Dec 3, 2012 (5 years and 5 months ago)



Migrating Innovation and Research through Alliance


MIRTA Partners


Thessaloniki Technology Park Management &




Deliverable Number:


Instituto Andaluz de Tecnologia

María Fernández García


December 2000

University of Rome, Tor Vergata

Prof. Vittorio Colizzi

Maurizio Ferri (Project Co



TechMaPP, The University of Edinburgh

Prof. Alfonso Molina (A.Molina@ed.ac.uk)

Tony Kinder (t.kinder@ed.ac.uk)

Deliverable Author

Tony Kinder


00 44 (0)131 651 1562

Contract Number

MIRTA is an EU Funded Project

Project MIRTA: Scotland Biotechnology Overview (D




Migrating Innovation and Research through Alliance



This report maps the basic elements constituting the Scottish
cluster. These elements are its sectoral
structure and companies; the availability of venture capital
and finance for innovation; the organisations supporting the
commercialisation of biotechnology research and the
organisations and institutions generatin
g, transferring,
cumulating and socialising biotechnology knowledge.

Project MIRTA: Scotland Biotechnology Overview (D




The report begins in section 2 by briefly outlining the nature of industrial
clusters and outlines the four elements constituting the Scottish
biotechnology cluster.

Section three gives an overview of the sector composition of this cluster
and its major companies. It shows that Scotland’s biotechnology is
growing in strength across its sectors which are:
Diagnostics; Platform Technologies; Bio
ormatics; Biotechnology
Service Companies; Raw Material Manufacturers and Agro
The report then briefly describes the history, technology and prospects of
twenty of Scotland’s leading biotechnology companies.

The report lists the major sour
ces of innovation finance for biotechnology
in Scotland including venture capital firms, localised funds, institutional
funds, angel investors and corporate entrepreneurs.

Section fives gives details of fifteen biotechnology research facilities in
and including the Roslin and Moredun Institutes. It brief overview of
the labour supply in biotechnology emphasising the importance of new
biotechnology course developments and the use of Internet

In section six organisations support
ing biotechnology commercialisation in
Scotland are outlined. These include CONNECT, university
commercialisation agencies and local advocacy networks. A brief survey
is given of incubation facilities and major sites of specialist property for
ogy in Scotland.

A final section briefly summarises the achievements and trajectory of the
Scottish biotechnology cluster.

Project MIRTA: Scotland Biotechnology Overview (D








Aims and structure of report



The nature of industrial clusters



Biotechnology sectors and
companies in Scotland


Biotechnology sectors in Scotland


Biotechnology companies in Scotland



Finance for biotechnology innovation in Scotland

Venture capital


Institutional finance


Corporate entrepreneurship



Biotechnology kno
wledge flows in Scotland

Research and development in Scotland


Biotechnology research and development centres in Scotland


The biotechnology labour force



Biotechnology commercialisation in Scotland


University commercialisation agencie




Local advocacy networks


Property and incubation support etc.



Conclusions and summary



TechMaPP Guidelines for Biotechnology Mapping

Project MIRTA: Scotland Biotechnology Overview (D





This report presents an overvi
ew of the biotechnology cluster in Scotland. The three
accompanying mapping report from Rome (D.2.2.1), Thessoloniki (D.2.2.2) and
Andalucia (D.2.2.3) follow the mapping guidelines drawn up by TechMaPP and shown
in the appendix to the current report. Thi
s mapping report on Scotland presents an
overview of an existing biotechnology cluster and therefore has a structure that maps
what exists, not the ingredients of creating a cluster.

The report begins in section 2 by briefly outlining the nature of indu
strial clusters and
outlines the four elements constituting the Scottish biotechnology cluster. Section three
gives an overview of the sector composition of this cluster and its major companies.
Sources of finance for the biotechnology cluster are presen
ted in section four. Section
fives gives details of the main biotechnology research facilities in Scotland and a brief
overview of the labour supply in biotechnology. In section six organisations supporting
biotechnology commercialisation in Scotland are

outlined and a brief survey given of
incubation facilities and specialist property availability. Finally, section seven of the
report summarises the achievements and trajectory of the Scottish biotechnology



Scottish Enterprise has pursued a policy of clustering for most of the last decade.
Analysis of clusters in Scotland reveals four dimensions.

Spatial proximity is important in the sharing of tacit knowledge, know
how and
economies of agglomeration.

An innovative social milieu which encourages knowledge transfers between the
public and private sectors stimulates spin
outs is important. This dimension is
reinforced by the availability of risk capital and skilled labour.

Scottish clusters are comp
osed of learning organisations

both public and private

capable of knowledge generation, socialisation, transfer and cumulation. Learning
organisations show ability for ‘double
loop’ learning by improving their structures and
ways of working as technol
ogical opportunities and markets evolve.

The successful Scottish clusters are characterised by networking. This may feature
trading, but is always typified by knowledge flows within and between networks
and across institutional boundaries. Resear
ch in Scotland, France and Germany
shows that sustainable clusters avoid technological lock
in by realigning their


See Scottish Enterprise, 2000,
Commercialisation within Scottish Enterprise Cluster Action Plans

SE, Glasgow; Molina AH and Kinder T, 2000, “National Systems of Innovations, Industrial
Clusters and Constituency
Building in Scotland's Electronics Industry,” I
nternational Journal of
Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management
, Forthcoming: November, Vol
.1, No. 2 and Kinder
T and Molina A, “From Purposiveness to Sustainability in the Formation of Multimedia Clusters:
Governance and Constituency Building in Scotland, in Braczyk H
J, Fuchs G and Wolf H
(Eds.), 1999,
Multimedia and Regional Economic Restr
, Routledge, London, pg. 269


Project MIRTA: Scotland Biotechnology Overview (D



knowledge base with that of emerging and evolving technologies. In particular,
empirical evidence shows that sustainable clusters are founde
d on both breadth (of
companies) and depth (of knowledge flows) within networks.

The particular methodological approach used by TechMaPP to understand the
processes by which clusters are created is the sociotechnical constituency approach
developed by P
rof. Molina.

This approach is founded upon alignment between the
social and technical people, resources, technologies and organisations constituting the
constituency. An essential variable is the vision and commitment of the constituency’s
leadership in

driving change and consciously seeking to align dimension of the
constituency. Since networking organisations flourish using network technologies in
innovative milieus, the role of public agencies in supporting cluster
creation is

1 shows four elements making up the Scottish biotechnology cluster. These
elements, which structure this report, are companies, sources of finance, sources of
biotechnology knowledge and organisations supporting the commercialisation of
biotechnology know


Kinder T, 2000, “Growing your own learning region,”
TechMaPP Working Paper
, Department of
Business Studies, University of Edinburgh.

Project MIRTA: Scotland Biotechnology Overview (D



Figure 1 showing key elements of the Scottish Biotechnology

Technology cluster as inter
related and inter



Biotechnology sectors in Scotland

Biotechnology technology is conventional
ly segmented into human, animal and plant
(agro) applications. Both human and animal health further decomposes into treatment
and diagnostics (in vivo and in vitro). Increasingly, however human and animal
biotechnology research crosses over. Another seg
mentation of biotechnology is by
size. Here the seven major pharmaceutical companies form one sector, a wide range of
potentially high
growth SMEs a further sector (often aligned with and partners of the
major pharmaceutical companies), and a third sector

are a range of stable and lower
growth rate (often resource
based) companies. A third segmentation of biotechnology
is from a technological viewpoint. From this perspective, the Scottish biotechnology
sector’s 65 companies decompose into
; Diagnostics; Platform
Technologies; Bio
informatics; Biotechnology Service Companies; Raw Material
Manufacturers and Agro
biotechnology. It is in the first three of these sectors in which
Scotland has been most successful.

Project MIRTA: Scotland Biotechnology Overview (D



Biotechnology companies in

The following companies are a selection of the important players in biotechnology in

PPL Therapeutics plc

PPL Therapeutics plc is one of the world's leading companies in the application of
transgenic technology to the production of hum
an proteins for therapeutic and nutritional
use. It famously created Dolly the Sheep.
PPL Therapeutics plc (
) was established in 1987 to commercialise technology developed by
John Clark and his colleagues that allowed expression o
f human proteins in the
mammary gland of transgenic sheep and cattle. PPL now employs over 140 staff and
was floated on the London Stock Exchange in 1996 at an initial valuation of £110
million. PPL's lead product is alpha
antitrypsin which is currentl
y in clinical trials for
the treatment of cystic fibrosis. PPL is entirely independent of Roslin Institute

Institute has no equity in PPL and none of its staff is involved in the management of the
company. However, PPL and the Roslin Institute have

continued to collaborate
successfully since the formation of the company. PPL collaborated, for instance with
Ian Wilmut and his team in the production of Dolly the sheep and PPL have been
granted an exclusive licence to the Institute's nuclear transfer
technology for the
production of pharmaceutical proteins in the milk of ruminants and rabbits and for
neutraceutical application. PPL and Roslin Institute were recently awarded a £600,000
LINK grant from the DTI to develop nuclear transfer for application
s in pharmaceutical
protein production.


Quintiles plc is a major US inward investor into Scotland and is located in West Lothian
and Edinburgh. The company employs nearly 2,000 staff providing a range of blind
testing facilities for producers s
eeking European and US licenses.

Rosgen Ltd

Rosgen Ltd (
) is a specialised DNA based animal genotyping
company. Roslin Institute has successfully operated a
Cattle Blood Typing Service

over 30 years but realised that parentage testing
in the future would be dependant on
DNA methods. An analysis of the market suggested that there was a major opportunity
for a commercial DNA based genotyping service and Rosgen was established in 1997
with funding from venture capital, the Holstein Fresian

Society of GB & I, two animal
breeding companies and private investors. Roslin Institute is a minority shareholder in
Rosgen. Rosgen now employs over 20 staff and has increased turnover fourfold over
the last 12 months. it offers a range of DNA based tes
ts including parentage testing for
cattle and dogs, disease resistance testing in sheep and pigs and sex testing in birds.
Rosgen achieved ISO9000 standard in 1997.

DDS Medicines Research Ltd

Clinical trials firm offering some of the highest standard hosp
ital based contract clinical
and pharmacokinetic research facilities in Europe. DDS occupy a new purpose
Project MIRTA: Scotland Biotechnology Overview (D



integral wing (1600 square metres) in Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, allowing
instant access to the emergency and other facilities of a
modern teaching hospital,
including routine biochemistry and haematology. The research wards provide 36 fully
serviced research beds designed for long or short stay studies. Since their inception in
1982, DDS have performed a wide range of pharmacodynami
c, therapeutic and
pharmacokinetic studies in a panel of several thousand healthy volunteers and patients.



Shield Ltd is the main operating company of Axis
Shield Group plc which also
owns the R&D resource Discovery Diagnostics Ltd. A

Shield has grown rapidly since
its inception in the mid 1980's as a spin
off from research at the University of Dundee.
Now employing 115 people manufacturing diagnostic kits, the company has recently
moved to a new Euro 7 million HQ in Dundee Techno
logy Park. Shield's flagship
product, Activated Factor Twelve (AFT), has been shown in recent studies to be a more
accurate indicator of cardiac risk than cholesterol testing.

Cyclacel Ltd

Cyclacel are a new dedicated therapeutics company founded by the

Cancer Research
Campaign's technology arm, the prominent venture fund Merlin Ventures, the University
of Dundee and the University of Glasgow. Operating in the promising area of cell cycle
control, Cyclacel's goal is to discover novel treatments for canc
er. Cyclacel are
focussing attention on the cancer suppresser gene P53

discovered by Prof. Lane of
Dundee University who is part founder and Chief Scientific Officer of Cyclacel

and are
also investigating the genes P21 and P16, which occur downstream
from P53 and
appear epidemiologically to be more specific to particular types of cancer.

Cypex Ltd

Cypex emerged from a five year collaborative LINK programme involving the University
of Dundee, the BBSRC, the DTI, and a consortium of major pharmaceutical

in which a novel system for the investigation of human drug metabolism
in vitro

developed and patented. Cypex operates under licence from the University of Dundee
to manufacture and sell reagents based on individually
expressed recombinant

metabolising enzymes, for use by pharmaceutical companies, contract research
organisations and non
commercial research establishments. The first products, based
on human cytochrome P450s, are expected to be available shortly. Cypex also offer
s to
undertake work under contract such as drug metabolite synthesis and heterologous
protein expression.

Iatros Ltd

Iatros Ltd has successfully developed production scale inactivation systems that
achieve the required virus log kill without unacceptable
protein damage and without the
use of additives. Typical Products treated

Albumin, immunoglobulin and blood
products, Source plasma Factor concentrates, sera and other biological fluids.

Project MIRTA: Scotland Biotechnology Overview (D



Karl Storz ltd

Leading medical instrument manufacturers who loca
ted to Dundee in order to continue
their close collaboration with Sir Alfred Cuschieri, Professor of Surgery at University of
Dundee and a pioneer of keyhole surgery. The company produces precision medical
instruments for use in keyhole surgery and are ba
sed within the campus of Ninewells

Alchemy Laboratories Ltd

Diagnostics firm which researches, develops and manufactures high quality reagents
and components for the rapidly expanding 'point of care' diagnostic market. Alchemy
Laboratories have

the expertise to manufacture colloidal gold and conjugate antibodies
and antigens to gold and latex.

Grampian Pharmaceuticals Ltd

Grampian Pharmaceuticals is a UK market leader in the manufacture and distribution of
animal medicines, with overseas busi
ness in Europe and Australasia. It has a strong
position in products for the treatment of parasites in large animals and inflammation in
small animals. It has recently launched two major new products against cattle viral
diseases (vaccines) and a unique
product for sea lice treatment in salmon.

Tayside Pharmaceuticals

National Health Service Organisation initially manufacturing special medicines for NHS
in Scotland and now providing small batch contract manufacture for commercial
customers, particularl
y for clinical trial purposes. Expertise in the manufacture of many
products including capsules, ointments, suppositories, pessaries and eye drops.

Gentech Propagation Ltd

Gentech Propagation offer microprogation of potato minitubers and a range of soft

species, produced according to SOAEFD (Scottish Office Agriculture, Environment and
Fisheries Department) regulations. Gentech provide a comprehensive array of facilities
including disease controlled greenhouse complex featuring disease indexed sto
positive filtered air
pressure, controlled personnel and material entry procedures and a
quarantine unit for new introductions. Gentech has experience of other plant species
and is actively transferring these techniques to an increasing range of crop

Mylnefield Research Services

Mylnefield Research Services Ltd. (MRS Ltd.) is the commercial arm of the Scottish
Crop Research Institute and acts as a gateway to skills unique within the UK research
services. MRS Ltd. and SCRI actively seek collaborat
ion and can offer a wide variety of
services including targeted breeding programmes, consultancy, field trials, licensing of
intellectual property and project management. Specialised skills and facilities include a
lipid analysis unit, pesticide trailing,

virus indexing and stable isotope analysis.


Project MIRTA: Scotland Biotechnology Overview (D



Chlamydial testing can detect
chlamydophila abortus

the cause of significant aborted
pregnancies amongst both animals and humans. YAbA’s first product


is a
highly specific elisa test. Earlie
r antigen tests, such as histochemically smears of
placental tissue or vaginal swabs are unreliable and often are often based upon
subjective judgement.
is a complete test system that does not require an
earlier reference test; it is easy to us
e, inexpensive and requires not prior training to

Remes Biomedical

Biocompatibility software and testing is the core competency of Remes Biomedical a
out from the University of Glasgow in 1995. The company has contracts for testing
major pharmaceutical companies and is currently expanding staff and premises.

One Biotech Ltd.

A spin
out from the Glasgow veterinary school, Q
One provides bio
safety testing in
order to conform with European and US regulatory standards. It currently
employs 100
staff and has contracts with both major pharmaceutical companies and SMEs.

Neurope Ltd.

Neurope is a spin
out from Glasgow and St. Andrew’s universities. It produces
functional genomics information, develops therapeutics based on genomic re
especially associated with neurodegenerative diseases. It has recently developed its
first vitro assay of the synuclein family of proteins and received a Euro 1.5 million equity
injection from 3i.



Venture capital

Venture capital investment in Britain is Euro 7 billion per year. Of this, a quarter is
invested in seed or other early stage knowledge
based companies. In 1999 this
supported 473 such investments in Britain, 109 of which were in S
cotland. Since
Scotland is integrated within British financial institutions, it is not possible to
desegregate Scottish venture capital from British funds.

Major venture funds active in Scotland

All of the major European venture funds are active in Scotl
and including 3i and Murray
Johnston. In addition, Scottish Enterprise’s Scottish Equity Partnership has recently
invested its first Euro 35 million fund and raised a further Euro 140 million fund for

Specialist biotechnology funds

All of the

specialist British biotechnology venture funds are active in Scotland. The
following list gives their range of funds invested in brackets. Abingworth Management
Project MIRTA: Scotland Biotechnology Overview (D



(Euro 0.75m to Euro 5m), Advent Euro 0.75m to Euro 8m), Alta Berkeley Associates
Euro 2m to

Euro 3m), Apax Partners (Euro 1.5m to Euro 80m), Chase Capital Partners
(Euro 5m to Euro 80m), Mercury Asset Management (Euro 8m upwards), Merlin
Ventures (Euro 0.4m to Euro 8m) and Rothschild Bioscience Unit (Euro 0.15m to Euro
8m). He illustrated
with examples typical deal structures; rates of return expected and
exit routes showing how these might differ between technology platforms, in vivo
devices, services to the pharmaceutical industry and diagnostic equipment or supply.

Localised venture fun

Many sub
regions of Scotland have dedicated venture funds. These often act as the
local partner in deals syndicated with larger funds. Often these funds are the result of
private partnerships involving local councils. Examples include:

en Development Capital


Lothian Investment For Enterprise

Northern Venture Managers

Royal Bank Development Capital

Albany Venture Managers

West Lothian Ventures

Angel funders and US investors

An increasing number of ‘high net worth individuals’ i
nvest in knowledge
companies including biotechnology. The LINC network acts as an information
brokerage for these angel investors, many of whom have successfully exited from
companies they have built. Joining these indigenous angel investors are an

number of US angels who visit Scotland (for example the CONNECT conference)
seeking investment opportunities.

Financial institutions

Increasingly banks, lawyers and accountants will trade fees for equity options, or take
equity options in kno
based businesses. Typically, a bank providing long
loan finance to such companies regard their risk as unsecured against assets and
therefore as a business risk.

Corporate entrepreneurship

Increasingly large corporations invest in know
based SMEs as part of their R&D
strategy. This enables large companies to reduce the costs and risk of in
house R&D
and to avoid ‘disjunctive technologies’ providing alternative solutions to their own. In
biotechnology most of the major pharmaceuti
cal companies operate this strategy.
These include
Glaxo Smith Kline, Pfizer, Aventis, Astra Zeneca, Novatis, Merck, Bristol
Myers Squibb and AHP. As biotechnology matures as an industrial sector and
Project MIRTA: Scotland Biotechnology Overview (D



companies successful achieve initial public offering,
dedicated biotechnology
companies are also able to act as financiers of new investment. In Scotland, examples
include Shire Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge Antibody Technology Group, Biofocus,
Oxford Glycosciences. Finally, major biotechnology inward investor
s, such as Quintiles
of West Lothian, invest in start
ups. This investment may take the form of equity or
loans of staff loans and facilities.


In summary, there is a wide range of risk capital sources available for biotechnology
companies in S
cotland. Detailed study is required of the suitability of venture capital for
biotechnology innovation. Issues of company control and IPR protection feature
prominently is assessing the cost of venture capital to biotechnology start

However, it is

clear that there is no equity gap within venture capital in Scotland for
profitable biotechnology innovation.



Research and development in Scotland

Scotland has a world
class research and development communit
y, active in both the
academic and commercial sectors, and delivering a steady stream of innovative
products and processes that can be profitably marketed in Europe and around the
world. Scotland's 13 universities, nine specialist higher education institu
tions and 46
further education colleges conduct world
class research and development in a wide
range of fields, including artificial intelligence, optoelectronics, biotechnology,
electronics and precision engineering. Scotland’s academic centres of resear
ch and
development centres include The Strathclyde University Incubator, Institute for System
Level Integration, the Glasgow University Biotechnology Incubator, the Petroleum
Science and Technology Institute in Aberdeen, St Andrews Technology Centre and th
Edinburgh Technopole. Examples outside of biotechnology include:

The Artificial Intelligence Applications Institute at Edinburgh University is one of the
world's top three research centres in its field. It has pioneered the application of
applying ar
tificial intelligence technologies to a variety of areas including aerospace,
manufacturing, finance and engineering.

The Edinburgh Parallel Computing Centre at the University of Edinburgh, which
employs around 50 staff, has world
class computing faciliti
es, including a Cray T3E,
the most powerful supercomputer in Europe.

In 1997, Scottish Enterprise, in association with four of Scotland's top academic
institutions, announced the creation of the world's first System Level Integration
Institute, which now
delivers the world's first MSc and EngD programme in System
Level Integration.


See EuroMoney Publications, 1998,
Managing Intellectual Property

g the Future of
, IP Asia Law Reports, London.

Project MIRTA: Scotland Biotechnology Overview (D



The Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering at Strathclyde University
carries out leading
edge research in a number of specialities, including
communications, indus
trial control, electrical power engineering, measurement and
instrumentation, optoelectronics, signal processing and ultrasonics.

There are also many powerful research and development teams in the commercial
sector. Scotland's established strengths in el
ectronics, software, opto
semiconductors, biotechnology and medical devices continue to be at the leading edge
thanks to excellent research and development within companies.

Minebea Company, of Japan, operates a £2.5 million
research and dev
centre near Glasgow, where it develops power control systems for the electronics

N V Organon, a Dutch pharmaceutical company, operates a £16 million research
facility in Lanarkshire. The facility, which is equipped with the very latest

in the field of modern drug discovery techniques, will deliver better treatments for
psychiatric illnesses.

Polaroid Corporation of America operates a design and development centre at its
Vale of Leven plant. The centre focuses on developing
new and leading edge
products for Polaroid's worldwide market.

Cisco Systems of America chose Edinburgh as the site for its first European research
and development centre, which is planned to become the company's largest outside
America. It will develop
and test networking software for the worldwide market.

The GEC group's Scottish research and production facilities employ 2,700 people on
leading edge technology projects in Edinburgh and Fife. They form a core part of
Marconi's military and civil avioni
cs expertise.

Alba in West Lothian home of Cadence UK houses a system
chip research
centre. This centre now includes the European R&D facility for Motorola.

Biotechnology research and development centres in Scotland

Scotland is home to a maturing

biotechnology cluster that includes research institutions,
biotechnology companies and a support network

all operating in the global
marketplace. The roots of biotechnology in Scotland are in the 15th century, when the
world's first department of medic
ine was created at Aberdeen University. Since then,
Scots have pioneered many of the significant developments in the history of
biotechnology, as we know it today. In the past few years, Professor David Lane has
won the Paul Ehrlich Award for his discove
ry of the p53 gene; Dr Ian Wilmut of the
Roslin Institute has given us Dolly the sheep; and Sir Philip Cohen of the University of
Dundee has become one of the most respected cancer specialists in the world.
Scotland's vibrant biotechnology community is at

the forefront of virtually every area of
biomedical research, including bone disease, cancer, cardiovascular illness, clinical
diagnostics, diabetes, drug development, drug discover, genomics and gene therapy,
immunology, infectious diseases, inflammatory

diseases, neurosciences, respiratory
diseases and veterinary medicine.

Project MIRTA: Scotland Biotechnology Overview (D



The Roslin Institute, Edinburgh

Roslin Institute carries out basic and strategic research relevant to farm animal
production and associated industries. It is a major international ce
ntre for research on
molecular and quantitative genetics of farm animals, and poultry science, with major
programmes on embryology and reproduction, development and growth, and animal
welfare. The Institute has extensive expertise in cell and molecular bi
ology, transgenic
technology, and biometrical genetics, with excellent laboratory and farm facilities for
research on all livestock species. Roslin Institute has more than 300 staff, visiting
scientists and PhD students and is based 7 miles (11 km) south
of Edinburgh city
centre. It is sponsored by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council
and funded from a variety of sources including MAFF, the European Union and industry.
Roslin Institute was created in its present form in 1993 from th
e Edinburgh Research
Station of the AFRC Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics Research. The
Edinburgh Research Station was itself created in 1986 by the merger of the Animal
Breeding Research Organisation (ABRO) and the greater part of the Poultry
Centre (PRC). In considering the origin of Roslin Institute it is also worth looking back
well before the creation of ABRO and PRC to the activities of the University of
Edinburgh and the establishment of the Institute of Animal Genetics whose wo
rk greatly
influenced the early days of both organisations. Roslin Institute is the UK's leading
centre for research on the quantitative and molecular genetics of farm animals. It has
pioneered the development of methods for genetic modification of farm
animals and has
internationally recognised programmes of research on animal breeding, genome
analysis, animal reproduction, growth and development, poultry science, animal
behaviour and animal nutrition. Roslin Institute aims to provide new opportunities
four industry sectors:
animal breeding
animal production

. Its research also informs national and international policy on animal
welfare, the environment and genetic diversity. Roslin Institute has more than 300 staff
visiting scientists and PhD students and is located 7 miles south of Edinburgh City
Centre. It is sponsored by the
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council

(BBSRC) and is funded by a variety of sources, including the BBSRC, the Ministry of

Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, the Scottish Office, the European Union, and Industry.
Roslin Institute is an Associated Institution of the University of Edinburgh. Roslin
Institute is seeking to extend its expertise to new areas of research and develo
p new
commercial opportunities on its own behalf. Four spin
out companies have been
created from the Institute: PPL Therapeutics plc, Rosgen Ltd., Roslin Nutrition Ltd. and
Geron Bio
Med Ltd.

Institute for Biomedical and Life Sciences, Glasgow

IBLS was
formed in 1994 in an amalgamation of 11 life
science departments at the
University of Glasgow. Industrial collaboration is a key aim of the institute. It offers a
range of research, commercialisation and incubation facilities. Its 180 academic staff
ually obtains Euro 14 million in research funding, a third of which is from the private

Project MIRTA: Scotland Biotechnology Overview (D



The Moredun Institute and the Pentland (Bush) Technology Park

The Moredun Research Institute (MRI) “seeks to become the most highly regarded
small ruminant d
isease research laboratory in the world and to conduct distinguished
scientific research on infectious diseases of livestock.”
The MRI, which is part of the
University of Edinburgh, was established in 1920 and is internationally recognised for its
work on

infectious diseases of sheep and other ruminants. The aims of the Institute are
to carry out innovative basic and strategic multidisciplinary research on diseases which
undermine biological efficiency, impair animal welfare or threaten public health; to
develop strategies for improved control and prevention of disease; to contribute new
knowledge to biological science, comparative medicine, environmental protection and
public health; to maintain specialist diagnostic and disease surveillance services to
acilitate epidemiological investigations, and early awareness of emerging problems.
MRI is a non
departmental public body, receiving core funding from the Scottish
Executive Rural Affairs Department (SERAD), supplemented by competitive awards
from nationa
l and international agencies and the EU. Commercially sponsored
research is channelled through the Institute's affiliated company Moredun Scientific Ltd.
Since 1998, MRI has been located in a purpose
built International Research Centre at
the hub of Pent
land Science Park, a new Bioscience centre developed by the Moredun
Foundation. This site will enable the Institute to strengthen its links with industry and
commerce. The MRI’s Director is Professor QA McKellar. It is organised into seven
academic divi
sions: Bacteriology, Parasitology, Virology, Clinical, Immunology,
Molecular Biology and Pathology. MRI is part of a network of biotechnology research

The Institute’s annual staffing budget is approximately Euro 4.4 million.

The Proteome Centr
e, Aberdeen

The Aberdeen Proteome Facility has over 20 years experience in protein
characterisation. In 1997, the facility was expanded, using a £0.5M Research
Development Grant awarded by the Scottish Higher Education Funding Council. The
Facility has
developed through the co
operation of research scientists and clinicians at
Aberdeen University, Aberdeen Royal Hospitals Trust and the Rowett Research
Institute. The Aberdeen laboratories are fully equipped for the application of proteomics
to biological

and medical sciences. An automated HPLC system is available for the
purification of micro
gram quantities of proteins from protein mixtures using optimised
protocols. Analytical and preparative 2
dimensional electrophoresis, using the major
standard gel

formats, is used for resolving and characterising the individual components
of complex protein mixtures. Facilities are available for computer
assisted densitometry
for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the 2
dimensional protein profiles. The
lytical and preparative systems are supported by state
art protein
identification facilities, which centres on the use of MALDI
TOF MS for peptide mass
mapping. Additional facilities are also available for automated N
terminal protein


Vetaid (

Hannah Research Institute (

Land Use Rese
arch Institute (

Rowett Research Institute

Scottish Crop Research Institute (

Biomathematics and Statistics Scotland (BioSS) (

(Committee of the Heads of Agricultural and Biological Organisations of Scotland)
p://www.mluri.sari.ac.uk/chabos.htm) and ECRR (Edinburgh Centre for Rural Research)

Project MIRTA: Scotland Biotechnology Overview (D



sequencing by

Edman degradation. We have recently installed Genomic Solutions
robotics system for automated spot excision from electrophoresis gels and subsequent
processing of the samples for peptide mass mapping. This new facility will significantly
improve sample
throughput for the post
electrophoretic identification of the resolved
proteins. Since its establishment, the Aberdeen Proteome Facility has been closely
involved in collaborative research projects with external researchers as well as
developing "in
" research programmes, primarily in the biomedical sciences.
Further details of our areas of research interest are detailed below. Research projects
from Academic and Commercial sources are taken up as collaborative projects or
carried out as a service f
or individual researchers. Facilities available at the Aberdeen
Proteome Laboratory include: analytical and preparative HPLC; high resolution 2D
electrophoresis and computer analysis and protein characterisation by Mass
Spectrometry and Edman automated se

Dundee biomedical sciences research centre

The Wellcome Trust has invested £12 million in a biomedical sciences research centre
at Dundee University, where more than 200 research scientist’s research the
fundamental causes of diseases such as ca
ncers, diabetes, arthritis and hereditary skin
diseases. Glasgow University researchers are developing a "lab
chip" which
brings together various laboratory functions in one hand
held analytical tool. This could
help speed up medical treatments and
be used to test drugs more cheaply and

Wellcome Trust Building, University of Dundee

The new £13 million Wellcome Trust building has been the subject of what is believed to
be the largest single charitable donation ever given to a Scottish In
stitution. Twenty of
the principal investigators have been awarded prestigious Fellowships of the Wellcome
Trust, the Medical Research Council, the Royal Society of London or the Howard
Hughes Medical Institute. The Institute will unite 240 leading biosc
ientists from Europe
and North America conducting fundamental research into such disorders as diabetes,
inflammatory hereditary skin diseases, defects of the immune system and tropical
parasitic diseases.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee

The Department is one of only three biochemistry departments in the UK rated as
'outstanding internationally, with research quality equating to levels of international
excellence'. It employs more than 200 scientists within 30 major research groups,
cting investigations in to areas such as Protein Chemistry and Enzymology,
Signal Transduction, Molecular Genetics, Glycobiology and cancer research. The
Department consistently generates amongst the highest levels of research income per
capita in the UK,

at £300 000 per principal investigator (95/96).

Biomedical Research Centre, Ninewells Hospital University of Dundee

Based within the internationally respected Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, the
Biomedical Research Centre comprises almost one hun
dred researchers and houses
The Imperial Cancer Research Fund's Molecular Pharmacology Unit.

Project MIRTA: Scotland Biotechnology Overview (D



The Biomedical Research Centre investigates the role of environmental factors in the
pathogenesis of human disease. Specific areas of research include Cellular Sy
for Drug Research, Chemoprotection, Yeast Oxidative Stress Regulatory Genes,
Control of Glutathione Homeostasis and RNA Polymerase 1 Transcription.

Department of Medicine, Ninewells Hospital, University of Dundee

A multi
disciplinary department, te
aching and conducting research across a broad range
of medical specialities. Prominent research areas are Occlusive Arterial Disease,
Metabolic and Endocrine Disorders, Diabetes Melitus, Child Health and Renal Disease.

Medicines Monitoring Unit


he Medicines Monitoring Unit (MEMO) is an independent pharmacoepidemiology
centre, based within Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, at the University of
Dundee. It advises on and conducts retrospective and prospective evaluation,
exposure and outcome s
tudies on medicines and medical procedures. MEMO is able to
advise on, conduct and publish a variety of pharmacoepidemiological,
pharmacovigilance and outcomes type studies.

School of Molecular and Life Sciences, University of Abertay Dundee

Focusing on
the requirements of industry, and based within the University of Abertay
Dundee. A wide variety of research work is done within the School covering areas such
as Biodeterioration, Fermentation Biotechnology, Molecular Biology, Cryopreservation,
nology, Avian Physiology, Plant Biotechnology, Molecular
Thermodynamics, Organic Chemistry and Environmental Chemistry.

Scottish Crop Research Institute

A major international centre for research on agriculture, horticulture and industrial crops
and on th
e underlying biological processes common to plant science and crop growth.
The Institute employs around 400 people with principal areas of research in crop
genetics, cellular and environmental physiology, fungal and bacterial plant pathology
and nematolog

Scottish Institute for Wood Technology, University of Abertay Dundee

The Institute acts as national centre for research in Forestry Products Technology. The
fundamental aim is to develop technologies which will enhance the performance of
wood. SIWT c
an access all the facilities of the University of Abertay Dundee

biochemistry, chemistry, engineering and environmental technologies

to develop a
comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach to wood development. The Institute has
established an intern
ational reputation for research and consultancy work in forest
biotechnology and biological control methods for wood and timber preservation.

Scottish Informatics, Mathematics, Biology and Statistics Centre

A joint venture between the Universities of Dund
ee and Abertay Dundee, the centre
offers research and consultancy work and conducts training and education on
mathematical and computer modelling and statistical analysis.

Project MIRTA: Scotland Biotechnology Overview (D



Department of Biological Sciences, University of Dundee

The department has an excel
lent research profile with a diverse range of research
activities which include animal cell and developmental biology, parsitology,
ecephysiology, genetics, behaviour and ecology, plant physiology, ecology and
pathology, crop biology and microbiology, phys
iology, genetics and biotechnology.

Research and Innovation Services, University of Dundee

Research & Innovation Services (RIS), an integral part of the University of Dundee, is
the primary point of contact for companies wishing to access University techn
licensing and commercialisation prospects. RIS aims to assist the University research
staff in the establishment of basic and applied research programmes in areas relevant
to industry, and to broaden the research funding base. RIS has as a primary
role the
protection and exploitation of the University's Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), e.g.
patents, arising from research at the University.

To achieve the essential objectives the
University through RIS has developed a very proactive, market
led a
pproach to its
licensing and commercialisation activities.

The biotechnology labour force

Job creation is a major policy of the community.

MIRTA will create the foundations
upon which sustainable employment creation can occur. It will do this by align
ing the
project in each location to agencies and actors seeking to establish clusters of
innovative companies, and in particular clusters commercialising university generated
knowledge. In 1994, the Commission argued that the level of, and social returns
R&D investment in Europe needed to significantly improve.

MIRTA is aligned to the
recommendations of the recent conference on increasing the availability of risk capital
for SMEs innovating biotech technology.

Jobs from environmental protection a
improvement within the EU, for example, are growing at 5
8% per annum. MIRTA’s aim
of laying the foundations of three new biotechnology clusters will be a worthy
contribution to employment generation.

Scotland’s 65 biotechnology companies currently em
ploy 5,000 researchers with some
20,000 being employed in the sector overall. The attraction and retention of qualified
staff is a major issue for the industry, hence the proliferation of specialist courses at the
major life
science universities. An impo
rtant development in Scotland is the use of the
Internet in recruitment services to attract staff from wider (global) labour markets.

Attraction of qualified biotechnology staff is easier as the cluster grows and alternative


CEC, 1996,
Action for Employment in Europe: A confidence Pact
, (CSE, 96).


CEC, 1994,
owth, Competitiveness, Employment. The Challenges and Ways forward into the



CEC, 1999,
Proceedings of First Conference of the Biotechnology and Finance Forum
, see



See Kinder T, 2000, “Issues of theory and practice for ecommerce diffusion and analysis evolving
of labour markets

based recruitment in West Lothian,”
, Vol. 20, No. 9 pg.


Project MIRTA: Scotland Biotechnology Overview (D



employment and spin
out oppor
tunities evolve. Additionally, the quality of life is an
important consideration for international mobile staff.



This section examines the structures and roles of university
based commercialisation
s, local advocacy networks and innovation
promotion networks in the Scottish
biotechnology cluster.

University commercialisation centres

Each of Scotland’s thirteen universities has a commercialisation unit and participates in
Scottish Enterprise’s comme
rcialisation strategy. Below are two examples.

The University of Glasgow’s, which has 20,000 students and 2,200 academic staff has a
Research and Enterprise group.

This group offers interaction between academia and
industry, contractual agreement assis
tance, IPR licensing and patenting support,
technical, financial and marketing consultancy and professional development schemes.
Its recent successes include a platform for gene therapy and screening devices for new
compounds using microtitre formats (96,

384, 864 wells and ultra
high density
microplates (1536, 3456 and beyond).

Edinburgh Research and Innovation (ERI), the commercialisation agency the University
of Edinburgh, has 45 staff including professional accountants, lawyers and business

ERI’s annual targets include achieving Euro 3 million in royalties, promoting
five spin
out companies, supporting twenty company start
ups, research awards, 100
technology disclosures, twelve patents, a 20%overhead recovery rate and numbers of
jobs create
d. Under Scottish law, all intellectual property rights (IPR) for an academic’s
work reside with the university. A normal distribution of earnings from licensing of IPR
would be 50% to the individual, 30% to the department of the university and 20% to


CONNECT is an independent technology
business network to support the development
of new and emerging technology companies in Scotland modelled on University
California, San Diego (UCSD) CONNECT Programme originating and housed within the
iversity of Edinburgh. It is part of a fifteen CONNECT networks internationally.
These include groups in Norway, Denmark, Sweden, England, Spain and Finland. The
vision of CONNECT, is that the development of high growth and high technology
enterprises r
equires interaction between the university sector; large corporations;
emerging companies; regional government and business support agencies. CONNECT
Scotland includes thirteen universities (Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh, Glasgow,






Project MIRTA: Scotland Biotechnology Overview (D



Glasgow Caledonian, Heriot
Watt, Napier, Paisley, Robert Gordon, St Andrews, Stirling,
Strathclyde and Queen Margaret University College), several research Institutions, over
150 companies and individuals, leading business professionals and financial
institutions, eight sub
l economic development agencies and sponsorship from
large corporations such as BP, Motorola and BT. CONNECT’s members thus include
technology entrepreneurs, venture capitalists and angels along with emerging and
established technology companies. It defi
nes technical
based companies as
“Companies competing on the basis of proprietary technology or know

The instruments used by CONNECT in these roles are a continuous programme of
seminars, briefings and workshops throughout Scotland aims to provide a

forums for
researchers, entrepreneurs and business professionals to interact on an informal basis.

Technology Briefings aimed at investment professionals.

Enterprise Workshops aimed at researchers and academics.

“An Audience with…..”

case studies by su
ccessful entrepreneurs.

Springboard events on a Business Forum model. These are pre
start, start
up and
potential spin
out companies who have been mentored by experts to make a
presentation, which is then discussed by a panel and audience of experts. The

events are designed to showcase early stage companies and give them access to a
broad range of expertise. Recent biotechnology companies participating in
Springboard events include Amora, Biotime, CardioDigital, Formedix, Lifestyle
Modelling Centre, Onco
logy Workbench and VASA.

The internationally acclaimed annual investment Conference is a platform for Scottish
technology companies to seek venture finance, across all technology sectors. Now
in its fourth year, presenting companies have subsequently rais
ed over Euro 150
million. At the 2000 conference, twenty
seven companies presented seeking Euro
140 million. These included the following biotechnology companies: Audiomedix,
Biovation, CombiMax Systems, Cyclacel, Diagnostic Potentials, DDL, Edinburgh
iocomputing, ExpressOn Biosystems, Glycologic, Molecular Drives, Neuropa, NMT,
Omega Diagnostics, PPL Therapeutics, Rosgen, Remes Biomedical, Voxar, YabA
and Zygomatics.

Localised biotechnology advocacy networks

There are three local networks specifical
ly lobbying on behalf of the biotechnology
cluster. Dundee biotechnology has been referred to above. The other two are in
Edinburgh and Glasgow.

Edinburgh Bio

In 1999, the Edinburgh Bio
Alliance (EBA) was established to promote and assist the
evelopment of life science activity in the Lothians led by the University of Edinburgh.

EBA is used as a case study to explore the role of property provision in clustering and
building processes at a highly localised level whilst benefiting from



Project MIRTA: Scotland Biotechnology Overview (D



international networking. EBA is a not
profit company, which acts as an advocacy
network for the migration of biotechnology knowledge between the public and private
sectors. Its members include Edinburgh and Heriot
Watt Universities, local Natio
Health Service (NHS) hospitals, local councils and local biotechnology firms and
development agencies. Amongst the larger firms involved are Quintiles, a US R&D
facility employing 500 people based in West Lothian. The Roslyn and Maudlin
Institutes, B
ush Biotechnology Park and the Roslyn Biotechnology Park are also
members. SMEs active in EBA include PPL (the developers of ‘Dolly’), Geron Biomed,
Inveresk Research and Scotia. EBA’s initial (two
year) funding for its two staff came
from an EU grant, l
ocal universities and councils. EBA acts locally to help bridge gaps
between the public and private biotechnology sectors.

Glasgow bio

Glasgow bioscience is a consortium of the City Council, universities, Scottish Enterprise
and local biotechno
logy companies. It has successfully lobbied for EU funding for
property development and research grants. In the city of Glasgow, there are 38
biotechnology companies, more of which spin
out from the university. They currently
have an Euro 30 million tur
nover. These companies include Q
One Biotech, Neuropa,
Propharma, Bioflux, Rhone Diagnostic Technologies, Biomedical Instrumentation,
Calyx, Drug Discovery Ltd., RamTech, Thistle Research, Vet Informatics, Hematek,
Ligand Express, Molecular Drives and Nee
mCo Ltd. Glasgow biotechnology
companies specialise in chemical diagnostics, bio
informatics and services to the

Property and incubation support etc.

A range of property
based incubation facilities exists in Scotland. Most of these are

supported. A selection of these facilities is given below.

Pentland Technology Park

The Pentland Technology Park was formed in 1997 as a result of a joint venture
between Lothian Regional Council and The University of Edinburgh with support from
the EU

and Scottish Enterprise. Pentland and its sister biotechnology park Roslyn,
along with major companies such as Qunitiles in West Lothian, employ over 3,000
researchers in Lothian region spending over Euro 160 million annual on R&D. The
biotechnology par
ks offer a range of services. These include property (incubator and
up units in addition to customised facilities), strategic planning, market research,
investment appraisal, feasibility studies, non
executive directors, start
up funding
and int
egrated business start
up services.

Dundee Incubator Ltd.

Dundee Incubator Ltd has been established to stimulate and assist the creation of new
biotechnology companies from the research base at the Universities of Dundee and
Abertay Dundee. The driving
principle behind the Incubator is to provide high quality


For a critical review of the early experience of technology parks in Britain see Massey D, Quintas
P and Wield D, 1992,
Tech Fantasies
, Routledge, London.

Project MIRTA: Scotland Biotechnology Overview (D



managed workspace which is specifically designed, managed and marketed to
accommodate and support projects with commercial potential and businesses which
evolve from the city's universities and rese
arch facilities.

Based at the Dundee Technopole site in the centre of Dundee, the Incubator facility
consists of 10 lettable units with communal reception areas and meeting rooms. The
units are available to suitable tenants at broadly commercial rentals
but on flexible
terms to reduce the operating overheads for tenant companies in the initial years.
Dundee Incubator Ltd will take a small equity stake in tenant companies. Through the
support of qualified staff and access to the skills, knowledge, experi
ence and resources
of the Universities and local support and funding agencies, Dundee Incubator is in a
unique position to nurture the development of these "spin
off" companies.

Dundee Medipark

Dundee Medipark has been established to provide business wi
th an environment
conducive to biotechnological advances. The Medipark is located within the campus of
Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, and offers innovative companies the opportunity
to develop laboratory, production and office space on a greenfiel
d site. Medipark
occupants have the opportunity to draw upon resources and facilities such as
sterilisation plant and medical equipment maintenance from Ninewells Hospital.
Furthermore, the proximity of the University of Dundee's Medical School offers th
opportunity for close collaboration with leading
edge researchers. Companies currently
based within the Ninewells campus include DDS Medicines Research Ltd, Tayside
Pharmaceuticals and Karl Storz Medical Instruments. Shield Diagnostics and Gentech
agation Ltd are based in the adjacent Dundee Technology Park. Dundee's
Medipark covers 25 acres, and offers fully serviced sites from one acre upwards. Each
site is suitable for the construction of a tailor
made facility to suit the occupier's

Dundee Technology Park

Dundee Technology Park is one of Scotland's premier business parks. It is located
approximately 4 miles west of Dundee city centre in proximity to the University of
Dundee and the Scottish Crop Research Institute at Invergow
rie. The Park is well
situated to benefit from Dundee's unique strategic position at the heart of the motorway
network which connects Dundee to Aberdeen, Edinburgh and Glasgow. Companies
within the Park include Shield Diagnostics, medical device company
Iatros and Gentech

Dundee Technology Park is designed for companies in the high technology sector and
provides a campus
style environment with high quality landscaping and prestigious
buildings. A range of high specification property is avai
lable. A small parcel of
Enterprise Zone land and a larger proportion of non
EZ land

all of which is fully

is available for development.

Dundee Technopole

The Technopole is a business centre, combining an incubator unit and further
pment sites. The Technopole is aimed primarily at high growth potential
oriented companies, offering access to the support available from not only
Project MIRTA: Scotland Biotechnology Overview (D



the universities but also local and national agencies. Residents within the Technopole
include c
ancer therapeutics company Cyclacel Ltd and diagnostics firm Alchemy
Laboratories Ltd.

The Technopole offers substantial benefits for companies, including access to possible
development finance specialist advice and the ability to draw on the specialist r
of the University of Dundee and the University of Abertay Dundee.

Claverhouse Industrial Park

The highly successful Claverhouse Industrial Park is situated at the fringe of Dundee's
urban area on the city's northern gateway, with direct trunk
road access to Glasgow,
Edinburgh and Aberdeen. Set in 32 hectares of high amenity industrial parkland
designed to be low density and high quality, Claverhouse is provided with generous
landscaping, 24 hour security provision and ample car parking. Occup
iers within the
Park include Madison Cable Ltd and Lomax Healthcare. Claverhouse East is the
second stage expansion of the Park, and offers a large supply of development land.
Claverhouse Industrial Park is owned, developed and managed by Dundee City
ncil, who are keen to attract relocating companies and can offer a competitive
package for investment projects. Several new units are available for incoming
companies with further development planned over the next few years.



he Scottish biotechnology cluster remains in its emergent stages. However, the
elements necessary to grow the cluster are in place. Perhaps the greatest constraint
upon the cluster is the remnants of insularity amongst academic researchers.

Which of t
he existing elements in the Scottish biotechnology cluster are easily replicated
in the three target regions of Thessoloniki, Rome and Andalucia remains to be seen?
The likelihood is that in all cases the four elements of clustering considered in this rep
will be adapted to suit the local conditions and opportunities in the target regions.

Project MIRTA: Scotland Biotechnology Overview (D



Appendix 1

Framework for Semi
structured Interview Guide


This Framework is a draft for rapid feedback from the partners in Rome, Andalucia and
aloniki regions. Please suggest as soon as possible modifications and additions
as you see appropriate. If you find it fine, then please proceed with its implementation.

In the following are some points about its rationale and modality of use.

The semi
structured interview framework is made up of five parts, each customised
for interviews with players from different institutions (government’s economic
development, biotech technology programme, biotech company, university/R&D
institute, financial sector)
. The elicited information should give us a multi
picture and help generate a suitable mapping of the state
art conditions of
each of the regions in the MIRTA project.

The framework however is not intended to be implemented rigidly. W
e are aware
that its implementation will be influenced by at least two main factors:

the type of people you will be interviewing( who may know more about certain
aspects of biotechnology in the region than others) and the time you will have
available for

the interview (try to ensure that you can come back)

Your own expertise that may be more comfortable in some areas rather than others.

At all times however key players should be interviewed as a step to get them
involved in the constituency
building proce
ss from early on. Also you should ask
any interviewee whether they can share with you any written or visual material
relevant and informative to the understanding of biotech clustering in the region
(e.g., reports, archival documents, pictures/diagrams, e

The logic and content of the Framework reflects the well
established understanding
that in real
life experiences, such as the regions we are about to study, the technical,
legal, social, business, financial, etc. aspects are all interrelated into a s
ingle ‘multi
disciplinary’ process. For this reason, we talk about processes of constituency
building and sociotechnical alignment. The Appendix provides a simplified diagram
and table (diamond of sociotechnical alignment) with the dimensions of alignmen
t. In
the Guide, the content of these dimensions is implicit inside the different customised
guides in a logical common
sense fashion. At this stage, you should not really worry
about the ‘diamond of alignment.”

In preparing and conducting the interview
, it is critical to establish a good rapport with
the interviewee. Introduce yourself, your organisation and the MIRTA project as
serious organisations, and try to make the immediate point of the usefulness of our
work for them. Explain the aims of the i
nterview and that they will receive copy of the
mapping report and all other MIRTA reports if they wish. Mention that, as a matter of
Project MIRTA: Scotland Biotechnology Overview (D



common practice, we agree to treat the received information in confidence. Thus, the
interviewee will be sent a first dr
aft of the report for checking accuracy and approval.


December 2000

Project MIRTA: Scotland Biotechnology Overview (D









Name of interviewee:




Name of

Department or service:

Could you please provide me with a general overview of the current general economic
and industrial conditions of the Region?

Economic importance?



Levels of education?

Main industries?

What is the importan
ce of the biotech sector in the region?

number and types of companies?


proportion of GDP?

average level of investment/year?

proportion of output consumed by local market?

proportion of output exported to other countries?

main export marke
ts and their proportions?

Other indicators

What are the characteristics (quantitative and qualitative) of the institutional fabric of
biotechnology in the region? For instance,

research and technology institutes


technology transfer and c
ommercialisation organisations?

funding bodies?


Which biotech industries/products are the most important in the region? For instance,


medical instrumentation?

software tools?


Which biotech value
chain activities are the most

important in the region and who
conduct them (i.e., companies, universities, other? )

Project MIRTA: Scotland Biotechnology Overview (D









Are different local biotech companies integrated along these value
chain activities?
Please provid
e details.

What is the state of university
industry relations in the biotech sector?

how many university spin
outs? Since when?

how many collaborative projects? Since when?

what are the main types of relations (e.g., research, testing, consultancy,

What is the state of research/technology institute
industry relations in the biotech

how many spin
outs? Since when?

how many collaborative projects? Since when?

what are the main types of relations (e.g., research, testing, consultanc
y, etc?)

Is there any relationship between the industry and the government? For instance,

does the regional government perceive biotechnology as an strategic sector for
the future economic development of the region?

are there any support programmes aimi
ng at helping the development of the
local industry?

are there any programmes to stimulate foreign capital investment (biotech) in
the region?

are there special incentives (e.g., tax relief, seed start
up funding, etc.)

are there special training progra
mmes, for instance, in market opportunities,
finance, or participation in European programmes?

if not, are there any plans to alter this situation?

Is there any regional organisation bringing together industry, local government and
other relevant stakeho
lders to define long
term biotech policy and strategy for the

if yes, please provide details

if not, are there any plans for the establishment and promotion of a strategic
regional organisation?

Project MIRTA: Scotland Biotechnology Overview (D



(I) Constituents’ Perceptions, Goals, Actions a
nd Resources

This relates to the present state of the constituency’s resources: the type of organisation, people, material
and financial resources, knowledge, experience and reputation. It also includes other elements such as
current perceptions, goals, vi
sions and strategies.

(II) Nature and Maturity of the Technology

This dimension highlights the importance of the nature and maturity of a technology for its successful
building process. Adopted strategies must align with the strategic opportu
nities and
constraints implicit in the particular technologies. Thus emerging technologies such as telematics imply
different requirements from other more mature technologies.

(1) Governance

This dimension highlights the importance of aligning the constit
building process with the
governance and strategic directions of the organisational, industrial and market environments in which it
is expected to flourish.

(2) Nature of Target Problem

This dimension highlights alignment between the capabilities of

the emergent constituency and the
requirements of successfully introducing new technologies. This includes alignment between the
technology and widely agreed technical and market trends and standards in the target market.

(3) Target Constituents’ Percept
ions and Pursuits

This dimension relates to the people and organisations the constituency is seeking to enrol behind it. This
includes the alignment of perceptions and goals between the constituency itself and its target constituents
in organisational, ind
ustrial and market environments.

(4) Interacting Technologies/Constituencies

This dimension relates to the interaction a constituency has with other existing or emerging technologies.
No constituency emerges in a vacuum. Other technologies, trends and sta
ndards may impact upon the
constituency’s technology in both competitive and collaborative ways.

The Content of the Dimensions of the Diamond of Alignment