The Theory and Practice about

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Nov 6, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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The Theory and Practice about
Knowledge management

Methodology Explore about Knowledge management

of Complex System

Lin Jian

xiang

School of Education

Peking University

linjxlinjx666@sina.com


Content


Introduction


1. The precise meaning of LOGO.


2. The Broader Significance of this
Methodology.


3. Application for Educaton Review


4. Methodology Explore of Knowledge
management about complex system

Introduction
(1)



As the knowledge
-
based enterprises increase rapidly,
with larger proportion in modern enterprises, knowledge
management emerged, developed rapidly too.



In terms of education, the essence of education is the
production, transmission, exchange, and management of
knowledge and information. Knowledge management for
education are equally important.



In recent years, talk more and more
about “ apply education “
informationalize”
to promote education modernization.”

Introduction
(2)



Why informationalization of education are able
to promote the modernization of education, why
to promote education modernization must use
information technology?



Either absorb the knowledge, the fruit of
enterprise knowledge management, or
knowledge management work in education
together to promote innovation further
,

the
meaning of
informationalize
is an
important base of all

topic.

Introduction
(3)


Then what is “
informationalize”
? In simple
word, “informationalize” is methodology, the
methodology of the information age.



When I contact with Guizhou Teacher Fu at the key project
“LOGO promote innovation of mathematics education” and
the study in the experiment that bring programming learning
and mathematics learning in combination, I feel LOGO is
not only a distinctive programming language, but is an
important methodology with modern characteristics . LOGO
has closely cross
-
connection with the extensive application
of the concept of information and informationalize. And
show more clearly the meaning as mothodology.


1. The exact meaning of LOGO.(1)




LOGO

originally means
logic, or structure (model, schema,
context)

.



LOGO

is the
philosophy about

education, epistemology, in

particular is
methodology.





LOGO come from A
ncient Greek

“logos”, the
meaning is
the structure of things or logic,
---

a static

term.



We here LOGO is refer to the extension of this
term,
methodology

--

static

structure, adding
more emphasize analysis, synthesis and
construction, all are components of
dynamic
operation

.


1.
The exact meaning of LOGO(2)
.




It means:

" Decompose

the Object

in
study into basic component

(or
elements), base on these components
further integrated

into different levels of
model, schema

(math terminology) or
semantic

(linguistic terminology).





From the very simple component can be gradually
built a

very complex information world”.



From the basic components can be integrated
continuously, which is the right meaning of concept
construction
.

1.
The exact meaning of LOGO(3)


To describe and explain further:


The basic components of the things (also called )
is
first
object, attributes

and
relationships.



Various objects and various relationship between the
components compose to be different structure.



The structure can be regarded as objects
again to form multi
-
level structure .


The
connotation

of
objects that
distinguished from

different
attributes and the

different
values. The structure can have their
own attributes and to be distinguished each.



Object
--
decomposed into

Components


(
basic elements, or may decomposed again
)
---

synthesis to be
---

the new Object



The concept map, and the concept of derivative map
are similiar to LOGO idea.




Structure


LOGO,

General logic Mathematics


Object
&
Relation

formed S
tructure.





The concept of
The structure of number

multi
-
level

semantic
structure




Semantic Web


All are

static :
structure
.

Operation


Operation Calculation


Operation

on few

objects
-

such as
connectivity.



Operation on
overall structure

such as
transformation,



---

More complex
---

reorganization
.



All are
Operation




A bunch of operation

--

algorithm


Procedures is a special and complex operation.


Procedures is an expression of algorithm



These are dynamic, verb
-

Constructivism.




So, we see “logo idea come from the long
-
term development of Mathematics.





mathematical modeling.

---

model composed
from basic components
正向


Positive.



Solve the problem.

---

Composition by the
statement
algorithms or procedures

to
express

things

is also problem solving


反向
.

Reverse.





2.
The broader significance of
the methodology




LOGO concept development accomplished with
mathematics in the long history of progressive
development
-

This is the pre
-
computer age, but
cause the birth of computer.



We see from the macro
-
view


There is
a long
-
term context

in the history
of the
mathematics
development
-

-

to find
component of object, base on these component
that a large quantity of facts can be integrated or
derived. That
is exactly the spirit of axiomatic .


The history of
mathematics

Egypt empirical geometry
---

to Euclid axiomatic
geometry
-

to a deeper level of math
-
thinking

numeric and graphic combination



Combine geometry and Arab arithmetic, algebra,
Italy equation make
analysis geometry
come to
world.



Then found an understanding of the
profound

methodology from
mathematics
. When decomposition
to be more detailed, to be more basic element, the
generate ability will be more powerful.





The history of
mathematics


Then logic
---

propositional logic
, and
predicate

logic
---
the decomposition and integration of
thinking model
.


Then
Set

Theory

this have been the base of all
mathematic knowledge representation.



Then

Model of algorithm

--

model of
Turing.



Then Von
-

Neumann computer.



All mathematics knowledge be analyse to the most
primitive atomic constituents, or
digital, as
result of
the birth of the computer.




These can be seen as
the main

analyze
stage.


The history of
programming



Achieve the most basical elements decomposition,


huge capacity of description and generation grow



After that a
powerful integrated

stage comes:


,




Recall the history of programming, b
ased on the
hardware

,from compiled language, the formula language,
high
-
level language, to mathematical language


and the procedure language, functional language
productive language, object
-
oriented language


and the LOGO language, Mathematica language.

Go Ahead



So, programming language has enormous capacity,
seem have the ability to turn
all the world into
computer.

(Of course, this is only ideal, many difficulties
ought to be overcome)



Applied Mathematics with Computer have
the
enormous devolopment.




Not only that, by study the important concept
“ information”, gradually formed many kinds of
“information science”, and then to explore “the
unite information science” and that maybe
approach the concept,” the methodology of the
information age”.

A few simple examples below to show

LOGO methodology’
broader

sinificance.

(1)



Material world is composed from
elementary particles, electronics, neutrons,
protons, atoms, molecules and
supramolecular many levels.



Then from supramolecular, protein to
cells, again, to the phenomenon of life; then
growup of biological populations by genetic
transfer.



And then human society composed from
senior intelligence life, have the brain to
think and communication ability by language.


A few simple examples below to show LOGO
methodology’
broader

sinificance.

(2)


Putonghua voice can be decomposed into consonant,
vowel, and tone various components and then base on
these component could generate all the voice.


Language is composed from character, word, phrase,
sentence, paragraph, chapter different levels of
elements
construction .



Geometer's Sketchpad can be seen as geometric shapes
add graphics transformation that should maintain graphic
structure, and function concept with correspondence
notion, conbine all these conponents to form a kind of
advanced knowledge representation, that is,
micro
-
world
.

A few simple examples below to show LOGO
methodology’
broader

sinificance.

(3)



Image thinking can be seen as the analysis


獹湴桥獩猠慮a⁴牡湳景牭慴r潮o景爠慵f楯
-
癩獵慬v
representation, then
form the procedure

of imagery
innovation.




Odor
remote transmission may go through analysis to
all the basic elements of smell out,then coding. So long
as the two side has the common agreement of basic
ingredients, and build a generator, it can transfer only by
code, and in remote areas reorganize out the odor.


Ancient Chinese book of Change (Yi): Tai
-
Chi divided to
twin, twin to Quartet, Quartet to Octet
,

that show the
universe is constantly decompose to element, symbols
eight diagram is code, Gua like the phase. Combine code
and Gua to further combinations, may gain all things. So
eight diagram

reflects as the early LOGO
methodology.


Some conclusion


Synthesis

and
analysis methodology ought to
distinguish between "code" and represention of
"elements", or distinguish between "digit" and
"phase." these are linked, but these are differences.
The "digit" is abstract, and "phase" can be very
concrect.



The above examples show some
original logic of things
,
some
the logic,
reflected by

the concept in the brain
(the concept map), and some is dynamic methodology
motivate logical extension and innovation (thinking),

and then be the
logic of
many

artifitial design
.


Why are we here with the emphasize on
the verb meaning of this methodology?




The dynamic of this methodology,

which
stressed the analysis and synthesis, operation,
algorithm and led
to the formation of the
process, development and motivation
to build
more things .





This has led philosophy

from
the
speculative?

to

the progress of
real
-
construction.



then the concept of
the virtual world.

3.
Applications for the field of
education review

3.1 Model of thinking.



Building block .

Good idea for entrance education of
information technology in early childhood
---





Through the combination of elements, the value self
-
evaluation,
that is, model of problem

Solving. But the goal is not clear, and
the element couldn’t divide again.



LOGO Programming.



= Data structure + Algorithm


Also a kind of
building block ,
but the component
could be divided again. More opportunity to innovation.





3.2 Innovation mechanism.



Generate and test = Problem
-
solving




Free combination of fixed elements
-

could
generate many valuable model, but the model
has need

to go through testing, whether
meet predetermined goal or not.




Through increase the basic component,
especially
further decomposition into more
detail element, and reorganization
-

---

has let
problem
become more open.



Re
-
organization is the most powerful
innovation mechanism.

3.3 Internalize and externalize



Originally from the outside world

through
learning,
Through innovative thinking
-

problem solving


into the concept Logic in the brain.


Internalize




Again, to design, to solve problem, transform
the dominant form of knowledge in the brain ,
into Artifacts (man
-
made products) logic.



Externalize



3.4 Image Expression


People with visual organ can accept image
information, the efficiency is very high, the
graphics are static structure. However, the lack
of human organ to free express of image. To
draw the graphic
-
imaginings, has to use
symbols, word, language, these basic
components to
creatively
build expression
.



So, scenes feel is not enough.

The
image

thinking

and
logic thinking, the function of
right and left brain
are complementary, and
are indispensable each.


Hidden image need to use language to
express also.


Learning by accept transfer
---

the transfer of static structure.




As procedures in the programming, if it is usually
used, give the structure a name or symbol , can also
give procedures names. When necessary, calling with
this name, no need programming again.




Concept possese a clear and complex semantics.
When human think, the concept can be used to
reduce many complexity,

and do
high
-
level thinking
.
In interpersonal contacts, if common understanding of the
concept exist , human could use high level concept to talk
about complicated matters, and still be understood each
other.


(At the Internet age, the development of the
World Wide Web
markup language,

give the structurize information (procedure) a
label
(tag)
, when transfer, only
label (tag),

structure of labels need, if
the two sides have common agreement or common
interpretation procedures,

don’t need convey too much code, both
side could gain a lot of information and understanding. [7]


Learning by accept transfer


Analogy to the usually language exchange(conversation),
semantic represent go through its lower

semantic
components
to construct .

In the process of teaching,
use terms to transfer (even at close range)information
between different members (teachers and students,
students and students), if they have common definition
of words or common understand, then use words can
do very high
-
level exchange of complex ideas, all can be
understand each other.


We see
the benefits of acceptance learning that
create a common understanding of terms between
teacher and students, and can be very high
efficiency to teach high
-
level thinking.


Learning by Exploration

The decomposition process.

Constructivism.



But if the two sides haven’t common definition of the
term, (especially knowledge asymmetry between
teachers and students ) it need return to the definition of
terms, starting communication from the bottom. The
question is, the terms understanding, can’t be easily
transmitted by abstract term. Students also need
personal experience and common experience. Both
teachers and students create a common basis of
understanding of the term. This is simply acceptance
learning not so efficient and requires “learning by doing”
(through
directly by hands,

or personal experience
through activities
).



The most effective way to communicate is to change
“ listen and speak” into the personal
activities

and
direct experience.


Group Learning



Cooperative learning.

Include Interactive, understanding,
expression and recombination.



Dialogue between 2 persons:



Part A describe
---
Part B response (here including analysis,
understanding, problem solving, expression) is a complex
knowledge processing procedure also.



Cooperative learning.


Particularly complex issue which needs to understand from
several points of view. Personal perspective is limited, often
subject understanding, and the peer groups discussion and
questioned, often from different angles, from different points of
view , and gain a more in
-
depth understanding from the
comparison of groups discussion. Here, groups discussion

and
cooperation,
the same opinion or different views on the
consultation, integration

, these all involves
more
comprehensive

application
of

the
LOGO methodology



A lot of topic



The progress of
knowledge representation.



Learning Innovation model



Learning platform, cognitive tools

.


Learning materials (static), but learning is
process. and exercise is important in learning.


In the static situation to ask question
(thinking, judgment) to facilitate learning, or for
information processing.

A lot of topic



Classrooms reorganization

Various effective
learning methods, resulting in new teaching
design.


The knowledge representation and
knowledge management

in
E
-
learning.


The professional development platform of
teachers provides teachers groups
discussion garden spac

.


Regional motivate advance of technical
application



Combining the enterprise, school, institute in
community level Learning
-
based society.



Management include different
complex knowledge processing.


1.
Simple case : Conponent, structure,
construct,
and problem solving,

2.
Dialogue

: interaction, understanding,
expression, recombinantion.

3.
Complex network:



All involve complex system.



4. Methodology of knowledge
management.





The rapid development of social and
economic process, on the Internet and its
services are becoming increasingly important.


These services require knowledge
representation and knowledge management in
new perspective under the conditions of highly
complex world.



This can also be extended to
complex E
-
learning system.




In
complex system,

this
methodology
is still work or not?


New Problem that need to face


In a complex world, knowledge representation of
information systems that outside the common basic
knowledge, reasoning,

we have to do action and
judgment

under the
support of

limited rational
conditions incomplete and fuzzy
knowledge.

Such as:




To consider
unconscious, implicit knowledge
.



related to specific scenes and
situation,





and the

high degree of personalization.




It is not

formally
express, but is

embedded

knowledge.


personality in common, preferences framework.


4.1. Three levels of
informationalize.



There are three levels of informationalize:


1.
The concept levels of informationalize.

2.
The technical level of informationalize.


3.
There are another anotherlevels of socio
-
economic information system.




Informationalize is not just referring to the

technical level, with another two
-
level around, the

meaning and value of that information
-
based


methodology is relatively easy to understand.


4.1.1.
The concept levels of
informationalize.




Using information approach to process
problem of education (or broader) areas:


that include all the knowledge and
teaching (maybe social ) activities . Base on
the analysis and synthesis method to
construct information model and rationalize,
and optimize.





For example, first in the concept level : do
information analysis to the knowledge and
teaching activities in the classroom, found :



Easy to obtain class feedback Information is
the important ways of optimize

teaching effect
.


4.1.2.The technical level of
informationalize.



The key, relatively simple, and easy to
implement part of the model, develop
technology or hardware to achieve.




However, many complex parts, that
information technology difficult to achieve,
still remain excute by human.


That is, ought emphasize the integration of
people and technology , or “man
-
machine
cooperation”.




In the former case, training teachers to control
technology, do instructional design is very
important.





4.2 To free express scene, image, still need natural
language, application of the `basic vocabulary
and grammatical elements to construct
.




People with visual organ can accept image information
with high efficiency. However, human are lack of the
organ of free image expression.



To draw the graphic imaginings, need to use symbols,
character, language, these basic components to build
expression creatively .



So, only scenes feel is not enough.

The
image

thinking

and
logic thinking , right and left brain
function

are
complementary,

and both are
indispensable.




Hidden image need express by language.


analysis and synthesis methodology to
distinguish between "coding" and
represention of the "elements", or
distinguish between “digit" and "phase."


They are linked, but they are different.

The “digit" is
abstract, and "phase" can be very concrect.



Symbolic code point to different content:
phase, imagery, semantic representation,
mime or unspeakable knowledge.


4.
3.

The concept levels of informationalize, including
the social dimension of informationalize, whether
would result of tech level of informationalize?



The difference between man and machine interaction,
the distinction between computer interaction.
Machine and machine interaction is formalized, or
symbolic between text and text, symbols and symbol.
People with the computer turn mime knowledge to
be symbolic and speakable. Symbolic code point to
different content, semantic representation,
imaginery , mime knowledge that unspeakable.


If the reference is the same, we can understand each
other, or it may be similar, and come to the
approximate or fuzzy understanding.



Non
-
formalize symbolic Non
-
formalize


People A
---

text version 1___text version 2
---

person B



Complicated interactive must do by the
people. Machines is difficult to achieve.


But machines can still go ahead. As
multimedia, simulation, postures and
emotions case.



It may never be completed.


In Summery, the mothodology work well in the
complex case, only the complexity is highly
increase.