Hollow Interlocking Compressed Stablized Earth Block by SQCA

concretecakeUrban and Civil

Nov 29, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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2

Construction Industry
and its Impact to Built
Environment

3

Construction Industry
account for one
-
sixth
of the world's fresh water withdrawals, one
-
quarter of its wood harvest.



The cement sector alone accounts for 5 % of
global man made
CO
2
emissions







4

Construction & Demolition (C&D)
generate between 10% and 40% of the solid
waste stream in most countries (Kibert et al, 2000). C&D wastes can generally
be used for low
-
priority works like footpaths, drains, pavements etc.


Most bonding & drying agents in carpets, veneers, particle board, plywood and
paint emit volatile organic compounds (VOC’s) which contribute to greenhouse
gases and global warming.


Pollution
and Wast
e

Environmental

impacts



Resource depletion


Physical disruption


Chemical pollution


Other effects;


Social disruption,
undesirable visual
impact.


Social impacts




Loss of open space &


biodiversity



Social Isolation



Increased car


dependency



Decreased air quality



Unhealthy indoor


environment

Economic impacts




To Builders:



Increased compliance


costs & waste disposal


costs




To Owners:



Increased utility &


maintenance costs




To Occupiers:



Loss of well being &


productivity




To Society:



Decreased


environmental quality


According

to

the

World

Watch

Institute

about

40
%

of

the

world's

total

energy

usage

is

dedicated

to

the

construction

and

operation

of

buildings
.



The

building

industry

consumes

3

billion

tons

of

raw

materials

annually,

40
%

of

the

total

material

flow

in

the

global

economy
.



Only

about

0
.
003

%

of

earth's

water

is

readily

available

as

fresh

water

for

human

use

(Miller,

1992
)
.

Building

materials

manufacturing,

construction

and

operations

consumes

16
%

of

available

fresh

water

annually



In

1990

the

building

industry

consumed

31
%

of

Global

energy

and

emitted

1900

Megaton's

of

Carbon
.

Towards an innovative &
eco
-
friendly
Construction Industry

7

8

‘Continued ability of a society, an ecosystem, or any such
interactive system to function without exhausting key resources
and without adversely affecting the Environment’


Principles
:


1.
Maximizing

the

use

of

renewable

and

natural

resources
;


2.
Minimizing

the

use

of

energy

and

water
;



GREEN Building

9

Green

building

materials

offer

specific

benefits

to

the

building

owner

and

building

occupants
:





Reduced maintenance/replacement costs over the life of

the building;





Energy conservation and reduce harmful emissions;





Improved occupant health and productivity;





Lower costs associated with changing space

configurations;





Do not exhaust the existing supplies of finite materials;

Green Buildings Materials

10

Underlining Principle:


Assuming

that

all

stages

in

the

life

of

a

material

right

from

extraction,

manufacture,

transportation

to

the

installation,

operation,

maintenance

and

the

recycling

and

waste

management

cause

some

degree

of

Environmental

impact

which

needs

to

be

evaluated
.
-

This

is

called

Life

Cycle

Analysis

(LCA)

for

any

material/product
.

Choosing Building Materials

11

1. CEMENT CONCRETE





Energy Intensive industry




Depletion of natural resources




Green house gas emissions



Characteristics of Sustainable

Managed Alternatives

12

Recommended Alternatives:


1.
Blast furnace Slag Concrete



Using Ground Granulated Blast Furnace slag with
Cement (from steel plants) in mixes

13

Recommended Alternatives:


2.
Using Recycled Aggregates



Crushed Concrete, Bricks and other masonry waste

14

3. Mortars and Plasters:


Basic Mortar used:


1 : 6 (Cement : Sand)


1.
Cement : Lime : Sand (1 : 1 : 6)

15

2.
Lime : rha : Sand (1 : 1 : 1)


rha: Rice husk ash
-

hard protecting coverings of grains of rice (burnt)


16

Our predecessors knew it
better…….


We were much less
resource
dependent in
the past

Looking back to think ahead……………..

17

RAMMED EARTH AND MUD BLOCKS

CONSTRUCTION IN BHUTAN

Earthen
Construction

Technology

A brief History

Tabo Monastery , HP


India , 996 AD

Shey Monastery, Ladakh

17
th

Century

Ramasseum, Egypt

Around 1300BC

Our Very Own

Auroville
-
Earth Institute

Aman, Gangtey

19

Innovative Building Technologies:


Hollow Interlocking
-
Compressed Stabilized Earth Block

(HI
-
CSEB)







20

Innovative Building Technologies:



Machine that produces HI
-
CSEB, developed by
Auroville

Earth Institute, Tamil Nadu, India








Aurum Press 3000

21


HI
-
CSEB




Economical/affordable, environmentally friendly,
easily available, stronger, energy saving and simple to


manufacture



Better Thermal Insulation




Warm in winter and cool in summer



Technical /Engineering Aspects

Block Production

Material selection


Soil Identification


Top soil and soil with organic matter should not be used.


Grain size distribution
-

more of sandy is preferred
.

Gravel (mm)

Sand(mm)

Silt(mm)

Clay(mm)

20 to 2mm

2


0.02

0.02



0.002

0.002
-

0

Some basic test for identifying the suitability of soil



15%gravel, 50%sand, 15% silt, 20%clay

Granularity

(Grain size distribution test)


Compress a moist soil by hand


Difficult to compress


gravely soil


Very easy to compress


Clayey soil

-
Compressibility

(Ease of the soil to be
compressed)


Smells Rotten


lot of humus


Musty


humus


Agreeable smell


no humus
-

suitable for construction

Humus

(presence of organic materials0


Difficult to break


clayey soil


Breaks easily


gravely soil

Plasticity

( Capacity to withstand
deformation)



Wash the hand on which the soil paste was made


Soils grains does not stick on the palm


Gravely soil


Thin film of soil stick on the palm


clayey soil.

Cohesion
(Property of the soil
grains to remain together)

Proportions


Cement : Soil (1 : 6)


Water content = 25 liters for one bag of
cement


Varying the ratio esp. the cement has the
proportionate cost involved


The ratio can go up to 1 cement to 10 soil

24

Same basic data on CSEB

Properties

Values


Dry Compressive

Strength @28days

3


6Mpa (N/
sqmm
)

( +10% after 1 year,
20% after 2years)

Wet compressive strength @28days (3days
immersion)

2


3
Mpa

Dry

bending Strength @28days

0.5


1 Mps

Dry Shear Strength @28days

0.4


0.6Mpa

Density

1700 to 2000kg/cum

Water absorption

@ 28days after 3 days
immersion


8 to

12 % by weight

Energy

Consumption

110MJ

( Kiln fired bricks = 539MJ)

Comparison with other building blocks

Properties


CSEB (HI
-

245)

Ordinary

class III
brick

Concrete hollow

blocks

Size

245x 245 x 95

195 x 95

x 75

390 x 190 x 190

Weight


8kg

3kg

16kg

Compressive
strength (28days)

30


60kg/
cmsq

35kg/
cmsq

45kg/
cmsq
(approx)

Cost (Nu.)

13

per block ( 1:6
mix ratio)


11 per brick

@
Thimphu

38.00

per block @
Thimphu

For a 250mm thick 1msq wall in a load bearing building @ Thimphu

Block

Numbers

Cost(Nu)

HI

-

CSEB

40(Approx)

520

Ordinary second class brick

166(approx)

1496.00

Hollow

concrete Block

19.5(approx)

741

Block production machines

Two Machines in the market


1)
HI


CSEB Block machine


Habitech

centre, Thailand




2)
AURUM PRESS 3000


Auroville,India



Designer/

manufacturer

Auroville

Earth institute/
Aureka
,

Cost of Press

Rs 69,800.00

Cost

of Mould ( 1 set)

Rs 41,500.00

Max Blocks

size


245 x 245 x 95

Compression

force

150KN(

15 tones)

Production

capacity per
day with 7 workers

500 Blocks (average)

Designer/

manufacturer

Habitat centre , Bangkok

Cost of Press


73,500.00 (Nu) 2008 rate

Cost

of Mould ( 1 set)


-


Max Blocks size


300 x 150 x 95

Production capacity per day
( 6
-

7 workers)


500 average

Pilot House Construction


SQCA using HI


CSEB 245


Two storied load bearing structures
-

serve as model
for the earthquake resistant design features



Sample Blocks test results



Soil sample source


Average Compressive

Strength

Proposed construction

site (1:8 mix
ratio




22 kg/
cmsq

Buddha
Dodema

site ( 1: 8)


33

kg/
cmsq

29



SQCA


Pilot Project

30



Hollow Interlocking

Compressed
Stabilized Earth Block (HI
-
CSEB)

Pilot house using HI
-
CSEB

31

Some other buildings using HI
-
CSEB

32

Advantages

1.
Use of cheap & locally available materials

2.
Job opportunity for local people

3.
Biodegradable materials

4.
Energy efficiency and eco friendliness 5


15 times
less energy consumed than fired brick and around 3


8 times less emission

5.
Transferable technology

6.
Import Reduction

Advantages

7. Cost effectiveness

8. Minimum mortar required

9. Keys that interlock with each other provides better
integrity

10. Hollow provisions for laying vertical and horizontal
reinforcements to improve the lateral load resisting
capacity

11. Ease and Fastness in construction

12. Fire resistant



Limitations


Only for low rise structures: maximum 2 storey



Strength very much dependant on the properties of
soil



Too much stabilization(cement) will make no economic
sense



Interlocking features do not provide air tightness.
Minimum gap is formed due to which termite/air
current can pass.


Limitations


Requires minimum mortar between the blocks to maintain
horizontal construction level



Too much mortar between the blocks jeopardizes the
interlocking feature



For frame structures, HI
-
CSEB can be used as filler materials
but the structural members sizes increases due to increase
in the block weight


HI
-
CSEB in Bhutan




No of private individuals who procured the
machine
-
2


Commercial basis
-

Established in Jemina by 2
firms

Way forward

1.
Conference on GREEN Construction


Awareness and
exchange of knowledge;

2.

Sensitization w/shops & trainings in Green building
practices;

3.
Standards and regulations;


R & D required


Formulation of standards and guidelines




Conclusion


Sustainable /economical/eco friendly building
material


Easy and simple technology


Creates employment opportunities


Reduce dependency on import of bricks


Making housing affordable


Therefore, production and construction with HCSEB
is relevant and it is to be adopted where ever
possible.





Thank you




and





Tashi

Delek

www. sqca.gov.bt