Importance of Materials

concretecakeUrban and Civil

Nov 29, 2013 (3 years and 19 days ago)

49 views

Importance of Materials
Science

12
th

Sept 2007



Engr. Salma Tirmizi


Engr. Mehwish Khan

Institution of Engineers

Contents


Objectives


Materials


What is Materials Science?


Why Materials?


Applications of Materials Science


Properties of Materials


Processing of Materials


Sub
-
fields of Materials Science


Materials Characterization


Objectives


Realization of the Importance of Materials
Science in the present developing era


To spread awareness regarding the innovations
and contributions of Materials world in
revolutionizing Science and Technology


To strengthen the platform for Materials
knowledge and research in Pakistan


Materials

Substances of which something is composed of



Engineering Materials



Materials used to produce technical products


What is Materials Science?


Materials Science

is a scientific discipline
which is primarily concerned with the search
for basic knowledge about the
internal
structure, properties

and
processing

of
materials


History of Materials Science

Classes of Materials

Materials

Non
-
metals

Cast iron

Steels

Ceramics

Polymers

Metals

Ferrous

Non
-
ferrous

Each class has its own properties and
unlimited applications
!

Metals

Ceramics

Composite

Applications of Materials
Science


Aerospace


Automotive


Electronics


Medicine

Applications in Aerospace Industry

Biomaterials

Comparison of Properties

Materials

Density

Strength

Polymers

low

high/very high

Metals

high

high/very high

Ceramics

varies

very high (in compression)

Composites

moderate/

low

very high

in compression+tension

Properties of Materials


High strength


Light weight


Machinability


High Hardness


Corrosion Resistance


Thermal resistance

Parts of a car engine

Possible candidate materials for Pistons are:




Aluminum



Cast Iron



Steels


Aluminum

and
Cast Iron

are preferred mainly
because





They are
light
-
weight
!



They are more
corrosion resistant

!



They are easily
machinable
!



They are
cheap
!

Processing of Materials


Extraction


Shaping


Machining


Heat Treatment


Surface Treatment


Sub
-
fields of Materials Science


Nanotechnology


Crystallography


Materials Characterization


Metallurgy


Biomaterials


Electronic and Magnetic Materials


Surface Science


Tribology


Ceramics and Refractories


Nanotechnology

Interesting features of Nanotech




Increased miniaturization with


enhanced performance



Enhanced Electrical and Optical properties



Materials with greater strength

Nanostructures

Structures having at least one

dimension between 1 and 100nm

Control of matter at the nanoscale

Small things make a
big

difference!!


Crystallography

Atomic


Structure

Single


Crystals

Crystalline

Non
-
crystalline

Polycrystals

Grain boundaries

Grains



Grain Size

is important!



The smaller the grain size, the stronger is the material!

Ferrite Crystal Structure


Pearlite Microstructure


Austenite Crystal Structure


Why Materials Fail?


Process of Fracture



Crack Initiation


Crack Propagation


Fracture

Ductile

Ductile

Brittle

Materials Characterization


Microscopy


Tensile Tests


Hardness Tests


X
-
ray Analysis


Non
-
destructive


Testing


Grain growth pattern

Surface and sub
-
surface

defects

Strength


Crystal structure

Resistance to abrasion

Strength

Compression Test



Ceramics



Concrete

Tensile Test



Metals and Alloys



Polymers



Composites


Thankyou!