Knowledge Management, But Were Afraid to Ask

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Knowledge Management Presentation


IRMAC
-

17 October 2001



Developed by
:

Dorothy Russel

Business Systems Modelling

(416) 461
-
6606

dorothy@interlog.com

Everything You’ve Always Wanted to Know About
Knowledge Management, But Were Afraid to Ask

Pg.
2


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

Presentation Outline


I have Knowledge, do you have Knowledge?


Do you know the way to San Jose?


Where does Knowledge come from?


Information grows up


Catching Knowledge so it doesn’t get away


Remembering where you put it
-

finding it again


Knowledge gets around
-

have your cake and eat it too


Would you buy used Knowledge from this man?


Old Knowledge doesn’t die, it just
lies

there


What does Knowledge Management really mean?


Not much new under the sun




Pg.
3


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

1. I have Knowledge, do you have Knowledge?

362
-
3328

my late father’s
phone number

things to see
in Barcelona

price paid for first
car ($5353.53)

How to
make a
soufflé

what
Knowledge
Management
is about

π to seven
decimal places
(3.1415926)

my ex
-
husband’s
phone number

How to find a phone
number for
someone in the
OPS


the mnemonics to remember the postal codes of:



my childhood home (Mum to Night to See six);



the first house I owned (Moo for Cows, I Saw nine); and



a girl in my university residence (Now five Rexs, I Very six
-
y)

how to
develop a
Project
Charter

the difference between
data, information and
knowledge

8 8 1 4 5 4 7

My sister’s
phone
number

Best to call at 8:50,
just after the kids
have gone to
school

Qualities that make a good
business analyst

(but I couldn’t possibly
explain it to you)

Procedure for
reserving
meeting rooms

Good place to take
my car for servicing

Who to consult
about bicycles

What’s involved in
writing a business
case

Mary had a little lamb,
its fleece was white . . .

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4


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

Knowledge is . . .


Knowledge is what we know:


Facts & figures


Experience


Ideas


Concepts


Theories


Principles & practices
-

How things work around here


How to’s


Who know’s


Where to go’s


What happens if . . .



Some of what we know is problematic


untruths, misconceptions, prejudices


lies, damn lies & statistics


obsolete knowledge

Pg.
5


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

Exercise 1: what do
YOU

know?


Make a list of some of your knowledge
-

include some work related
knowledge; perhaps add a column for knowledge contained in your
organization

Pg.
6


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

2. Do you know the way to San Jose?

Vancouver, BC

Portland, OR

Eugene, OR

Toronto, ON

Seattle, WA

San Jose?

Pg.
7


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

KM Objective: Use more of what we know


Knowledge Management is about USING what we know to:


Perform a task


Solve a problem


Make a decision


Create something new
-

innovate / invent / design


Plan a course of action




Knowledge Management activity: USE


The application of knowledge to work activities, decisions and
opportunities


Pg.
8


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

Exercise 2: What do you know for?


What kind of knowledge do you USE in your job? What do you use it
for?

Pg.
9


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

3. Where does Knowledge come from?

Pg.
10


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

Sources of New Knowledge


Mistakes
-

-

practice


Professional Sources / Experts


Stuff that’s written down / recorded
-

books, magazines, journals,
manuals, web
-
sites, videos, audio recordings, etc.


Presentations, lectures


Direct conversation


People you know


Opinions


Experience


Their trial & error



Knowledge Management activity: CREATE


The activities that result in new knowledge

Pg.
11


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

Exercise 3: where do you know from?


What are the main sources of new knowledge for you at work?

Pg.
12


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

4. Information grows up

81,100

33,950

7993

5270

2002

59

39

19

10

-
2

-
7

sq, mi

$ cd

$ cd

$ us

ddmm

¢

¢

days

º C

¢

º C

area of Lake Superior

price of a C coupe Mercedes Benz

price of a tandem bicycle

price of a tandem bicycle

my birthday

price of a pound of bananas at local green grocer

price of a pound of bananas at local grocery store

avg number of days with rain in Seattle in December

avg July temperature in Reno, Nevada

change in price of gasoline this month

avg daily high temperature in Thule, Greenland

$ 7993 cdn
-

MBS Tandems, Mississauga, Ont.

$ 5270 us
-

Peak Cycle, Corvalis Oregon



59
¢
-

green grocer

39 ¢
-

grocery store
--

closer

Bike prices:




Banana prices:

Pg.
13


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

A few definitions:


Data: a collection of raw, uninterpreted measurements / facts



Information: a collection of data within a context that provides meaning



Knowledge: the experience of using information to make judgements,
and the ability to link them to decisions or actions

Pg.
14


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

Exercise 4: Distinguishing Knowledge, data & information


Go back to your list from exercise 1
-

distinguish the data from
information from Knowledge

Pg.
15


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

5. Catching Knowledge so it doesn’t get away

Pg.
16


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

Knowledge Capture


Explicit Knowledge
-



written down / recorded


Easily transferable, reusable


Requires effort to keep up
-
to
-
date



Tacit Knowledge


In people’s heads


Imbedded in large amounts of personal context


Hard to make succinct / concise


Rich, interconnected



Knowledge Management activity: CAPTURE


The activities that enable recording and representation of tacit
knowledge in explicit form

Pg.
17


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

Exercise 5: Explicit & Tacit Knowledge


Go back to your list of knowledge from exercise 2, and identify which
knowledge is explicit and which is tacit.



Which of the tacit knowledge would be particularly beneficial to your
organization or colleagues?

Pg.
18


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

6. Remembering where you put it
-

finding it again

library


bookstore


customer accounts department


doctor’s office


grocery store


record store


video store


pictures / images


newspapers

Chronological



Alphabetical



Numerical



Category
-

type



Coding system



Sub
-
category

Pg.
19


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

Techniques for Organising Knowledge


Glossary / vocabulary
-

list of terms & their meaning; synonyms,
homonyms


Keywords
-

relationship between concepts and chunks of information
or knowledge


Taxonomy
-

classifications or sub
-
groups of content; user
-
oriented
organizing scheme


Knowledge maps
-

navigational aid to find relevant Knowledge sources
(information or people); describes linkages between related bits of
knowledge


Indexes
-

cross
-
references to sources & locations


Catalogues
-

collection of indexes



Knowledge Management activity: ORGANISE


The activities that classify and categorise knowledge for navigation,
storage and retrieval purposes

Pg.
20


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

Exercise 6: Organising Knowledge


Return to your list from exercise 2
-

how are the different kinds of
knowledge and information filed or organised?

Pg.
21


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

7. Knowledge gets around
-

Have your cake and eat it too

Pg.
22


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

Access and Sharing


Knowledge Management activity: ACCESS


knowledge is disseminated or requested by users



Sharing Mechanisms:


Common access to explicit, recorded knowledge


Directory of experts


Mentor / coach / apprentice


Joint projects
-

resource lending


Meetings
-

in person, virtual


Pg.
23


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

Exercise 7: Sharing Tacit Knowledge


Go back to your list of knowledge from exercise 2 which you added to
in exercise 5, and for the Tacit knowledge you identified, suggest
mechanisms to increase sharing.



Pg.
24


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

8. Would you buy used Knowledge from this man?

Pg.
25


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

Knowledge Provenance


When created


Who provided
-

source


Who interpreted / recorded


Context / relevance


Category


Expected life span / obsolescence


Retention criteria

Pg.
26


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

Exercise 8: Provenance


Give some examples of provenance
-
type information you’ve
encountered.



Give some examples where it’s missing.

Pg.
27


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

9. Old Knowledge doesn’t die, it just
lies

there


Search results for "renaud, chris" within "All".



1.[ Renaud, Chris ] [ CIO, Economics/Business Cluster (Acting) ] [ MANAGEMENT BOARD OF CABINET ]


[BUSINESS CLUSTER CHIEF INFORMATION OFFICERS, Toronto ] [ 416
-
326
-
1660 ]
[chris.renaud@mbs.gov.on.ca]



2.[ Renaud, Chris ] [ Chief Information Officer ] [ CONSUMER AND BUSINESS SERVICES ]


[OFFICE OF THE CHIEF INFORMATION OFFICER, Toronto ] [ 416
-
326
-
1660 ]
[chris.renaud@mbs.gov.on.ca]



3.[ Renaud, Chris ] [ Chief Information Officer ] [ LABOUR ]


[OFFICE OF THE CHIEF INFORMATION OFFICER, Toronto ] [ 416
-
326
-
1660 ]
[chris.renaud@cbs.gov.on.ca]



4.[ Renaud, Chris ] [ Chief Information Officer ] [ ENERGY, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ]


[ECONOMIC AND BUSINESS CLUSTER
-

INFORMATION AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, Toronto ]
[ 416
-
326
-
1660 ]


[chris.renaud@mbs.gov.on.ca]



5.[ Renaud, Chris ] [ Chief Information Officer ] [ ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND TRADE ]


[ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS CLUSTER
-

INFORMATION AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, Toronto
] [ 416
-
326
-
1660 ]


[chris.renaud@mbs.gov.on.ca]



6.[ Renaud, Chris ] [ Office of the Corporate Chief Strategist
-

Management Board ] [ COUNCILS AND
COORDINATORS ]


[ONTARIO SYSTEMS COUNCIL, Toronto ] [ 416
-
327
-
3061 ] [renaudc@mbs.gov.on.ca]

as of 7 Sept 2001

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28


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

Knowledge Maintenance


States of Knowledge


current & accurate


old, but still interesting


wrong


irrelevant



Maintenance Triggers


retention period


expiry date


review cycle



Maintenance Activities


review & update


discard / delete / destroy


archive

Pg.
29


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

Exercise 9: Knowledge Maintenance


Go back to your first knowledge list, Exercise 1
-

is any of that
knowledge obsolete?



What are the mechanisms which update knowledge in your
organization?

Pg.
30


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

10. What does Knowledge Management really mean ?

deliberate

systematic

discipline

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31


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

Knowledge Management Framework

Dispose

Plan

Create

Capture

Organize

Access

Use

Evaluate

Managerial
Feedback

Managerial
Feedback

Knowledge Life Cycle

Pg.
32


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

Exercise 10: Your Knowledge Management initiatives


Describe two places in your organization where there would be value in
improving KM practices through intentional efforts, perhaps to:


Increase use of some under
-
used knowledge


Enhance sharing


Enable capture of tacit knowledge that’s not currently shareable


Provide an organising scheme, or


Improve access to some store of explicit knowledge


These are your own KM initiatives

Pg.
33


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

Not much new under the sun


Determine the enterprise’s knowledge requirements



Determine the availability of required knowledge




Identify the gaps




Determine the source of the required knowledge




Develop an action plan to fill the gaps





(sounds like a conceptual data model to me)





(a mapping of conceptual entities to current systems / sources files?)





(gap analysis anyone?)





(a business function model and data to function mapping)





(um, a series of projects maybe?)



Isn’t this just like business systems architecture?

Pg.
34


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

References


F. Caldwell,
CEO Update: Measuring the Success of Enterprise Knowledge Management
, The Gartner Group,
Dec. 2000


Cedar Inc.,
How Knowledge Management Drives Competitive Advantage
, Cedar Inc.


A. Cushman, M. Fleming, K. Harris, R. Hunter, B. Rosser,

The Knowledge Management Scenario: Trends and
Directions for 1998
-
2003,
The Gartner Group, 1999


Thomas H. Davenport & Laurence Prusak,
Working Knowledge: How Organizations Manage What They Know,
Harvard Business School Press, 1998.


Nancy Dixon,
Common Knowledge: How Companies Thrive by Sharing What They Know
, Harvard Business
School Press, 2000


Executive Resource Group,
Managing the Environment: A Review of Best Practices,

http://www.ene.gov.on.ca/envision/ergreport/index.htm, Jan 2001


K. Harris, T. Austin, J. Fenn, S. Hayward, A. Cushman,
The Impact of Knowledge Management on Enterprise
Architecture,
The Gartner Group, Oct. 1999


K. Harris, J. Jacobs,
Knowledge Management vs. Information Management
, The Gartner Group, Sept. 2000


S. Hayward,
Technologies and Products for Knowledge Management
, The Gartner Group, Feb. 2000


S. Hayward, K. Harris,
Is Knowledge Management Needed for E
-
Business?
, The Gartner Group, Oct. 1999


Health Canada,

Vision and Strategy for Knowledge Management and IM/IT for Health Canada
, http://www.hc
-
sc.gc.ca/iacb
-
dgiac/km
-
gs/english/vsmenu_e.htm. 1998


IBM Canada,
Creating Leading Knowledge and Information Management Practices,

Dec 2000 (part of Executive
Resource Group report)


D. Logan,
Content Management Meets Knowledge Management
, The Gartner Group, Feb. 2001


Daniel Rasmus,
A Framework for Implementing Knowledge Management
, Giga Information Group, Aug. 2000

Pg.
35


© Dorothy Russel, Oct. 2001

QUESTIONS?