12 - James Q. Jacobs

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Feb 23, 2014 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

CIS 105



Survey of Computer Information Systems

Essential Concepts and Terminology


Study Unit 12

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

Computer Security Risk.


Any event, action, or situation that
could lead to loss or destruction of
computer systems or data.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

Computer Crime.


Use of a computer in a manner that
violates the law.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

Cybercrime.


Use of the Internet to carry out illegal
activities.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

Authentication.


Regarding computer systems, those
techniques used to control access.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

Packet Sniffer.


A program that examines all traffic on a
section of network to find passwords,
credit card numbers and other
information of value.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

Social Engineering.


A form of deception designed to cause
people to divulge sensitive information.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

Superuser Status.


A classification, in multi
-
user operating
systems, enabling administrative access
to virtually all files on a network.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

SATAN.


A security loophole analysis program
designed for use by system
administrators (and abused by
electronic intruders) to detect insecure
systems.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

Computer Virus.


A program designed to attach itself to a
file, reproduce, and spread from one file
to another, destroying data, displaying
an irritating message, or otherwise
disrupting computer operations.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

File Infector.


Computer viruses that attach to
program files and spread when the
program is executed.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

Boot Sector Virus.


A computer virus that infects the
sectors on a disk that contain the data
a computer uses during the boot
process. This type of virus does not
require a program to spread, and may
cause the destruction of all data on a
drive.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

Macro Virus.


A computer virus that infects the
automatic command execution
capabilities (macros) of productivity
software. Macro viruses are typically
attached to documents and
spreadsheets.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

Executable File.


A file containing instructions capable of
running on a computer, usually with an
.exe extension if intended for use on a
PC.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

Time Bomb (Logic Bomb).


A computer program (virus) designed to
stay in a computer system undetected
until it is triggered at a certain date or
time, or by a certain event.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

Worm.


A program designed to enter a
computer system, usually a network,
and replicate itself. Worms can take
control of resources to attack other
computers.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

Trojan Horse.


A computer program that appears to
perform a useful function while actually
doing something malicious, such as
inserting a virus, stealing a password,
or destroying data.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

Hackers.


The term "hacker” once meant a
computer hobbyist or a computer
novice. In most contexts today, it
means a person who has gained
unauthorized access to a computer
system.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

Crackers.


People who break into a computer
system with intent to damage files or
steal data, or who are driven to hack
highly secure systems.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

Trap Door.


A means to bypass normal security
precautions and enter a computer
system. A trap door is often created
during computer installation and
testing, or for personal exploitation.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

Power Spike.


A sudden increase of power that lasts
less than a millionth of a second.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

Power Surge.


A sudden increase of power that can
last several seconds. Power surges can
destroy electronic components.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

Uninterruptible Power Supply
(UPS).


A battery
-
powered device that detects
power outages and voltage drops, and
automatically replaces the electrical
supply source without interruption.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

Callback System.


A system to control access to a
computer by verifying information and
calling the person requesting access at
a specified phone number.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

Tokens.


Handheld electronic devices, used to
authenticate users, that generate logon
codes, and that may provide digital
certificates.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

Smartcards.


Credit card
-
sized devices with their own
internal memory, often used to control
access to computer networks.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

Biometric Authentication.


Biological measurements, such as
fingerprinting, retinal scans, and voice
or facial recognition, used to verify a
person's identity.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

Firewall.


A program to prevent or limit external
access to a computer from networked
connections.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

Anti
-
Virus Software.


Computer programs used to scan
computer memory and disks to identify,
isolate, and eliminate viruses.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

Backup Software.


Programming used to periodically make
a backup copy of specified hard disk
data, to enable restoring lost material.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology


Unit 12

End of Study Unit 12.

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Created by James Q. Jacobs