Organizational culture and Knowledge management

collardsdebonairManagement

Nov 6, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Organizational culture and
Knowledge management

B.V.L.Narayana

Sr Professor (T M )

RSC/BRC

Definitions

The set of shared attitudes, values,
goals, and practices that characterizes
an institution, organization or group
(Wikipedia)

Wilkins and Dyer (1988) suggest that
culture "is [composed] of the values,
competencies, and beliefs of a group of
people that strongly influence whether
and how organizational strategies are
implemented. (p. 522)."


Definitions

Schein (1990) defines culture as, "…a) a
pattern of basic assumptions, b) invented,
discovered, or developed by a given group, c)
as it learns to cope with its problems of
external adaptation and internal integration,
d) that has worked well enough to be
considered valid and, therefore e) is to be
taught to new members as the f) correct way
to perceive, think, and feel in relation to
those problems

Importance of culture

Karlsen & Gottschalk (2004) view culture as
important because it shapes assumptions
about what knowledge is worth exchanging;
it defines relationships between individual
and organizational knowledge; it creates the
context for social interaction that determines
how knowledge will be shared in particular
situations; and it shapes the processes by
which new knowledge is created, legitimated,
and distributed in organizations. Lack of
technology does not prevent KM activity


it
just means that KM activity must be
accomplished in different ways.


Importance of culture

Without the benefit of a culture that
recognizes, encourages, and rewards
KM activities, consistent performance of
KM activities will not occur. Interaction
and collaboration among employees is
important when attempting to transmit
tacit knowledge between individuals or
convert tacit knowledge into explicit
knowledge, thereby transforming it
from the individual to the organizational
level (Gold, et. al., 2001).

Model of knowledge
categories(Hedlund and Nonaka)

Knowledge
characteristics

Indivi
dual

Group

Organiz
ation

Inter
organizat
ion
domain

Articulated
knowledge
information
embodied cognitive
skills

Knowing
calculus

Quality circles
documented
analysis of its
performance

Organizati
on chart

Suppliers
patents and
documented
practices

Tacit knowledge and
information,
cognitive skills
embedded

Cross
cultural
negotiat
ion skills

Team
coordination
in complex
work

Corporate
culture

Customers
attitudes to
products and
expectations

Factors in culture and impact

Information Systems


Combine people, processes, and technology

Must be flexible and tailored to the type of
knowledge being captured, shared, or
created

Include formal and informal approaches

Impact

Build networks that foster
conversation,relationships, and trust among
employees.Generate a collaborative environment
in which employees know who knows what,know
what was done before, and use this knowledge to
resolve problems quickly and effectively.


Factors in culture and impact

Organizational Structure

Must be permeable and minimize the focus on
organizational silos

Must support learning and sharing of knowledge

Encourages the formation of teams, work groups,
and communities of practice

Impact

Allows the flow of knowledge regardless of
employee role, job function, or other traditional
boundaries. Facilitates sharing of knowledge and
learning to create even more knowledge. Allows
employees to bond socially and technically to
share information, build on each others
knowledge, and to solve problems.

Factors in culture and impact

Reward Systems

Consist of a balance between intrinsic and extrinsic
motivators

Encourage knowledge sharing across role and functional
boundaries; Must not trivialize knowledge sharing efforts

Include a formal assessment of achievements against
knowledge management objectives

Impact

Encourage knowledge sharing through formal systems,
such as financial incentives and compensation structures;
and through informal systems such as peer
-
to
-
peer
recognition. Acknowledge the value of sharing knowledge,
the contributions people make, and the importance of not
hoarding information or knowledge. Motivate employees to
develop innovations that would help them do things right
the first time.

Factors in culture and impact

Processes

Connect people with other knowledge people

Connect people with information

Enable conversation of information to knowledge

Encapsulate knowledge

Disseminate knowledge throughout organization

Impact

Promote collaborative problem solving, streamlined
workload, consolidated information, and enhanced
performance.Enable learning, sharing of cross
-
functional expertise, and sharing of worker
-
to
-
worker
knowledge. Develop information systems that enable
information to seamlessly cross traditional silos.


Factors in culture and impact

People


Most significant element of a knowledge management
system

Employees need reassurances that they are still valued after
they give up their knowledge

Level of trust greatly influences the amount of knowledge
that is shared

Impact

Fosters an environment where employees trust that their knowledge
is valued and ensures that the culture grows at the right pace, with
the right people, and in the right mix. Allows employees to do a better
job of aggregating useful information, and make it available to others
who need it when they need it.


Factors in culture and impact

Leadership


Provides strong and dedicated commitment to knowledge
management initiatives

Leads by example


Fosters open knowledge sharing by creating an environment built on
trust

Fosters a belief that organizational learning and knowledge
management are critical

Develops a customer
-
centered business orientation

Impact

Creates the vision, mission, objectives, and ethics code for the
organization as it develops its knowledge management system.
Endorses and sustains knowledge management initiatives by taking
on the role of coach and mentor. Removes barriers to progress.
Reinforces and rewards positive behaviors and promotes the right
people.Moves the entire organization toward knowledge management.

Factors in culture and impact

Factors in culture and impact