Chapter 9 Knowledge Management - WordPress.com

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Nov 6, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Chapter 9

Knowledge Management

Learning Objectives


Describe the role of knowledge
management in the organization.


Be able to evaluate intellectual capital.


Understand knowledge management
systems implementation.


Illustrate the role of technology, people,
and management with regards to
knowledge management.


Understand the benefits and problems of
knowledge management initiatives.


Learn how knowledge management can
change organizations.


Define knowledge.


Learn the characteristics of knowledge
management.


Describe organizational learning.


Understand the knowledge management
cycle.


Understand knowledge management
system technology and how it is
implemented.


Learn knowledge management
approaches.


Understand the activities of the CKO and
knowledge workers.

Data , information and Knowledge


Data :

Is a numbers and symbols, images, sounds, which are
elementary truths, which need to organize and handle to
provide a specific meaning.



Examples :

1.

names of students.

2.

scores of students.

3.

staff salaries.

4.

date of birth.

5.
The price of crude oil is $80 per barrel.





Data , information and Knowledge (cont.)



Information :
Is the set of organized data, and arranged to meet a specific
need .



Example:

The price of crude oil has risen from $
70
to $
80
per barrel.



Data , information and Knowledge (cont.)


Knowledge :

is a combination of information, experience
and insight .



Examples:


1.
"When crude oil prices go up by $
10
per barrel, it's likely that
petrol prices will rise by
2
p per litre" is knowledge.


2.
Temperatures, when you know that the atmosphere will be
very cold and rainy, without any warning you will get out your
coat and your Umbrella.


3.

elementary school children . They can tell you that "
2
x
2
=
4
"
because they have amassed that knowledge (it being included
in the times table). But when asked what is "
1267
x
300
", they
can not respond correctly because that entry is not in their
times table



Data , information and Knowledge (cont.)

Data

Facts,numbers,symbols

Information

Selected,orgnized,analyzed

data


Knowldgement

Integrated of
information and experience


Knowledge Management (km)

Km Definition :


Is the process of gaining insights, experiences and
assembled and exchange to enable companies and
project success.


Knowledge Management (cont.)

Examples to understand the importance of knowledge management:



1.
You works in a large organization , at one day you encounter a big problem
at work.



2.

When you have a large capital and want to invest it in a domain.



3.

Came to you an important client to meet the boss, then you talk to the
Assistant Director, but he tell you that he is on vacation.




Knowledge Management (cont.)

The benefits from knowledge management

:

1.

To respond to developments and changes

2.

reduce the costs and efforts.

3.

Planning

4.

Decision
-
making.

5.

Solve problems.

6.

The development of production.







characteristics of knowledge management

1.
Knowledge management is about people
: and is directly linked to what
people know, which is dependent on human skills, intuition, ideas, and
motivation.

2.
Knowledge management and constantly changing:
There's nothing like the
law is subject to change in knowledge management.

Is a test of knowledge
and constantly updated and revised, and sometimes even "disabled" when
it is no longer in practice.

3.
Knowledge management and value
-
added:
It depends on the pooling of
experiences and relationships.

Organizations can exchange ideas by
bringing in experts from the field to advise or educate managers on recent
developments.

Knowledge


Explicit knowledge :

o
Objective, rational, technical

o
Policies, goals, strategies, papers, reports

o
Codified

o
Leaky knowledge


Tacit knowledge :

o
Subjective, cognitive, experiential learning

o
Highly personalized

o
Difficult to formalize

o
Sticky knowledge


Knowledge Management


Systematic and active management of ideas, information,
and knowledge residing within organization’s employees


Knowledge management systems

o
Use of technologies to manage knowledge

o
Used with turnover, change, downsizing

o
Provide consistent levels of service


Organizational Learning


Learning organization :


Ability to learn from past


To improve, organization must learn


Issues

o
Meaning, management, measurement


Activities

o
Problem
-
solving, experimentation, learning from past, learning
from acknowledged best practices, transfer of knowledge within
organization


Must have organizational memory, way to save and share it


Organizational Learning


Organizational learning

o
Develop new knowledge

o
Corporate memory critical


Organizational culture

o
Pattern of shared basic assumptions

Knowledge Management Initiatives


Aims :


Make knowledge visible


Develop knowledge intensive culture


Build knowledge infrastructure


Surrounding processes :


Creation of knowledge


Sharing of knowledge


Seeking out knowledge


Using knowledge


Knowledge Management Initiatives (cont.)


Knowledge creation :

Generating new ideas, routines, insights .


Modes :

1.
Socialization :

refers to the conversion of tacit
knowledge to new tacit knowledge.

2.
Combination :

refers to the creation if new
explicit knowledge.

3.
Externalization :
refers to the conversion of tacit
knowledge to new explicit knowledge.

4.
Internalization :
refers to the conversion of
explicit knowledge to new tacit knowledge.


Knowledge Management Initiatives ( cont. )


Knowledge sharing :

Willful explication of one’s ideas , insights , experiences to another
directly or through an intermediary ( internet ).


Knowledge seeking :

Knowledge sourcing

Approaches to Knowledge Management


Process Approach :

o
Codifies knowledge :

Formalized controls , Process, technologies

Fails to capture most tacit knowledge .


Practice Approach :

o
Assumes that most knowledge is tacit.

o
Informal systems :


Social events , communities of practice ,
person
-
to
-
person contacts.


The valuable knowledge for these is tacit ,
which is difficult to extract , store , manage.


Approaches to Knowledge Management ( cont. )

Challenge to make tacit knowledge explicit.


Disadvantage:
can result in inefficiency.


Hybrid Approach :

1.
Many organization use a hybrid of the process and

2.

practice.

3.

Tacit knowledge primarily stored as contact information
becuse

repository stores only explicit Knowledge.

4.
Best practices captured and managed.

Approaches to Knowledge Management(cont. )



Best practices :

o
Activities and Methods that effective organizations
use to operate and manage functions


Knowledge repository :

o
Place for capture and storage of knowledge

o
Neither a database nor Knowledge base

o
Knowledge base and Knowledge repository is very
different mechanisms

o
Developing Knowledge repository is not an easy


Knowledge Management System Cycle

Knowledge Management System Cycle



follows
six steps
.


The reason for the cycle :

Is that knowledge is dynamically


refined over time,

So knowledge


must be updated

to reflect the changes.


Knowledge Management System Cycle ( cont. )


Creates knowledge:

through new ways of doing things or
develop know
-
how.


Capture

knowledge:

Identifies and captures new
knowledge as valuable and be represented in a
reasonable way.


Refine knowledge:

new knowledge
must be placed

in
context so it is usable.


Stores knowledge:

in repository, so that others in the
organization can access it.


Manage

knowledge:

knowledge
must be current,
Reviews
for accuracy and relevance


Disseminate

knowledge:

Makes knowledge available at
all times to anyone.


Components of Knowledge Management
Systems


Knowledge Management Systems are developed using three sets of
Technologies :


1.
Communication
Technology

2.
Collaboration
Technology

3.
Storage and retrieval
Technology



Components of Knowledge
Management Systems



Communication :

Allow users to Access knowledge

Communicates with others

E
-
mail, internet, fax machines, telephone


Collaboration :

Perform groupwork
Synchronous

(groups can work
together on common documents as the same
time) or
asynchronous
(at different time)

Same place/different place .


Storage and retrieval :


Using database management system to store and
manage knowledge. Capture, storing, retrieval, and
management of both explicit and tacit knowledge
through collaborative systems .


Technologies supporting

Knowledge Management

1.
Artificial Intelligence (AI)

2.
Intelligent agents

3.
Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD)

4.
Extensible Markup Language (XML)


Technologies supporting

Knowledge Management


Artificial Intelligence (AI) :


-

AI methods and tools are embedded in a number of
knowledge management systems, either by vendors
or by system developers.


-

AI methods can assist in identifying expertise, eliciting
knowledge automatically and semiautomatically






Artificial Intelligence (AI)



Expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy logic, intelligent agents
are used in Knowledge Management Systems to do the following:


Assist in and enhance searching knowledge


provide advice directly from knowledge by using neural networks
or expert system


scan e
-
mail, documents, and database to perform knowledge
discovery.


Identify patterns in data (usually through neural network)


Forecast future result using existing knowledge.




Technologies supporting

Knowledge Management


Intelligent agents :

o
Systems that learn how users work and provide
assistance in thair daily tasks.

o
There are number of ways that Intelligent agents
can help in Knowledge management system
.


Examples :


o
IBM

offers an intelligent data mining family,
including intelligent decision server ,for finding
and analyzing massive amount of enterprise
data.

o
Gentia

(planning sciences international) uses
Intelligent agents to facilitate data mining with
web access and data warehouse facilities.





Technologies supporting

Knowledge Management


Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) :

Process used to search for and extract information from volumes of
documents and data.

o
Internal =

data and document mining .

o
External =

model marts and model warehouses.


Data mining :

is ideal for eliciting knowledge from database.


Intelligent

Data mining :

discovers information within
database, data warehouse, and knowledge repositories
.



Technologies supporting

Knowledge Management


Extensible Markup Language

(XML) :

o
Enables standardized representations of data
structures, so that data can be processed
appropriately by heterogeneous systems with out
case
-
by
-
case programming.

o

Better collaboration and communication through
portals

o
XML can solve the problem of integrating data
from disparate sources.




Knowledge Management System Implementation


Challenge to identify and integrate components


Early systems developed with networks, groupware, databases


Knowware :


Technology tools that support knowledge management Collaborative
computing tools .



Groupware :

Knowledge servers

Enterprise knowledge portals

Document management systems

Content management systems

Knowledge harvesting tools

Search engines

Knowledge management suites

Complete out
-
of
-
the
-
box solutions


Knowledge Management System
Implementation


Implementation :

o
Software packages available

Include one or more tools

o
Consulting firms

o
Outsourcing

Application Service Providers


Knowledge Management System Integration


Integration with enterprise and information systems


DSS/BI :

o
Integrates models and activates them for specific problem


Artificial Intelligence :

o
Expert system =
if
-
then
-
else rules .

o
Natural language processing =
understanding searches .

o
Artificial neural networks =
understanding text .

o
Artificial intelligence based tools =
identify and classify
expertise .





Knowledge Management System
Integration


Database :

Knowledge discovery in databases


CRM :

Provide tacit knowledge to users


Supply chain management systems :

Can access combined tacit and explicit knowledge


Corporate intranets and extranets :

o
Knowledge flows more freely in both directions

o
Capture knowledge directly with little user
involvement

o
Deliver knowledge when system thinks it is needed



Human Resources


Chief knowledge officer :

o
Senior level .

o
Sets strategic priorities .

o
Defines area of knowledge based on organization mission and goals.

o
Creates infrastructure .

o
Identifies knowledge champions .

o
Manages content produced by groups .

o
Adds to knowledge base .




Human Resources (cont. )


CEO

Champion knowledge management .


Upper management

Ensures availability of resources to CKO .


Communities of practice


Knowledge management system developers

Team members that develop system .


Knowledge management system staff

Catalog and manage knowledge .


Knowledge Management Valuation


Asset
-
based approaches :

o
Identifies intellectual assets

o
Focuses on increasing value


Knowledge linked to applications and business benefits approaches :

o
Balanced scorecard

o
Economic value added

o
Inclusive valuation methodology

o
Return on management ratio

o
Knowledge capital measure


Estimated sale price approach


Metrics


Financial :

o
ROI

o
Perceptual, rather than absolute

o
Intellectual capital not considered an asset


Non
-
financial :


Value of intangibles

o
External relationship linkages capital

o
Structural capital

o
Human capital

o
Social capital

o
Environmental capital




Factors Leading to Success and Failure of
Systems


Success :

o
Companies must assess need

o
System needs technical and
organizational infrastructure to
build on

o
System must have economic value
to organization

o
Senior management support

o
Organization needs multiple
channels for knowledge transfer

o
Appropriate organizational culture




Failure :

System does not meet
organization’s needs

Lack of commitment

No incentive to use system

Lack of integration