Implementation of a Self-Health Management System on an Android Mobile Device

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Nov 17, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Implementation of a Self
-
Health Management System on an Android
Mobile Device

Jun
-
Yen Lin

1
Shinn
-
Der Sheu

1
Jun
-
Yu Chen
2

1
Department of
Information

Engineering
,
Nan Jeon

Institute of Technology,
Tainan 73749,
Taiw
an


2
Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology
,
N
an Jeon Institute of Technology
.


E
-
mail:

uflin56@mail.njtc.edu.tw

A
BSTRACT

The
purpose

of this
paper

is to implement a remote self
-
health management system on
an Android mobile device.

We are integrated with Bluetooth blood pressure and pulse
monitor
, and android mobile device is designed and implemented to transmit the
physiology

parameters of the patie
nt in real time via
Bluetooth

wireless
transmission
.
When some abnormal
condition
s are identified by the program run in the Android
mobile device, the device will send short message to the medical personnel

for further
processing
. And then, the Android
mob
ile

device
upload the datasets

and location
latitude and longitude to back
-
end database by 3G or Wi
-
Fi
.
The
patient

or medical
personnel can
login in web server via internet
to understand relevant parameters

of
patient

and their
location coordinate in the
types of charts by Google Maps and Chart
API.

By the above health
-
care system, the patient with hypertension or other chronic
disease can easily monitor long
-
term of
physiology

parameters. Our proposed and
implemented device will help patient to
keep their

self
-
health management very well

and obtain better health
-
care services.


Key words:

Android, self
-
health management, Google Maps, Google Chart.


1.

INTRODUCTION

For most of this decade, humanity as a whole has fit the World Health
Organization definition
of an ageing society

-

one in which more than 7% of the
population is over the age of 65.
B
y June 2012

there were
2,555,000

persons

over the
age of 65

in
Taiwan

from the report of
Directorate
-
General of Budget
,
Accounting,
and Statistics, Executive Yuan, R
.O.C

[1]
.

It was 11% of the population and increased
61,000 persons compared to 2011’s.

F
or last four decade in Taiwan
, the
rate of ag
e
ing
population

increases twice every 12 years

and
the number of over
-
65s will exceed
20%

at 2025
. However
, the
family’s
structure

change
, the busy life style and
unbalanced diet of the modern people, the rate of hypertension,
arteriosclerosis
, and
other kinds of
cardiovascular

disease has been increasing.
So

the elderly

populations
and
chronic diseases

increasing

cause the
burden of healthcare is steadily increasing.

Today, it is thus necessary to have good h
ealth
care
services

to build.

The concept of telecare has been
addressed

under the
atmosphere
mentioned
before. The goal of telecare is to combine the technologies of inf
ormation and
communication with profession knowledge of medical care and engineering.
Consequently, the patients and ag
e
ing people can obtain a good medical care at home.
D
ue to the success of telecare
system,
the cost of medical care and society
can be
re
duce. Health care system at home could receive patient’s ECG
physiology

signals
by using cable television (CATV) or telephone in early days [2]. Later on, following
the progress of network and cellular phone, health care system at home has gradually
transf
erred into the regions of mobile care. For example, the medical team could
collect the datasets
such as
patient’s blood pressure, then showed information on the
screen of a PDA or a cellular phone [3
-
7]. Although collected datasets might upload
and show on

the cellular phone screen,
however,
the patients themselves could not
access the data contradictorily.

Recently, the advancement of wireless technology, the network extension, and
the enhanced functions

of hardware

cause the

mobile devices

more popular.

Mobile
devices are essential tools for our
dialing

living for which allow a higher portability
and accessibility.
At present
, there are
three

common
consumer
mobile devices

in
market, including Android, Window Mobile, and iPhone OS. The proportion of
Andro
id system is higher than the others in market share [8
-
9].
Android is an
open
-
source, software platform for mobile devices

that provides a Linux
-
based
operating system, a set of Java applications

for basic mobile device features, and
middleware
.

The openne
ss feature of the Android platform can promote

technology
i
nnovation, reduce

development cost, and can also help the programmers develop

all
kinds of
service
application
.


T
his

paper pro
pose
s

a
management

services on Android platform
to help

the
patients

and

ag
e
ing people
with chronic diseases
make self
-
management of health
care at home.
The users can easily obtain the long
-
tern of
physiology

parameters.
The
patient or medical personnel can also login in
the

web server via internet to acquire
the patient
health record and
location coordinate in the types of charts by Google
Maps and Chart
. For the ubiquitous network is to reduce the distance between the
patient

and medical center or provider

and thus the patient can obtain the better health
care services
.
The system surely can benefit the health of the ageing

people and
the
patient

with chronic diseases.

This paper is organized as follows.
In Section 2, we present related work
regarding the learning methodology, the hardware and software aspects of our syst
em.

T
he
implementation

of our system

is described in Section 3
. Finally, we conclude our
paper in Sect
ion

4.

2.

METHODOLOGY

Bluetooth is a
wireless

technology standard for exchanging data ove
r short
distances from fixed and mobile devices, creating
personal area networks

(PANs) with
high levels of security. The kernel is composed of radio frequency (R
F) receiver,
based
-
frequency and Bluetooth protocols.

It

using short
-
wavelength radio
transmissions in the
ISM

band from 2400
-
2480
MHz
.

If the Bluetooth communication
wants to initiate, it needs to explorer and match processes.

Android is

a

Linux
-
based kernel

and
open
-
source
operating system
. Google and
other members of the Open Handset Alliance collaborated on Android’s development
and
promote
.

Ii

is a software

stack for mobile devices including an operating system,
middleware and key

applications.

The Android SDK provides the tools and APIs
necessary to begin developing applications on Android platform using the
Java
language

[10
-
11]
.
J
ava is a cross
-
platform object oriented and important network
programming

language.
Nowadays,
Android
is gradually used in plat computer and
other relevant regions extensively. The application projects can be done by the
companies or individual
developers
.

Most of Android systems with location
-
based
services adopt the manner of GPS (Global Position System). However, there are several
drawbacks using GPS, for examples, fairly battery
-
consumed, not sending the
current
-
location message backward immediately. An
d, considering other problems,
such as message decay, multiple reflection of EM wave, and not keeping the line of
sight due to the building shield in the city, we choose Assisted Global Positioning
System (AGPS) to determine the location more precisely. Th
e ways of AGPS make the
decision by using the signals from Wi
-
Fi and cellular phone based stations. AGPS
provides the tool
-
kits (such as android.location) to access the Network Location
Provider. And, this assistant method should determine the location if
GPS cannot work
very well indoors.

The

architecture

of the system is shown as Fig.1, including
user
-
end
and

server
-
end
. For a user
-
end, the users have to set up remote self
-
health care application
programs in a
n

Android mobile device

in advance. So, they can monitor the
physiology

parameters

of heartbeats, blood pressure, and blood sugar, etc, by using medical
equipments at home. The
Android mobile device

smart phone can access the datasets
saved in medical equipments by using wireles
s Bluetooth
transmission

through the
processes of exploring and matching. And, it can position the users in the manner of the
coordinate with the
location

of latitude and longitude. Also, the information of the
user’s location coupled with physiology datas
ets could be uploaded to server
-
end
database by using 3G or Wi
-
Fi
.


Fig
.1
The
Architecture
o
f
t
he Self
-
h
ealth Care Management System

MySQL is an open
-
source related database management system. This system
becomes most popular in the world because it has s
everal extinguished features, such as
high performance, low cost, and good reliability. And, it is used extensively in middle
to small size of network web
-
page stations [12]. The developing engine of MySQL
database was InnoDB in our system. The characteris
tics of InnoDB support ACID
Bluetooth Blood
Pressure
/
Pulse
/
Gl
ucose
Meter
Mobile Device
Medical personnel
3
G
Wi
-
Fi
Web server
MySQL
Database
Google chart
Paitent
Internt
Internt
Server
User
-
end
Google Maps
compatible transaction. They help the operational functions of database form a
complete logical process to make sure the data integrate and consistence. The database
in our system comprises five data charts, including role, user
, doctor_group,
patient_group, and
physiology

parameter

.

Google leads the ways of network productions by its unique network applications.
Especially, it provides tens of Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) for
developing programmers, for example, Google Web
-
page search, iGoogle Themes API,
YouTube, Gmail,
Google Maps, etc. Google Chart API [13] and Google Maps [14]
would be used to make web
-
page more active. The former is a free

i
-
Cloud

and

on
-
line
plotting tool
, t
he process is depicted as Fig.2. It is a very convenient tool to show all
kinds of charts on W
eb
-
page simply. And, the charts can be plotted if the users post the
relevant web
-
page address. The later provides the global digital map services. There are
three different types on Google Maps. First shows the administrative divisions,
transportation and

business message as traditional ways. Second, it provides satellite
images in different resolution. Third, it expresses the terrain on the map by using
topographic charts and contour maps. It can position some interested locations if users
key in the info
rmation of latitude and longitude degrees. Furthermore, Google Maps not
only provide the users to view the maps directly, but also interact with the users if they
input relevant programs. The functions comprise the management of the travel routes,
search o
f the degrees of latitude and longitude, and query about the tour, etc.

The collected datasets would be saved in MySQL database through the
communications of a
mobile device

from the users of health care at home. Java Server
Page (JSP) was advocated by Sun

Microsystems at first. Later on, a lot of companies
participate in this project to build up the standards of Dynamic HTML (HyperText
Markup Language) technology. They make a great contribution of dynamic HTML.
Web
-
page server was built up by Apache Tomcat

7 in our research because it supported
JSP

and Servlet Dynamic HTML, then connected MySQL database by a manner of
JDBC (Java Database Connector). It could show the charts of physiology parameters
and the geophysical coordinates of the users of health care

at home on Web
-
page. At the
same time, coupled with Google Chart and by the connections of AJAX and back
-
end
MySQL database, the physiology parameters can be plotted in data table. The diagrams
of the changes of physiology parameters are plotted by the Go
ogle Chart on the
web
-
page.


Fig.2 The
P
rocess of Google Chart

API

The users of health care at home or medical personnel can access the datasets
saved in server
-
end server by using a personal computer or a smart phone through
network channels. Moreover, they can refer to the historical datasets at any time and
any place.
In the meantime, the medical personnel can read easily because the datasets
has been transferred into the types of charts. And, they can understand the differences
of
physiology

parameters whether caused by different locations of measurement or not?
The co
mparison of the datasets would help the users of health care at home or medical
personnel do their jobs much better about the management of health care at home and
follow
-
up healing process. The system could send a warning message by SMS (Short
Message Ser
vice) to medical personnel when the changes of physiology parameters are
abnormal. The care units can look up the personal data of the patients through back
-
end
database. Then, they can inquire the users by telephone about the current healthy
conditions. W
hen the emergency condition
occurs
, the medical units can initiate a
necessary
service

of
rescue

or medical treatment
to support the patients immediately.

The operational process of self management of health care at home is
shown as Fig.3
As shown in step


of Fig.3, the database of the account of username
and password has to be built up before the relevant data could be uploaded to database.
When the connection of the users of health care at home with server database works
well, the inform
ation of measurement and coordinate datasets can be uploaded to server
by verifying the username and password. The flow chart is depicted as Fig.4(a). The
step


of Fig.3 describes that the users have to key in username, password, and verify
code, to log i
n database system. Then, according to the status of the users, they can
http
://
Google Chart API
Google Spreadsheets
D
ata
ba
se
Data

Table
Data

Res
ource
+
chart and graph
browse the web
-
page of the management of health care at home and query the relevant
psychological data if necessary. The flow chart is depicted as Fig.4(b).


Fig
.3
The
Operational Pro
cedure Of Self
-
Health Management System.


3.

RESULTS

Before using the designed system of our research, the relevant personnel have to
register the account including username and password to upload the datasets or log in
web
-
page. In our prototype, the client
-
end (users) is equipped with the tools of
measuring blood sugar and sphygmomanometer with Bluetooth communication. Also,
the HTC hero smart phone is included (Fig.5).When the users of health care at home
measure their degrees of blood
-
pressure, blood
-
sugar
, and heart
-
beat in advance, the
smart phone, then, explorers Bluetooth equipment nearby. (Fig.6a) The result whether
the matching of blue tooth communication with a smart phone is successful or not is
shown on the screen of a smart phone. (Fig6b, 6c) If i
t works, the information would
be exchanged with each other by Bluetooth communication. The datasets of
Bluetooth Discover
Bluetooth Pair
Bluetooth Connect
Read Data
Save Data
Upload Data
Bluetooth Pair
Bluetooth Connect
Transmit Data
1
5
3
2
4
6
Mobile Device
Database
Sever
7
8
Medical
personnel
Bluetooth Blood
Pressure
/
Pulse
/
Gl
ucose
Meter
Web Server
P
atient
account

check
Google chart
Google Maps
9
Medical
personnel
measuring the degrees of blood sugar and blood pressure could be displayed on the
screen of HTC hero smart phone. (Fig.6d) Also, they can be saved in th
e hardware
memory of a smart phone or be uploaded to MySQL database of the server. (Fig.6e, 6f)
And, the users should log in the account by using presetting username and password.
Then, the upload data could be done successfully.

The main frame structures
of server
-
end’s web
-
page and MySQL database are
built by Tomcat 7 software. The users of self
-
management system can send the
datasets of ECG physiology parameters measured by themselves through the process
of an Android smart phone to server
-
end for the pu
rpose of saving. Such steps can
make them possible to check the changes of the parameters on web
-
page at any time,
any place by comparison of historical saved datasets.


(a)


(b)

Fig.4 The
flowchart

of up
-
loading datasets and browsing web
-
page, (a)the flow
chart of uploading the data of physiology parameters and location
coordinate, (b)the flow chart of verifying the user account’s status when
logging in web
-
page.

Login
web browser
Check account
,
password
,
and
checkcode
Ok
?
Error message
Login Database
ECG browse web
Patient
management web
role
=
?
role
=
1
role
=
2
End
No
Yes
Start
Connect Database
Get Account
Account
exists
?
Upload input password
by MD
5
method
Yes
Get password from Database
Check
ID
?
Error message
Error
No
Upload measured data
&
now the
latitude and longitude
correct


(a)

(b)

Fig
.5
The
Equipments
o
f User
-
e
nd, (A)The Equipments
o
f Measuring Blood
Sugar
a
nd Sphygmomanometer
w
ith
Bluetooth
Transmission; (B)
HTC
Hero Smart Phone.







(a) (b) (c)




(d)

(e) (f)

Fig6 User
-
end hardware, (a)Bluetooth exploring on a HTC hero smart phone,
(b)the screen shows the result that Bluetooth exploring is fail, (c)the screen
shows the result that Bluetooth exploring is successful, (d)Obta
ining the
arm strap
power
switch
Bluetooth
switch
data of measured physiology parameters, (e)Whether or not to save the data
of measured physiology parameters, (f)uploading the data of measured
physiology parameters to server’s database.


(a)
(b)

Fig.7 Logging in web
-
page on
S
erver
-
end (a)
U
sers; (b)
M
edical
P
ersonnel.

When the users logged in, web
-
page server makes use of HttpServlet to set up the
connection with database. In the same time, the screen would show personal datasets.
The last
-
time meas
urements of blood sugar, blood pressures (systolic pressure and
diastolic pressure), pulse, and time would be displayed on the upper portion of
web
-
page. The degrees of last five
-
time physiology parameters are also expressed
(Fig.8). One of the columns wou
ld indicate whether the blood pressure is normal or not?
The measurement location is plotted in Google Maps, too.

The system could send a warning message with the location coordinate of the
users to medical personnel when the changes of physiology parame
ters are abnormal.
When the condition takes place, the medical support personnel can initiate a necessary
process to help the users immediately. When the users choose the

chart

data


buttons,
Google Chart API can reload the information saved in database a
nd plot in the types of
charts. (Fig.9) It shows the results in visual types. So, the users can easily understand
the changes of parameters related to their body. Consequently, it will help the users
maintain their health care consistently.

When the medic
al personnel log in, they can click on the button of

Select Doctor

.
The list of each patient cared by an individual medical person would be shown on the
web
-
page (Fig.10a). Then, he can choose the patients he wants to follow up more.
Consequently, the re
levant datasets of physiology parameters and the measured
location coordinate would be displayed on the page to give the medical personnel
references. Fig10(b)

Fig
.8
The
Web
-
p
age
o
f
t
he Datasets
o
f
t
he Measurements
o
f Physiology
Parameters
a
nd Measured Location Coordinate
f
or Users.

Fig.9 The
W
eb
-
page of the
D
atasets
A
bout the
S
tatistics of
M
easurements of
P
hysiology
P
arameter.




(a)


(
b
)

Fig
.10
The
Login Web
-
p
age
f
or Medical Personnel, (A)Chooses
t
he List
o
f
t
he
Assigned Users
o
f Health Care
a
t Home, (B)The Chosen Users’ Datasets
o
f Measurements
o
f Physiology Parameters.


4.

CONCLUSION

Due to

the
ageing society with fewer children
, the busy life style and unbalanced
diet of the modern people, the rate of hypertension,
arterioscleros
is
, and other kinds of
chronic

disease
s

ha
ve

been increasing. So

the elderly

populations
and
chronic diseases

increasing

cause the burden of healthcare is steadily increasing.

If

t
he
physiology

parameters of
patient
with chronic diseases are constantly monitored, analog with the
support of the professional medical care and health education, those chronic diseases
can be
effectively

prevented and controlled.


This paper has proposed a
s
elf
-
h
ealth
m
anagement
s
ystem

incl
uding user
-
end
and server
-
end.

The user
-
end use
an Android phone as the
processing

ce
nter and
warning

message

generator in
collaboration of
the equipments of measuring blood
sugar and sphygmomanometer with Bluetooth transmission
.
T
he server
-
end is a
platform for message processing, data storage and browse to
construct

a remote health
care system

The users can easily obtain the long
-
tern of
physiology

parameters
and
surely can benefit the health of the ageing

people and the
patient

w
ith
chronic diseases
.

Our proposed and implemented device will help patient to
keep their
self
-
health management very well

and obtain better health
-
care services.



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