Introduction to Knowledge Management

coilcruelManagement

Nov 6, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Introduction to Knowledge
Management

© Ed Green


Penn State University


All Rights Reserved

What is Knowledge Management?

Two Views

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Introduction to Knowledge Management

2

Knowledge Management Topics

Why is
knowledge
management

relevant?

Definitions


Knowledge


Knowledge management


Knowledge management
systems

Relationships (to other
disciplines)

Why is
knowledge
management

valued?

History of knowledge
management; state of the
practice

Key
knowledge
management

drivers

What are the objectives
of
knowledge
management?

Key technologies to
achieve
knowledge
management

Knowledge management
life cycle

Important references

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3

Relevancy of Knowledge
Management

Contemporary business success
depends on knowledge

Knowledge is a business asset to
be managed

Knowledge is a collection of
experiences gained over time

Knowledge from the past guides
actions of the future

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Important Definitions

Knowledge



the sum of what is known; the set of
experiences and data collected by an enterprise over
time

Knowledge Management


the collective set of (multi
-
disciplined) actions taken by an enterprise to collect,
creating, preserve, sharing, and protect organizational
knowledge in furtherance of business objectives

Knowledge Management System


an organized
(automated or semi
-
automated) set of processes and
procedures to capture, store, preserve and retrieve
organizational knowledge (manage the knowledge
asset)

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5

Viewing Knowledge
Management

People



increasing the
ability of an individual to
influence others with
knowledge

Process



the methods
and/or techniques used
by people to share
knowledge

Technology



the tools
used by people to
execute the processes
that share knowledge

Culture



the degree to
which the organizational
culture supports the
conduct of knowledge
-
based operations

Structure



the
fundamental
organizational structures
to support knowledge
sharing

Technology



the use of
available capabilities to
enable knowledge sharing

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Viewing Knowledge
Management

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7

Relationship of Knowledge
Management to Other Disciplines

Cognitive science

Expert systems/artificial
intelligence

Groupware

Library and information
science

Technical writing’

Document/records
management

Decision support systems

Semantic networks

Relational and object
database management

Simulation

Organizational science

Object
-
oriented
information modeling

Electronic publishing,
hypertext, and the
Internet

Full text search/retrieval

Performance
management systems

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8

Brief History of Knowledge
Management; State of the Practice

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9

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

2020

2013


Drucker


information and knowledge

as organizational resources


Senge


“learning organization”


Leonard
-
Barton


knowledge management

strategy case study


Emergence of knowledge as

a competitive asset


Professional competence in

understanding knowledge


Realization


knowledge

management relied on artificial

intelligence and expert systems


Appearance of published research


In
-
house knowledge management programs


Knowledge management appears in “popular

press”


1994


Knowledge Management Network


1995


Nonaka/Takeuchi
The Knowledge Creating

Company: How Japanese Companies Create the

Dynamics of Innovation


Management consulting practices


major firms


High state of growth


early adopters



business and legal services


Substantial benefits documented


Evolving business area

Value of Knowledge
Management

Foster innovation; foster free flow of ideas

Improve decision making

Improve customer service


Streamline response time


Increase
MTBF


Shorten
MTTR

Increase top
-
line (revenue) and bottom
-
line (profit)
performance through improved time to market and improved
competitive positioning

Reduce attrition; improve employee retention rates through by
recognizing and rewarding the value of employee’s knowledge

Streamline operations and reduce costs; eliminate redundant
and/or unnecessary operations

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Knowledge Management Drivers

Knowledge attrition


Voluntary
and

involuntary turnover

Knowledge merging; communications challenge


Natural evolution of business organizations


Increasing globalization


Conflicting knowledge models

Content management


Digitally stored knowledge in naturally incompatible
media/formats


Non
-
digitally stored materials


formal and informal; physical and non
-
physical

Sheer volume of information and knowledge

Electronic learning; training requirements

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Knowledge Management
Constituents

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CONNECTING (PEOPLE) & PERSONALIZATION


Community & learning


Directories (expertise locators)


Findings & facilitating tools


Groupware


Response teams

(HARNESS)




Cultural support


Spaces


Libraries & lounges


Literal


Virtual


Travel & meeting attendance

(HYPOTHESIZE)

COLLECTING (STUFF) AND CODIFICATION


Databases (external & internal


Content Architecture


Information Support Services


Training required


Data mining best practices


Lessons learned


After action analysis

(HARVEST)


Cultural support


Current awareness & databases





Item selection for altering


Data mining best practices

(HUNTING)

Directed information &

Knowledge search

Exploit

Serendipity &

Browsing

Explore

Source: Michael E. D. Koenig,
What is KM? Knowledge

Management Explained

Knowledge Management
Objectives

Improve/enhance
internal collaboration

Improve/enhance
external collaboration

Capture/record/share
best practices

Improve customer
relations and its
management

Competitive intelligence

Better document and
protect proprietary items

Create improved project
workspaces and their
management

Enhance marketing and
advertising, especially on
the web and other social
media outlets

Document/record/enhance
transactional business
processes

Manage legal property
such as patents and brands

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Knowledge Management
Technologies

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Knowledge Management

Technologies

Workflow

Groupware

Extranets

Intranets

Project

Management

Web

Conferencing

Document

Management

Data

Warehouse

Decisions

Support



DBMS


OLAP

Records

Management


Skype


Go to Meeting


Shared View

Knowledge Management Life
Cycle

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Start


Knowledge

acquired


Knowledge

applied


Knowledge

distributed

Organizational

memory

formed


Intranet


Extranet


Groupware


Conferencing


Document

management


Refine, organize,

and store knowledge



using


Structured stores


Databases


Data warehouses


File formats


Education


Training programs


Automated systems


Expert networks


Expert systems


Decision support systems

Workflow


Project Management

Knowledge Management
Complexities

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Types of Knowledge

Explicit


information or knowledge that is set
out in tangible form (
physical
)

Implicit


information or knowledge that is not
set out in tangible form but could be made
explicit (
derivable
)

Tacit



information or knowledge that would
be extremely difficult (operationally) to make
explicit (
implied
)

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Operational Constituents of
Knowledge Management

Enterprise data and information available to authorized
members


Portals


Content Management Systems (CMS)

Lessons Learned databases/systems


Operational experiences


Capture knowledge embedded in persons; make explicit

Expertise Locators


“yellow pages” or “411.com”
directory


Where is the knowledge, data, information, and/or expertise to be
found?

Communities of practice


teams dedicated to
establishing the management of enterprise knowledge


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Knowledge Management



Stages of Development

First stage


information technology


Evolution of capabilities


Software


Hardware


Emergence of the Internet

Second stage


human resources and corporate culture


Changing traditional methods and processes


Engaging employees

Third stage


taxonomy and content management


Structure development


Collecting knowledge/data/information (facts)


Populating the structure with collected facts

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Initial References

http://www.unc.edu/~sunnyliu/inls258/Introduction_to_Knowledge
_Management.html

http://www.kmworld.com/Articles/Editorial/What
-
Is
-
.../What
-
is
-
KM
-
Knowledge
-
Management
-
Explained
-
82405.aspx

http://searchdomino.techtarget.com/definition/knowledge
-
management

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