants move in well defined channels from origin
to destination
-

migration stream.
People tell people
-

migration chain.







Gravity Model


mathematical prediction of the
‘strength’ of spatial interaction between places




Spatial interaction (such as migration, trade,
communication, commuting, shopping etc.)
is directly related to the populations and
inversely related to the distance between
them in other words spatial interaction
decreases with distance


In mathematical terms: Interaction is
proportional to the multiplication of the two
populations divided by the distance between
them

Gravity Model:

I
k
P
P
d
ij
i
j
ij


Distance and Size of places are taken into account.

I
ij

=

predicted interaction between origin
i

and destination
j
.


k

=

factor scales the “relative” levels of interaction. Phone

calls → high value, Air travel → med. value and

Migrants → low value


Sometimes used as a scaling constant to adjust certain

characteristics like: time (one week/one year), climate,

landforms, borders etc.
b
below can also be used to

adjust.


P
i

=

a measure of size, usually population, for origin
I


P
j

=

a measure of size, usually population, for destination
j


dij

=

distance between origin
i

and destination
j


β

=

an exponent that adjusts the rate of decay unique to

the type of interaction


sometimes called a “transport

constant “


the efficiency of the transport system

between the two the two locations. A highway will

have a weak value whereas a road will have a high

value or are you measuring the movement of goods

or the movement of information


Lee’s Model of Migration
:


Draw this into your notes and we will fill it in together!

Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration

Ernst Ravenstein


1885 (British)

1.
The majority of migrants move a short
distance.

2.
Migrants who move longer distances tend to
choose big
-
cities.

3.
Urban residents are less migratory than
inhabitants of rural areas.

4.
Each movement produces a compensating
counter movement in the opposite direction.

5.
Males migrate more over long distances and
females migrate more over short distances.


6.
Families are less likely to make
international moves than young adults.

7.

People mainly move for economic reasons

8.
Urban housing development is inadequate
for the influx of migrants in LDC’s thus
ghettoes/shanties are formed.

9.
Most migrants are between the ages of
20
-
34

10.

Migrants move in well defined channels
from origin to destination


called a
migration stream
. Migrates will tell other
people creating a
migration chain

and
sometimes migrates change their minds
and go back


migration counter stream.

The next few slides illustrate Canadian
Migration over time. Let’s analyze these
stats and try to determine the titles for
some.

Canada

U.S.A.

Vancouver by Source Area



What do you think Toronto’s would look like?

Ten Leading Source Countries of Immigrants to Canada

1951

1960

1968

1973

Britain

Italy

Britain

Britain

Germany

Britain

United States

United States

Italy

United States

Italy

Hong Kong

Netherlands

Germany

Germany

Portugal

Poland

Netherlands

Hong Kong

Jamaica

France

Portugal

France

India

United States

Greece

Austria

Philippines

Belgium

France

Greece

Greece

Yugoslavia

Poland

Portugal

Italy

Denmark

Austria

Yugoslavia

Trinidad



Source: The Immigration Program. Ottawa: Manpower and Immigration, 1974.

Note the changes through time!

COUNTRY


2000



2001



2002


Num.

Rank

Num.

Rank

Num.

Rank

China,
People's

Republic of

36,716

1

40,315

1

33,231

1

India

26,088

2

27,848

2

28,815

2

Pakistan

14,184

3

15,341

3

14,164

3

Philippines

10,088

4

12,914

4

11,000

4

Iran

5,608

8

5,737

7

7,742

5

Korea, Republic of

7,629

5

9,604

5

7,326

6

Romania

4,425

11

5,585

8

5,692

7

United States

5,815

7

5,902

6

5,288

8

Sri Lanka

5,841

6

5,514

9

4,961

9

United Kingdom

4,647

10

5,350

10

4,720

10

Yugoslavia

4,723

9

2,788

22

1,620

31

Immigration by Top Ten Source Countries

More Change!

Canada’s immigration policy (multiculturalism
and the point system) will benefit Canada in the
future on 3 very important counts:


1.
Quebec/Canada relationships


2.
Domestic Employment


3.
The Global Economy


Comment on the above statement/hypothesis

What does the above mean?

Do you agree or disagree

A question!

Inter
-
regional

migration in Canada

Major
inter
-
provincial

migration flows 1996
-
2001

“Human Geography: by Paul Knox

Observations?

Can you explain this Net Migration Map of the US?

Intra
-
regional

Migration in the U.S.

Average annual migration among urban, suburban, and rural areas in the U.S. during the
1990s. The largest flow was from central cities to suburbs.

What is Counter
-

Urbanization?

Can you explain this Net Migration Map of the US?

Center of Population in the U.S.

The center of U.S. population has consistently moved westward, with the
population migration west. It has also begun to move southward with
migration to the southern sunbelt.
I could not find Canada’s center of
Population


Where do you think it is?

Migration from Latin America to the U.S.

Mexico has been the largest source of migrants to the U.S., but migrants have also
come from numerous other Latin American nations.

Concrete wall built to separate San
Diego from Tijuana, Mexico (2000)

To try and slow down the massive Mexican
migration into the US.
Maquiladoras

were set up in
Mexico near the US border.

Positive Migration:

-
Quintana Roo

-

Baja


Nord

-

Baja


Sur

-

Chihuahua

-

Mexico


Negative Migration:

-

Distrito Federal

-

Guerrero

-

Zacatecas

-

Oaxaca

-

Veracruz


Hallow
Core

Mexico City

Explain!

Maquiladora

comes from the Spanish word
maquilar meaning "to perform a task for another."
Today, maquiladora refers to a Mexican
corporation, wholly or predominantly owned by
foreigners, which assembles products for export
to the U.S. or other foreign country or Mexico
Market. Foreign corporations wishing to reduce
their manufacturing costs in order to become
more competitive in a global economy, may
achieve this goal by setting up a

Maquiladora
or
Shelter
operations in
Mexico
. This means taking
advantage of a special customs treatment, less
expensive labor costs and lower operating
expenses available in Mexico.

What is a Guest Worker?

Global Migration Patterns

The major flows of migration are from less developed to more developed countries.

Net Migration
(per population)

Net migration per 1,000 population. The U.S. and Canada has the largest number of
immigrants, but other developed countries also have relatively large numbers.

Flow of Refugees


Can you name the Hotspots?

Location of Refugees
-

2000

Observations?

Flow of Refugees


Can you name the Hotspots?

Multi
-
Culturalism

Some final key terms:



Brain Drain


Time Contract Worker


Guest Worker


Transhumance


Inter
-
region


Intra
-
region


Intervening Obstacles


Push/Pull Factors



Vocabulary List

Activity space

Chain migration

Cyclic movement

Distance decay

Forced

Gravity model

Internal migration

Intervening opportunity

Migration patterns


• Intercontinental


• Interregional


• Rural
-
urban


Migratory movement

Periodic movement

Personal space

Place utility

Push
-
pull factors

Refugee

Space
-
time prism

Step migration

Transhumance

Transmigration

Voluntary


The End!