FCV_AppliScience_Fergusx - Frontiers in Computer Vision

companyscourgeAI and Robotics

Oct 19, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

64 views

The Role of Computer Vision

in Astronomy

Rob Fergus

New York University


Overview


Virtually all our knowledge about the
universe derived from measurements of
photons


Usually as images



Big astronomy project is $50M
-
200M


But only 1
-
2% of this on software



Just discovering techniques from

computer vision & machine learning



Astrometry.net

Lang, Hogg,
Mierle
, Blanton &
Roweis
,

[The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 137, 2010]


Input: image of sky



Output:


Absolute position


List of objects



Geometric hashing

(quads of stars)


Lamdan

&
Wolfson

[ICCV’88]



Widely used by
pros & amateurs

Removing Atmospheric Distortions

Hirsch,
Harmeling
,
Sra

&
Schölkopf

, [Astronomy & Astrophysics 2011]


Ground
-
based telescopes look through atmosphere



Blind (online) estimation of atmospheric distortion and true
image



Far better than “lucky” imaging (current approach)

Hirsch,
Sra
,
Schölkopf

&
Harmeling
, [CVPR 2010]

Exoplanet

Imaging

Zimmerman et al.,

[Astrophysical Journal, 2009].

Oppenheimer and
Hinkley
,


[Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 2009].



Want to image planets around other stars



Need contrast ratio >10
10

for Earth
-
like planets



Diffraction in telescope


Light from star obscures planet



Deconvolution

problem


Big assistance from optical design

Planet

Crepp

et al.,

[Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 729, 2011].

Galaxy / Star Classification

Star
vs

Galaxy


[Sloan Digital Sky Survey]

Galaxy / Star Classification



Distinguish stars from galaxies



SVM
-
based models


Smith et al. [
A
&
A,
Vol. 522, 2010]



Generative model of galaxies


Lang et al. [In preparation]


Star
s


Galaxie
s


Data

Model

Future Directions


Unified

Bayesian

model



Propagate

uncertainty

from pixels



Physics
-

informed

priors



Funded by NSF CDI


Cosmology


Bayesian approaches to fitting high
-
level
cosmological models

http://cmml2011.wikispaces.com/

Cosmic Ray Classification


Raw image from Hubble Space Telescope: