Knowledge

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Nov 6, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Knowledge Mobilisation Joint Research

1


KNOWLEDGE MOBILISATION

RESEARCH, Part I

Christer Carlsson

IAMSR/Abo Akademi University

christer.carlsson@abo.fi

Draft 1.5

August 2, 2006

Knowledge Mobilisation Joint Research

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Executive Summary


Knowledge Mobilisation has five parts: (i) creating, building &
forming knowledge; (ii) activating latent knowledge; (iii)
searching for, finding and systematising hidden knowledge, (iv)
making knowledge mobilisation operational with MAS
technology, and (v) expanding the limits of the possible in the
structures of everyday life by making knowledge mobilisation
part of mobile value services and using mobile technology


Proposal
:
(i) a start
-
up project in Finland on Knowledge
Mobilisation, to
form

and
activate

(ii) a joint strategic research
project on Knowledge Mobilisation, which (iii) will
drive

a
European Centre of Excellence in Knowledge Mobilisation

Knowledge Mobilisation Joint Research

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Mobilisation [Peter Keen]


To mobilise: “make or become ready for action”


Contrast mobilisation with management:


Information management
: the transaction processing and
data base era: organize data to turn it into information


Information mobilisation
: the Web and its prodigies, bar
coding: create mechanisms for access to and distribution of
information; “google” as a verb


Knowledge management
: a spectrum of information
resources and communication facilitators: supply
-
driven


Knowledge mobilisation
: activation of information and
communication as needed, where needed, when relevant and
to whom; demand
-
driven

Knowledge Mobilisation Joint Research

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Knowledge Mobilisation [Peter Keen]


Standard corporate intranet: product information, inventory status


Knowledge management resource; users access it centrally “@”


Sales rep does not tap into inventory information via desktop


not in
the form and structure he needs


and he does not know how to
modify it


Field technicians can’t access it anyway; need to contact the “office”
and find an information broker as they are not given own access


Out in the field, sales rep needs unanticipated information to meet a
client contact situation; not foreseen in the knowledge base


Field technician needs unanticipated inventory and product data


needs to describe the data over a mobile phone


The inventory status has changed; outdated info used for decisions


Give them mobile knowledge access and knowledge mobilisation
technology


significant time & cost savings and the work is done

Knowledge Mobilisation Joint Research

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Knowledge


There are quite a few definitions/ideas what
knowledge

is about
[as collected by Thomas J. Beckman]:


Knowledge is organized information applicable to problem solving
[Woolf]


Knowledge encompasses the implicit and explicit restrictions placed
upon objects (entities), operations and relationships along with general
and specific heuristics and inference procedures involved in the situation
being modelled [Sowa]


Knowledge is reasoning about information and data to actively enable
performance, problem
-
solving, decision
-
making, learning and teaching
[Beckman]


Knowledge consists of truths and beliefs, perspectives and concepts,
judgments and expectations, methodologies and know
-
how [Wiig]

Knowledge Mobilisation Joint Research

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Knowledge Typologies


Typologies are defined, categorized and described in terms of
knowledge type
-
conversion, structural features, elementary
properties, purpose and use, and conceptual levels [Beckman]:


Tacit knowledge [Nonaka
-
Takeuchi]
: knowledge of experience (body
skills), simultaneous knowledge (here and now), analogue knowledge
(practice)


Explicit knowledge [Nonaka
-
Takeuchi]
: knowledge of rationality
(mind), sequential knowledge (there and then), digital knowledge
(theory)


Brooking has defined four conceptual levels of knowledge:


Goal
-
setting or idealistic knowledge


Systematic knowledge


Pragmatic knowledge


Automatic knowledge

Knowledge Mobilisation Joint Research

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Knowledge Management


The theory development around Knowledge Management
[KM] has been carried out for about 15 years [Beckman]:


KM is the systematic, explicit and deliberate building, renewal and
application of knowledge to maximize an enterprise’s knowledge
-
related
effectiveness and returns from its knowledge assets [Wiig]


KM is getting the right knowledge to the right people at the right time so
they can make the best decision [Petrash]


KM applies systematic approaches to find, understand and use
knowledge to create value [O’Dell]


KM is the formalization of and access to experience, knowledge and
expertise that create new capabilities, enable superior performance,
encourage innovation and enhance customer value [Beckman]

Knowledge Mobilisation Joint Research

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Knowledge Management


There are ten general principles of KM [Davenport]:


Knowledge management is expensive (but so is stupidity)


Effective management of knowledge requires hybrid solutions involving
both people and technology


Knowledge management is highly political


Knowledge management requires knowledge managers


Knowledge management benefits more from maps than models, more
from markets than hierarchies


Sharing and using knowledge are often unnatural acts


Knowledge management means improving knowledge work processes


Access to knowledge is only the beginning


Knowledge management never ends


Knowledge management requires a knowledge contract [i.e. intellectual
property issues]

Knowledge Mobilisation Joint Research

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Knowledge Management


There are six steps forming a KM process [Holsapple
-
Joshi]:


Acquiring knowledge
: extracting, interpreting, transferring


Selecting knowledge
: locating, retrieving, transferring


Internalizing knowledge
: assessing, targeting, depositing


Using knowledge


Generating knowledge
: monitoring, evaluating, producing, transferring


Externalizing knowledge
: targeting, producing, transferring


History:


1980 Digital Equipment Corporation [XCON, expert system]


1989 Price Waterhouse [KM integrated in business strategy]


1991 Harvard Business Review [Nonaka
-
Takeuchi]


1994 Large consulting firms [KM services offered to clients]


1996 Various firms and practitioners [KM became a hype movement]

Knowledge Mobilisation Joint Research

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Knowledge Management Markets


Google brought back 655 million references to
Knowledge
Management

in 0.29 seconds [quite an active reference]


KM has become embedded in the policy, strategy and
implementation processes of worldwide corporations,
governments and institutions.


The global KM market was estimated [Malhotra] at USD 8.8B
in 2005; the KM technology is expected to be part of the CRM
market, which is estimated at USD 148B in 2006 and KM is
expected to save USD 31B in annual re
-
invention costs at
Fortune 500 companies; the broader KM application context
which includes learning, education and training shows
significantly larger markets

Knowledge Mobilisation Joint Research

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Knowledge Management Failures


Knowledge Management is described as “getting the right
information to the right person at the right time”; this builds on
the assumption that all relevant knowledge can be foreseen and
stored in databases and modified, enhanced and developed with
software, rules and practices [Malhotra]


KM builds on the following assumptions [Malhotra]


The same knowledge can be re
-
used by any human mind (or computer)
to re
-
process the same logic to produce the same outcomes


The same outcomes will be needed and delivered again and again
through an optimal use of input resources


The system’s primary objective is to achieve the most efficient means for
transforming pre
-
specified input to predetermined outcomes


There is no need for subjective interpretation of information

Knowledge Mobilisation Joint Research

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Knowledge Mobilisation Potential


Knowledge Management may be valid for a static world in
which pre
-
specified inputs, processing logic and the expected
outcomes represent an optimal mode of activities


Knowledge Mobilisation [adapted from Malhotra] develops
relevant technologies for


Intelligence in action which requires an active, affective and dynamic
representation of knowledge as a dynamic construct


Active: knowledge is adaptive to a changing context


Affective: cognitive, rational and emotional [subjective interpretation]


Dynamic: proactive and adaptive reinterpretation of data, information and
assumptions


Continuous re
-
assessment of performance outcomes


“Knowledge resides in the user and not in the collection”
[Churchman]; “knowledge, unlike information, is about beliefs
and commitment” [Nonaka
-
Takeuchi]