The World Bank Experience

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Nov 6, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Using Indigenous Knowledge to Adapt
Global Best Practices to Local Conditions:

The World Bank Experience

Presentation to APQC’s Fourth
Knowledge Management Conference

San Antonio, Texas

May 26, 2000


Nicolas Gorjestani

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

What we will share today


Part I: World Bank’s Knowledge Framework



Who we are, what we do



Evolution of knowledge sharing strategy



Lessons of experience


Part II: Learning from the Client



Role of Indigenous Knowledge



The process of adaptation

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Who we are...



International organization



Owned by 180 governments



9000 staff; 100+ nationalities



Regional offices in 100+ countries



~40% operational staff in the field



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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

What we do...



Help design/finance development programs



reconstruction of Europe



developing countries



fighting poverty



Leverage ideas and financial resources



Largest single source of development finance



Raise funds from capital markets/contributions

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Our competitive advantage...



Knowledge of development practices



over 50 years



100+ countries



variety of sectors



Largest source of development knowledge
under one roof

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank



World Bank mission statement







To help people help themselves and

their environment, by providing
resources,
sharing knowledge
...

To fight poverty with passion and
professionalism for lasting results

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

How we got here...



The age of pioneers (1995
-
1996)



Scaling up the “Knowledge Bank” (1997
-
99)



The age

of integration & adaptation (2000 >)


Three Phases

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Knowledge

management

Knowledge

sharing

=

Jargon

Plain English

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Tax policy and administration thematic group

October/November 1998

Public expenditure review

Madagascar
:


In the past:

“We’ll get

back to you”

Should VAT

(value added tax)

be applied to

medicines?

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Tax policy and administration thematic group

October/November 1998

Public expenditure review

Madagascar
:

should VAT (value added tax)
be applied to medicines?

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Task manager in Madascar:
how desirable are specific
reforms to the VAT (value
added tax) that the client was
contemplating?

Tax policy and administration thematic group

Within 72 hours...

Late October1998

Public expenditure review

Madagascar
:

should VAT (value added tax)
be applied to medicines?

Indonesia

field office

MNA Region

ECA Region

DEC

Retired

University
of Toronto

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Tax policy and administration thematic group

October/November 1998

Public expenditure review

Madagascar
:

should VAT (value added tax)
be applied to medicines?

The advice received

shaped the Bank

position as
communicated to

Govt, IMF and donors

In the new finance

law, medicines are

exempted from
VAT

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Global
experience
on
exemptions
from VAT

KMS

Expected

The experience will

be edited for re
-
use

and entered

into the knowledge base

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Increasingly

The client can get

this kind of

material in minutes

Future

Global
experience
on
exemptions
from VAT

KMS

How to make this real ?

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

While technology is a facilitator

Sharing depends on community

Indonesia

field office

ECA Region

MNA Region

DEC

Retired

AFR Region

University
of Toronto

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Knowledge & Learning Framework


What We KnoW & Don’t KnoW?

know

don’t know


know


what we


know we


don’t know


what we

don’t know we


don’t know


what we


know we


know


what we


don’t know


we know

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Knowledge & Learning Framework



How to Share & Learn?

internal

external

internal

knowledge sources

learn from


peers,


clients

share with,
learn from


global


networks

learn from

each other

by sharing

share with


clients,


partners

knowledge users

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Initially,

the focus was on
building a
knowledge base

Knowledge base


knowledge objects

The evolution of knowledge sharing

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Knowledge base




knowledge objects

Then the focus shifted to

knowledge communities

Communities

of practice


100+ thematic group
s

The evolution of knowledge sharing

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Health
partners

Education
partners

Private sector
partners

Transport
partners

Agriculture
partners

External

partners

The evolution of knowledge sharing

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Community of practice: the thematic group

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Community of practice: the thematic group

Most members are in Regions

Some

staff are

anchors

External partners

TGs are front
-
line practitioners

100+ thematic groups

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Doing

while

learning

Knowledge

sharing

Connecting

through

communities

of practice

Sharing

knowledge

within the

team

Informal

learning

clinics

Collecting

knowhow

and

sharing

Distance

learning

Study

tours

Computer


based

learning

Learning

while

doing

Learning

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Knowledge

sharing

Learning

Ecological

approach

Information

management

Intellectual

capital

Engineering

approach

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Knowledge

sharing

Learning

Ecological

approach

Information

management

Intellectual

capital

Knowledge
as an
asset

Knowledge as
information

Knowledge as as
an
activity

Knowledge
as
people

We need all four approaches

Engineering

approach

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

What we have learned...


It’s a long journey
>

need relentless repetition


It’s not one “thing”
>
it’s a series of small steps


Sharing & learning
>

two sides of same

coin


It’s not about tools

>
it’s about people/communities


It will stay a “fad”
>

integrate K into core business


It’s not about rules
>
it’s about behaviors


Adapt K to setting
>

key to client satisfaction



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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Integrate knowledge into quality process



Road Map for Leveraging Knowledge



Systematic process to:



Learn before, during, and after the task



Provide teams with timely best advice



Ensure that the advice is used



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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

1. Roles and responsibilities

2. Assessment of knowledge needs

3. Resource allocation

4. When and how advice is given

5. Ensuring that advice is used

6. Adapting global practices

7. Capturing lessons of experience

Core Elements of the Road Map

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

6. Adapting knowledge to the local setting


Institutional context of global practice
?


Setting where practice is to be replicated?


Indigenous knowledge systems to build on to
make global practice relevant to the community?


Adjustments to global practice, phasing or local
institutions to make the practice work well?

Learning from the client


慮搠桥汰楮i⁴桥 捬楥湴敡牮

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Part II: Adapting global practices


Role of Indigenous Knowledge


The adaptation process


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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Genesis of IK Program



GK 97 Conference in Toronto




Vision of truly global knowledge partnership will be realized
only when the poor participate as both users
and

contributors
of knowledge



Learning from clients & helping them learn



Client Feed Back Surveys



40 percent “knowledge adaptation gap”


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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

What IK Achieved in
Mozambique


Traditional authorities and local administration



managed

500,000 land transactions

and


settled 5 million refugees and displaced persons

in two years


Used only local knowledge and capacity


no external assistance from government, donors or NGOs


no conflicts over land and rights


Impact: small holders re
-
launch agricultural growth

How long would it have taken government & donors?


Case of post
-
conflict resettlement

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

What IK Achieved in Senegal



Adult education course by TOSTAN


apply literacy

to solve a community problem


learn

about the consequences of circumcision on the health of girls


abolish

the practice after sharing experiences within the community


Exchange experiences with other communities


involve
male spiritual leaders



obtain presidential approval for the
“Oath of Malicounda”


Impact:


More than 16 communities abolish the practice within 18 months


Senegal officially abolishes practice in December 1998

Case of women of Malicounda

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

What IK Achieved in Burkina Faso


Learning in local languages


15,000 learners in Gulmancema language (41% women)


4,000 literacy centers (3,000 schools using French)


52% of the successful literacy center students were women


Impact


Higher literacy rates than in French


Writing and numeracy


捯牲敳灯湤敮捥Ⱐ牥r潲搠步数楮k


Preserving cultural heritage

Case of local language literacy centers

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank


Embedded in Culture


Critical Element of Global Knowledge


Foundation for Human and Social Capital


Gateway to Empowerment


Key to Sustainable Development


Indigenous Knowledge is . . .

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Tools to capture & integrate IK



IK practices data base (120 cases)


“IK Notes” publication (20 in print & Internet)


“IK Report: A Framework for Action”



Website:
www.worldbank.org/html/afr/ik/index.htm



First local language website



Enhance capacity of IK centers in countries


Funding of IK resource persons for task teams


“Knowledge Packs”

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Integrating IK in Development
Programs



Agricultural Research & Training Project II



focuses research activities on local practices



disseminates successful IK practices





National Strategy on Utilization of IK



establishes national focal point for IK



organizes national forum to draft IK policy



integrates IK in poverty alleviation strategy


Case of

Uganda

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Building local communities of practice






Engage

Exchange


Learn


Influence

Healers

Farmers

Hunters

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Botanists

Ministry of Health

Doctors

Pharmacists

WHO/ World
Bank Specialists

Researchers

PHC

providers


Leveraging

Global & Local Knowledge Networks

Health

Care

CBOs
/

NGOs



Traditional

Healers

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Balanced Flow of Knowledge


Local

Global

Networks

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

The new knowledge frontier

Adaptation

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Practices

Adaptation

Institutions

Behaviors

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Adapting Behaviors

It’s a mindset thing…..

humility

curiosity

listening

learning

trusting

hearing

patience

empathy

...and

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Adapting Behaviors

…ask the right
questions !?

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Adapting Institutions

Providing a framework within which
adaptation occurs in a
consultative

and
participatory

manner to facilitate
ownership

and eventual
sustainable

adoption

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Adapting Practices

Testing, complementing, substituting, or
altering a technologies or processes, to make
them fit within the physical, social and
economic conditions and the utilization
purposes of a local community

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Time

Degree of Involvement

Adaptation
Process

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

Enabler’s role varies over time...

Nature

Intensity

Instruments

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

local

external

local

K
-
source

K
-

use

Adaptation Framework

local

external

local

K
-
source

K
-

use

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

local

external

local

K
-
source

K
-

use

Adaptation Framework

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank


Uganda:RESCUER project in Iganga District




PHCs partner with traditional birth attendants



link attendants to health units thru ‘walkie
-
talkies’



attendants serve as referral points



more women receive health services




Impact: maternal deaths decline by 50% in 3 years

Lesson: Appropriate technology can help to
enable & empower local communities by
leveraging global and local knowledge systems

External Knowledge for Local Use

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Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

But the Bank is not a storehouse of universally
applicable knowledge just waiting to be
transferred. That is why it should
empower

its
clients to tap global knowledge,

connect

clients to
one another and to other sources of experience,
and

learn

with them about what works.


OED 1999 Annual Review of Development Effectiveness