Knowledge Management in Theory

collardsdebonairManagement

Nov 6, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Knowledge Management in Theory
and Practice

Lecture 2: The Knowledge
Management Cycle

2

Overview


Major KM Cycles


Knowledge
-
Information Cycle (ACIIC
Knowledge Economy)


Meyer and Zack KM Cycle


Bukowitz and Wiliams


McElroy KM Cycle


Wiig KM Cycle

3

KM Cycle Processes


Knowledge Capture


Knowledge Creation


Knowledge Codification


Knowledge Sharing


Knowledge Access


Knowledge Application


Knowledge Re
-
Use

4

Bukowitz and Williams

GET

USE

LEARN

CONTRIBUTE

ASSESS

BUILD/SUSTAIN

OR: DIVEST

Knowledge

5

Bukowitz and Williams /2


Get
: seeking out information


Tacit and explicit


Being selective when faced with information
overload


Use
: combine content in new and interesting
ways to foster innovation in the organization


Learn
: learning from experiences


Creation of an organizational memory


6

Bukowitz and Williams/3


Contribute
: motivate employees to post
what they have learned to a knowledge base


Link individual learning and knowledge to
organizational memory


Assess
: evaluation of intellectual capital


Identify assets, metrics to assess them and link
these directly to business objectives

7

Bukowitz and Williams/4


Build and Sustain
: allocate resources to
maintain knowledge base


Contribute to viability, competitiveness


Divest
: should not keep assets that are no
longer of any business value


Transfer outside the organization e.g.
outsourcing


Patent, spin off companies etc.

8

Wiig KM Cycle


Processes by which we build and use knowledge


As individuals


As teams (communities)


As organizations


How we:


Build knowledge


Hold knowledge


Pool knowledge


Apply knowledge


Discrete tasks yet often interdependent & parallel

9

Wiig KM Cycle/2

Build Knowledge

Hold Knowledge

Pool Knowledge

Use Knowledge


Personal experience


Formal education and training


Intelligence sources


Media, books, peers


In people


In tangible forms (e.g. books)


KM systems (intranet, dbase)


Groups of people
-

brainstorm


In work context


Embedded in work processes

10

Wiig KM Cycle/3

Build Knowledge

Hold Knowledge

Pool Knowledge

Use Knowledge


Personal experience


Formal education and training


Intelligence sources


Media, books, peers


In people


In tangible forms (e.g. books)


KM systems (intranet, dbase)


Groups of people
-

brainstorm


In work context


Embedded in work processes

11

Building Knowledge


Learning from all kinds of sources to:


Obtain Knowledge


Analyze Knowledge


Reconstruct (
Synthesize
) Knowledge


Codify and
Model

Knowledge


Organize Knowledge

12

Building Knowledge
-

Examples


Market research


Focus groups


Surveys


Competitive intelligence


Data mining on customer preferences


Create taxonomy of customer types


Synthesis of lessons learned (what worked, what
didn’t)


generate hypotheses


Project management lessons learned


Identify attribute of suppliers who were most responsive, use this
to select future suppliers, also to develop requirements to include
in RFP


13

Wiig KM Cycle/4

Build Knowledge

Hold Knowledge

Pool Knowledge

Use Knowledge


Personal experience


Formal education and training


Intelligence sources


Media, books, peers


In people


In tangible forms (e.g. books)


KM systems (intranet, dbase)


Groups of people
-

brainstorm


In work context


Embedded in work processes

14

Holding Knowledge


In people’s minds, books, computerized knowledge
bases, etc.


Remember knowledge


internalize it


Cumulate knowledge in repositories (encode it)


Embed knowledge in repositories (within procedures)


Archive knowledge


Create scientific library, subscriptions


Retire older knowledge from active status in repository (e.g. store
in another medium for potential future retrieval


cd roms, etc.)

15

Holding Knowledge
-

Examples


Company owns a number of proprietary methods
and recipes for making products


Some knowledge documented in the form of
research reports, technical papers, patents


Other tacit knowledge can be elicited and
embedded in the knowledge base in the form of
know
-
how, tips, tricks of the trade


Videotapes of specialized experts explaining various
procedures


Task support systems

16

Wiig KM Cycle/5

Build Knowledge

Hold Knowledge

Pool

Knowledge

Use Knowledge


Personal experience


Formal education and training


Intelligence sources


Media, books, peers


In people


In tangible forms (e.g. books)


KM systems (intranet, dbase)


Groups of people
-

brainstorm


In work context


Embedded in work processes

17

Pooling Knowledge


Can take many forms such as discussions, expert networks
and formal work teams


Pooling knowledge consists of:


Coordinating knowledge of collaborative teams


Creating expert networks to identify who knows what


Assembling knowledge


background references from
libraries and other knowledge sources


Accessing and retrieving knowledge


Consult with knowledgeable people about a difficult problem,
peer reviews, second opinions


Obtain knowledge directly from a repository


advice,
explanations

18

Pooling Knowledge
-

Examples


An employee realizes he or she does not have the
necessary knowledge and know
-
how to solve a
particular problem


She contact others in the company who have had
similar problems to solve, consults the knowledge
repository and makes use of an expert advisory
system to help her out


She organizes all this information and has subject
matter experts validate the content

19

Wiig KM Cycle/6

Build Knowledge

Hold Knowledge

Pool Knowledge

Use Knowledge


Personal experience


Formal education and training


Intelligence sources


Media, books, peers


In people


In tangible forms (e.g. books)


KM systems (intranet, dbase)


Groups of people
-

brainstorm


In work context


Embedded in work processes

20

Using Knowledge


Use established knowledge to perform routine tasks, make
standard products, provide standard services


Use general knowledge to survey exceptional situations,
identify problem, consequences


Use knowledge to describe situation and scope problem


Select relevant special knowledge to handle situation,
identify knowledge sources


Observe and characterize the situation, collect and organize
information


Analyze situation, determine patterns, compare with others,
judge what needs to be done

21

Using Knowledge (con’t)


Synthesize alternative solutions, identify options, create new
solutions


Evaluate potential alternatives, appraise advantages and
disadvantages of each, determine risks and benefits of each


Use knowledge to decide what to do, which alternative to
select


Rank alternatives & test that each is feasible, acceptable


Implement selected alternative


Choose and assemble tools needed


Prepare implementation plan, distribute it, authorize team to proceed
with this solution

22

Using Knowledge
-

Examples


Expert mechanic encounters a new problem


Gathers info to diagnose and analyze


Synthesizes a list of possible solutions with the
tools he knows are available to him


Decides on the best option and uses it to fix the part



Non
-
routine tasks are approached in a different way
than familiar, standard ones

23

KM Cycle Processes


Knowledge Capture


Knowledge Creation
& Contribution


Knowledge Codification
& Refinement (inc. Sanitize) &
Reconstruction (e.g. synthesis)


Selectively filter contributions


Knowledge Modeling


Knowledge Sharing
& Pooling


Knowledge
Organization &
Access


Knowledge
Learning &
Application


Knowledge
Evaluation &
Re
-
Use
OR Divest

24

Five Critical Knowledge
Functions for each KM Cycle Step


Type of knowledge or skill involved


Securities trading expertise


Business use of that knowledge


Increase the value of a retirement fund portfolio


Constraint that prevents knowledge from being fully
utilized


Expert will retire at the end of the year with no successor


Opportunities, alternatives to manage that knowledge


Elicit and codify knowledge before person retires


Expected value
-
added of improving the situation


Valuable knowledge is not lost to organization