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Oct 19, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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2013.

Artificial intelligence

Department of Computing and Automation, Faculty of Technical Sciences

Đorđe Obradović,

Marko
Joci
ć

Chair of Informatics

Agenda


What is AI?



History of AI



Problems of AI



Applications or uses of AI










What is Artificial intelligence?


The branch of computer science



Problem solving



The ability of a computer or other machine to
perform those activities that are normally thought
to require intelligence



The study and design of Intelligent Agent








What is Artificial intelligence?

1956. John Mc Carty, MIT



The science and engineering


of making


intelligent machine




especially intelligent computer programs. It is
related to the similar task of using computers to
understand human intelligence.



What is Artificial intelligence?



The branch of computer science concerned
with making computers behave like humans.



or

A system that makes it possible for a machine to
perform functions similar to human intelligence.



History of AI


1956. Term Artificial Intelligence introduced



Computer were solving word problem in algebra,
proving logical theorems and speaking English.



In the early 80s AI research was received by the
commercial success of Expert System.



In the 90s and early 21
st

century: AI achieved its
greatest success.




History of AI (90s and beyond)


1997. Deep Blue


chess
-
playing
computer beats reigning world
champion Garry Kasparov


Kasparov demanded a rematch
because he thought the
computer was cheating



Deep Blue could evaluate 200
million positions per second


Today’s Intel Core 2 Duo CPU
is capable of evaluating 8
million positions



History of AI (90s and beyond)


2005. Stanford robot



driving autonomously for 131
miles along an unrehearsed desert trail


2010. Google driverless
car



driving in cities, and
also racing on test courses.
No accidents so far!


2011


present
-

self
-
driven
cars legalized in some
states of USA




History of AI (90s and beyond)


2011. Watson


IBM’s question answering machine
defeated two greatest champions of
Jeopardy! quiz


capable of answering
questions posed in
natural language


200 millions pages of
data (4 TB of disk
storage)


received prize of $1
million for victory



Problems of AI




The problem of simulating (or creating) intelligence
has been broken down into a number of specific
sub
-
problems.



Problems of AI


Deduction, reasoning, problem solving


Early AI researches developed Algorithms that
imitated the step
-
by
-
step reasoning that human
beings use when they solve puzzles, play board
games or make logical deductions.



Problems of AI


Knowledge Representation


Many of the problems machines are expected to
solve will require extensive knowledge about the
world.


Problems of AI


Planning


Intelligent agents must be able to set goals and
achieve them. They need a way to visualize the future
and be able to make choices that
maximaze

the utility
(or “value”) of the available choices.



Problems of AI


Learning


Machine learning


The mathematical analysis of the machine learning
algorithms and their performance is branch of
theoretical computer science known as

computational learning theory


Problems of AI


Natural language processing


Natural language processing gives machines the
ability to read and understand the languages that
human beings speak.


Problems of AI


Motion and manipulation


The field of robotics is closely related to AI.
Intelligence is required for robots to be able to handle
such tasks as object manipulation and navigation,
with sub problems of localization (knowing where you
are), mapping (learning what is around you) and
motion planning (figuring out how to get there)


Problems of AI


Perception


Machine perception is the ability to use input from
sensors (such as cameras, microphones, sonar and
others more exotic) to deduce aspects of the world.



How it works?


How human beings performs intelligence tasks?


Is it possible to use those abilities in computer
programs?


How?

Motivation


Try to solve this equations FAST without using
calculator
:





Motivation





If the car traveling at the speed of
61
.34

km
/h
,
for how many minutes will exceed
29
.56
km
?


Motivation


Do we use some shortcuts?


For example..


Motivation


Or


Motivation


Do we use some shortcuts?


For example..


If the car traveling at the speed of
61
.34

km
/h
,
for how many minutes
will exceed
29
.56
km
?

61
.34

km
/h is approximately 60 km/h, which is about 1 km/min.


So it means that we will need about half an hour to arrive at the
destination of 29.56 km.

Motivation


If we can use such shortcuts, how we can use
them in computer programs?



In the real applications length of 16cm is almost
same as
16.01
cm



If we insist on accuracy sometimes our program
cam make wrong conclusion.

Motivation

Example

1

(1,1)

(5,5)

(1,4)

(5,1)

p2

p1

Intersection

p1
and

p2

Motiva
tion

Example

1

(1,1)

(5,5)

(1,4)

(5,1)

p2

p1

contains
(


intersection
(


st_geomfromewkt
('
LINESTRING(1 1, 5 5)
'),


st_geomfromewkt
('
LINESTRING(1 4, 5 1)
')


),


st_geomfromewkt
('
LINESTRING(1 4, 5 1)
')


)

PostGIS

8.4.4 functions:



contains
,
intersection

Motivation

What is the date?

How many triangles are

shown on the picture.

Is this a car or house?

Motivation

Arrange geometric shapes to occupy the

smallest area.


Allowed operations are move and rotate

Motivation

Which artist is most often appears on the

list
.
How many times?


Motivation

Find
5
differences

Motivation

What is shown on the figure?

Motivation

How many persons are shown on the picture?

Problems

Finance

Robotics

Games, entertainment, sport

Medicin
e

WEB

Agriculture

and industry

Planning

Reasoning

Pattern recognition

Prediction

Diagnosti
c

State space

Crisp or uncertain

AI
-

SOFT COMPUTING

Neural computing

Fuzzy systems

Probabilistic reasoning

Evolutionary computation

Learning

What

Aim

Model

Results

Parameters

Model structure

Hidden concepts

Supervised

Unsupervised

Reinforcement learning

Prediction

Diagnostic

Online, offline

A
c
tiv
e
,
passive

Classification

regression
...

Swarm intelligence

Deterministic

Stochastic

Applications of AI

Natural language processing


Gives machines the ability to read and
understand the languages human beings speak



Requires in
-
depth knowledge of the languages
that are processed



The goal is often
natural language
understanding



enabling computers to derive
meaning from human language input

Speech recognition


Technology that allows the computer to identify
and understand words spoken by a person using
a microphone or telephone



Many challenges:


different accent


slang


background noise



Facial recognition


Automatically identifying or verifying a person
from a digital image or a video frame from a
video source



Uses:


security systems


crime prevention


auto
-
focus (on modern

mobile devices and
camers
)



Military


Faster collection and examination of large
amounts of information


Improving reaction and decision
-
making for
more effective military actions


High
-
performance fighter aircraft


Training simulators



Medicine


Clinical decision support systems


Computer
-
aided medical diagnosis


Computer
-
aided interpretation of medical
images (CT, MRI, ultrasound…)


And many others…


Finance


market predicting


Transportation


automatic gearboxes who
utilize fuzzy logic


Music


can computer be a skillful musician?


Toys


artificial pets


Real estate


risk analysis


E
-
mail spam filtering


Games


Games & AI

Maze

Chess Dragon

Sudoku

Puzzle

Numbrix

Demonstrations


Demos of AI in games:


Are you faster then a computer?


Can you beat a simple chess AI?



Demos of AI in computer vision:


Real
-
time object tracking


Medicine


image segmentation


Optical character recognition (OCR)

Demonstrations


Demo of AI in natural language processing:


Have a chat with a bot



Others:


Control a car with motion gestures


Control mouse pointer with random object