INFORMATION SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT

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Nov 6, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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Centre for Information &
Knowledge Management


INFORMATION SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT



Jamie O’Brien

Centre for Information & Knowledge
Management

University of Limerick


Lecture 1


E
-
mail:
jamie.a.obrien@ul.ie


Your Lecturer


My name is Jamie O’Brien



Researcher in Economics and Knowledge
Management



Academic Background



Commercial experience


Exam

Assessment Weighting:


Class Exercises are designed to reflect the
focus of the course



80% Examination



40% Coursework (due March 24th)

Class Website



Lectures



Readings



Exam Papers



Course Structure


Each lecture concerned with a key module of
the course material (the last lecture will
include a review/ Q and A session).



See course description for proposed lecture
sequence.



What we do in lectures will be the exam!


Class Structure


Wednesday’s 10
-
1



15 minute breaks




Be on time!

Recommended Reading


Business Information Systems 3
rd

ed,
Technology, Development & Management
for the E
-
Business
, Bocij, Chaffey,
Greasley, Hickie.



Strategic Planning for Information Systems
3
rd

ed, John Ward, Joe Peppard



Strategic Management and Information
Systems, An integrated approach, (2
nd

ed),
Wendy Robson

What we will cover today


Data, Information, Knowledge.



Drivers for Information Management.



Need for managing information.



Strategic Value of Information Systems.



The attributes of good “quality”
information.






Introduction



“Organisational value is delivered not through
technology but through applying information,
by improved flows of information which
require less resources, by better quality of
information and knowledge sharing, which
improves decision
-
making” (Chaffey and
Wood, 2004).

Data


Discrete, objective facts about events or items
related to business processes and the external
environment.


Data are transformed into information by adding
value through context, categorisation,
calculations, corrections and condensation.


Data has little or no value until it has been
transformed into information. E.g. today’s date,
records of transactions.

Information


Data that has been processed and
transformed into an organised, meaningful
and contextually relevant form.


Used for decision making.


Eg. Bank statement, sales forecast.



Information:



Involves transforming data using a defined
process


Involves placing data in some form of
meaningful context


Is produced in response to an information
need


Helps reduce uncertainty, thereby
improving decision behaviour


Information enables organisations to:




Sense what is happening in the external
environment and respond through their
strategy and tactics.


Research demand for new products.


Monitor and control operating processes for
efficiency.


Exchange information with partners.


Communicate messages about products etc
both internally and externally.

Knowledge


The combination of data and information to
which is added expert opinion, skills and
experience to result in a valuable asset which
can be used to make decisions.


Business Information
Management


The process of managing information as a
strategic resource for improving organisational
performance. This process involves developing
strategies and introducing systems and
controls to improve information quality to
deliver value.




Information management is concerned with:



How information is acquired, recorded and
stored


Where org information resources are located


How information flows


How the organisation uses it


How people who handle it apply their skills and
co
-
operate with one another


How IT supports the users of information


What information costs and the value it
contributes


How these information related activities
contribute towards the organisations objectives

Information Quality


Attributes of information quality include:


Time:


Timeliness


Currency


Frequency


Time period


Content:


Accuracy


Relevance


Completeness


Conciseness


Scope


Form


Clarity


Detail


Order


Presentation


Media


Additional characteristics:


Confidence in the source


Reliability


Appropriate


Received by correct person


Sent by correct channels

Information Types and Sources


Types:


Structured


presented in reports,
tables, graphs etc.


Unstructured


delivered verbally or ad
-
hoc.


Formal


part of established reporting
and communication, e.g. sales figures,
supplier directory.


Informal


ad
-
hoc communication e.g.
email or conversation.


Sources:



Internet and WWW


Company/independent reports


Search engines


Invisible web


Intranet


Extranet


Etc…



The Information Lifecycle


The sequence of activities involved in
information management from creation
through to permanent deletion of information.


Information management is a dynamic process
involving:



Capturing


Organising


Processing


Maintaining


Destroying

Levels of Decision Taking


At the strategic level, managers are concerned
with long term organisational planning. Decisions
tend to be unstructured and made infrequently
e.g. choosing to move into new markets.



At the tactical level, managers are concerned
with medium term planning. They monitor
organisational performance, allocate resources,
control budgets e.g. setting department budget.



At the operational level, manager deal with short
term planning, day
-
to
-
day activities. Decisions
are highly structured e.g. setting daily production
schedule.



Information characteristics for decisions by
Mngt

level

Mngt level

Time
period

Frequency

Source

Certainty

Scope

Detail

Strategic

Wide

Infrequent

External

Less
certain

Wide

Summarised

Tactical

<
-
>

<
-
>

<
-
>

<
-
>

<
-
>

<
-
>

Operational

Narrow

Frequent

Internal

More
certain

Narro
w

Detailed





Introduction to Information Systems.



Data and Information


Data are the
raw material

of information,
and are typically a stream or sequence of
numbers, letters or other characters.



Inform
ation “
informs
” by placing the raw data
in some context or form that has some
significance to a reader.


Raw data alone has little
value
.



Examples

of this data/information distinction.


How does data become
information?


Data becomes information by the application of
context
.


There are six major activities that enable data
to be converted to Information.


These activities are the essential functional
basis of every information system (often
abbreviated to IS).


Data as
Input


Info System

Information
as Output

The Six Activities


Capturing



Transmitting



Storing



Retrieving



Manipulating



Displaying


Purposes of Information
Systems


Why do organisations use Information
Systems?



IS typically make three broad positive
contributions to enabling organisations to
attain their objectives:



Improving
Efficiency
.



Enabling Greater
Effectiveness.



Helping to facilitate
Competitive advantage
.


What do we know?



Can be enormously beneficial




Difficult to implement and manage
successfully




Easy scapegoat




Have profound effects on organisations


What Kind of effects?

Information systems change:


1.
The
tasks or type of work

people do.


2.
How
people
are
managed
.


3.
The
structure

of the organisation.



These effects are encapsulated in
Leavitt’s
Diamond
.


Leavitt’s Diamond

How do tasks/type of work
people do change?


More efficient?



More effective?



More interesting?



Greater Flexibility?



Greater traceability/monitoring?


How does managing people
change?


Different skills/training needs



Different recruitment criteria



Greater traceability/monitoring



Ethical and behavioural concerns


How does organisational
structure change?


Flexibility of work practices



Greater information access


Group Exercise 1: IS Effects
(20 mins).

You are the manager of a bank. In order to
ensure cost effective training, you have
instigated the development of an on
-
line
training system to determine/assess learner
needs and provide some basic induction
information.


Use Leavitt's diamond to briefly explore the
effects this new Information System could
have on your office’s structure, work and
managerial processes?


Advantages of Information
Systems


Automation



Employee Job Satisfaction



Information Access, Control and Structure



Scalability



Efficiency


Disadvantages of Information
Systems


Unemployment



Over
-
reliance



Information control issues



Employee job satisfaction



User expectations



Expense




Information Drivers and Needs in
Organisations


Information Management
Drivers


Organisational Moves towards
standardisation
of information formats



Increasing Consumer Power



Changes in Employee
loyalty behaviour



Need for Organisational
Agility


What motivates IS adoption?


Desire to
Control

information:
Why?




Desire
to

capture and understand
External

information
.



Desire
to

capture and understand
Internal

information
.



Legal and/or ethical Imperatives
.



Any
other motivations
?


What needs do IS therefore
fulfil?

Functional

Needs




Imposed

Needs


Extended

Needs

Control

Internal Information

External Information



Legal / Ethical Issues


External Information


Examples of how IS meets
information needs?


Resource Control..Information System?



External information capture and
understanding.. Information System?



Internal information capture and
understanding. Information System?



Legal Imperatives. Information System?



Any other information needs?


Group Ex 2: Information
“Needs” (20 minutes).


Think about and write down some points as
regards what you feel to the critical
information needs in an organisation and how
your chosen system meets (or fails to meet)
these needs.


Determining the information

Needs



Determining the Info needs is one of the most
critical steps in developing a
worthwhile
information strategy
.



Information
Audits



determine the needs.



Information
Plans



implement a strategy
utilising the results of the audit.





Strategic advantages of

Information systems


Introduction to Information
Strategy

A successful information strategy typically:


Reflects the
functions and objectives of the
business/organisation
in question.


Meets the functional
information needs

of the
organisation;


Aims to ensure that the information
resources
exist

to meet those needs and these resources
are appropriately
organised and managed.


Typically utilises information technology for the
effective
storage, retrieval, distribution,
communication and security

of the information.


“Future proofing” info systems


Information systems that endure are
those that are both:



Robust

and
Scalable.


Defining Robustness?


Healthy, strong, and durable.



Consistent availability on demand.



Maximum Productivity.



Product of superior design and integrity
testing.



Examples?


Defining Scalability?


A scalable system is one that can handle
either:



extra (or reduced) capacity or
functionality, without consequences for system
productivity/usability.


Can scale
vertically

(“scale up”) or;



horizontally

(“scale out”).



Extra functionality the key issue


prevents
obsolescence
.



Scalable system design requires experienced
participants.



Group Ex 3: Strategic Value of
IS (30 minutes).


Think about and write down some detailed
points as regards what you feel to the current
(and future if relevant) strategic advantages
of an organisation’s information system should
be.




Attributes of

Information Quality



Attributes of “Good”
Information?


Time



the “When”



Content



the “What”.



Form



the “How”.



Trust



the “Believability”.



Channelling



Right People /Right Time /Right
Form.


Dimensions of Time


The “When”..



Timeliness.



Currency
.



Frequency.



Time Period.


Dimensions of Content


The “What”..



Accuracy.



Relevance.



Completeness.



Conciseness.



Scope.


Dimensions of Form


The “How”.



Clarity.



Detail
.



Order.



Presentation.



Media.


Dimensions of Channelling


Right People /Right Time /Right Form.



Mode of Transfer.



Identity of Receiver.



Identity of Transmitter.


Group Ex 4: Information
“Quality” (30 minutes)


Read the circulated Case Study.



Discuss in Groups of 2
-
3 the following
2
questions
:


1.
What were the main information attributes
(and sub
-
dimensions) lacking in the scenario?


2.
What corrective measures would you
recommend?



What we covered today


Data, Information, Knowledge.



Drivers for Information Management.



Need for managing information.



Strategic Value of Information Systems.



The attributes of good “quality” information.






End of Lecture