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Knowledge Management


What is it?

Why do you need to know?

How do you support it?


Kari Branjord, University of Minnesota

Toru Iiyoshi, Carnegie Foundation for the
Advancement of Teaching

Paul Treuer, University of Minnesota Duluth


Knowledge Management:
Presentation Outline


1.
How should Higher Education integrate
knowledge management tools and process?
(Kari Branjord)

2.
National Agenda to Advance the Scholarship
of Teaching (Toru Iiyoshi)

3.
Campus Implementation of Knowledge
Management Tools (Paul Treuer)

4.
Summary and Questions

How should Higher Education integrate
knowledge management tools and process?



What is knowledge management?



Why is knowledge management important in
higher education?



What are knowledge management tools in
higher education?



What is the framework for understanding
knowledge management?


Framework for Knowledge Management




Selectivity


Repurposability


Interoperability


Individual Control and Ownership


Openness


Selectivity



Example: A researcher is completing a
grant proposal.


With whom should she collaborate?


What should she include?


How should she highlight her
accomplishments?


How does she hone her research question?

Selectivity defined


Not all knowledge is created equal. Determine that
which is important prior to moving forward. This
includes the idea of compressing complex
knowledge into a simpler presentation. Brown talks
about not crushing knowledge under its own weight.
This is not to say that it should be diluted; rather it
should be distilled to its essence and presented in
clear and obvious ways. Without forethought, the
workgroup and/or institution will drown in
information and knowledge and not be able to do
anything about it.

Selectivity example 2



Enterprise Integration: How do you choose what
to integrate?


Criteria can include value to the individual,
contribution to accelerating a process, credibility with
the intended audience, etc.


High value targets for integration are demographic
data, academic records, job information, etc.


Ideas I didn’t think about: Portfolio should integrate
with RefWorks and del.icio.us



Repurposability


A tenure track faculty member has created entries
for every presentation he has given in his areas of
interest. How can this information be reused?


Tenure review


Annual performance review


Grant proposal


Sharing with students


Collaboration with peers


What if it were granular enough to be (re)combined
with other artifacts to tell a more compelling story?

Repurposability defined


There are several concepts included in this term.
Terms such as granularity, re
-
usability, and enter
-
once
-
use
-
many fall under this heading. In order for
knowledge to be useful, it must be small enough to
(re)combine with other pieces of knowledge, yet
large enough to be meaningful. If individuals have to
constantly re
-
enter knowledge or information that is
already known to another system, sharing will
diminish. No one has time to rehash the same stuff;
individuals must be able to reuse the knowledge they
have already documented.

Repurposability example 2



A medical resident creates a bibliography for a
research project. She wants to continue to add to it
as she develops research or personal interest in the
area. She shares it:


With peers to obtain further knowledge


With her program director who can help focus her
research even more effectively


As part of her professional development records at annual
review time


In an application to be head resident


Interoperability



Imagine the different roles a person plays in life. At each
transition, he wants to preserve his history and continue
to build upon his base of knowledge.


A student starts a Portfolio as an undergraduate at the U of M.


This student goes to Grad School at IU.


Upon earning his PhD, he is awarded a tenure
-
track position at
a UMD.


As a tenured professor, he is involved in research, public
engagement, and teaching.


His knowledge never stops growing. This requires
constant management and re
-
evaluation, as well as the
ability to move his Portfolio information as he changes
institutions.

Interoperability Defined


Is a corollary to repurposability. It is not enough
to be able to reuse collections of knowledge
within a system; systems must be aware of the
knowledge that other systems house and must be
able to access it. This requires standards and
integration technologies. Trusted sourcing and
cross
-
system authentication is vital. Knowledge
does not exist in just one domain; it must be
permitted to “live” outside of a particular
context, such as a class.

Individual Control and
Ownership Defined


Knowledge creation is an invisible activity that occurs in the
human brain (Davenport, 1998). Only when this becomes
explicit with supporting artifacts can it be shared. The
knowledge that a person possesses or created is her own. It
becomes more valuable, and the rate of acquisition accelerates
when a person is participating in communities or groups. Thus,
KM technologies, by definition, facilitate this sharing of
knowledge in social networking. It is imperative, however, that
the focus and highest level of consideration be given to the
individuals rights to control and responsibilities to share.

Individual C & O example



A professor has been pursuing a research interest for years.
She wants to propose a new course in her department to
share this knowledge.


First, she selects artifacts to demonstrate that her area is significant
and appropriate for undergraduate education.


She pulls work products from her sponsored projects, her blog, her
community of practice site, and her bibliography


She shares the proposal and supporting documentation and ideas
electronically with colleagues inside and outside her university.


As she receives feedback, she modifies her proposal, continuing the
cycle until she is satisfied that it is good enough to propose
officially.


Her new course is approved, and the learning objects she gathered
populate her course web site, and the approved proposal is uploaded
to the administrative systems.

Openness



The information management group of a public institution
has a very open, non
-
hierarchical environment. They work
to ensure that everyone from the public to the president to
the individual has access to the information needed in a
context that makes it useful. Given this mission, their
department culture contributes to knowledge management.


Staff share their findings with one another. Holding knowledge is
not power; sharing knowledge is powerful.


No secrets are kept between the workers and the management.


Ideas are documented and shared in all directions


Prioritization of projects occurs as a group, using best practice
methods to estimate size, duration, and value.


Openness defined


KM technologies and processes must escape
proprietary boundaries. This is not an advertisement
for open source. This is to suggest that only when
knowledge is shared and made explicit to all is it truly
valuable. When it is exposed, others can comment and
build upon it, make connections in new ways, and
return the ideas and knowledge to the originator in
enriched forms. While open source software is an
example of this in practice, the connectedness the
internet permits can enable all knowledge processes to
behave this way.

National Agenda

to Advance

the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning



Mission, vision, and work of the Knowledge Media
Laboratory (KML) of the Carnegie Foundation


Scholarship of Teaching and Learning


KEEP Toolkit, Workspace, and Knowledge Repositories


Examples of Best Practices;


Carnegie Academy for the Scholarship of Teaching


Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate


Howard Hughes Medical Institute


Open Education: MERLOT, and OSPI

Knowledge Media Laboratory (KML):
Mission, Vision, & Work

The Carnegie Foundation’s Knowledge Media Laboratory
helps educational institutions take advantage of the growing
power of emerging technologies and new media to turn the
knowledge implicit in effective teaching and learning into
ideas, theories, and resources that can be used widely in a
variety of contexts and situations.

Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL)


Make teaching and leaning visible and public


Review and reflect on each other’s work


Learn and build on each other’s work

Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL)


Make teaching and leaning visible and public


Review and reflect on each other’s work


Learn and build on each other’s work

How can technology support educational knowledge
representation, sharing, and building?

KEEP Toolkit

Community Workspace

Knowledge Repositories

(Galleries & Exhibitions)

Make Teaching and Leaning Visible and Public


Help select and organize resources,
artifacts, data, and evidence related
to teaching and learning


Prompt analysis and reflection


Help transform collections of
“stuff” into compelling and
engaging knowledge
representations


Help present individual and
collective knowledge

KEEP Toolkit

(http:
//www.cfkeep.org
)

Make Teaching and Leaning Visible and Public

To examine, select and organize
teaching and learning objects and
transform them into
visually
appealing

and

intellectually engaging

knowledge representation (with
reflections) is a daunting task.

KM Framework #1: Selectivity

The KEEP Toolkit provides the user with the necessary
guidance and scaffolding for better selection, organization,
reflection and representation through “flexibly
-
designed”
templates (including frameworks, prompts and directions).

Scholarship of T&L Project Course Transformation Class Anatomy

An Example Template (Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate)

KM Framework #2: Repurposability/Reusability

An Example: Teacher Education

KM Framework #2: Repurposability/Reusability

“Triple Play” in Teacher Education (Carnegie Quest Project)

Student Teachers

Experienced Teachers

Teacher Educators

How can we use
“captured” pedagogical
knowledge and
experience to study the
use of OERs ?


How can we make this
process engaging,
rewarding and sustaining
that helps improve the
quality of OERs?

KM Framework #3: Interoperability/Portability

KEEP Toolkit + Community Workspace

(Carnegie Academy for the Scholarship of Teaching)

KM Framework #4: Individual Control/Ownership

Multi
-
layered knowledge representations


for deep collective understanding

(CASTL Campus Program,


CASTL, CID, HHMI,

and many others)

Institutions

Departments

Faculty

Students

Link, stitch, exhibit, and
remix knowledge
representations and objects

(Creative Commons?)

KM Framework #5: Openness

KEEP Toolkit Users: 8,300+

Snapshots: 33,000+

Projects/Initiatives: 100+


Smart Indexing &

Federated
-

Search Tools

MERLOT Gallery

OSP Case Studies Gallery

CID Gallery

CASTL Gallery

KML Gallery

Public Snapshot Archive

Toward Building a National/International Distributed
-
Knowledge
Network of Teaching and Learning

Implementing KM: Challenges and Issues


Departments’, Faculty’s, and students’ lack of
incentive


Technical and intellectual challenges


Time efficiency


Return on investment


Lack of support and guidance for the
developmental reflective processes


Knowledge representation “literacy” issues
(reflective writing, multimedia composition, etc.)


Sustainability

Implementing KM: Keys to Success


Link KM initiatives with present and future needs
(e.g., on
-
going transformation/reform efforts at
your institution)


Have stakeholders involved in planning and action


Find/develop useful tools and resources to make
your KM processes most efficient and painless
(ideally engaging and rewarding)


Invite key faculty/programs/departments to pilot


Document and share successes and challenges


Recognize excellence and make it public


Build a support capacity to sustain your efforts

Campus Implementation

of Knowledge Management Tools







Chancellor Kathryn A. Martin speaking at
KMC Grand Opening in August 2005


Vision
: The University of
Minnesota Duluth’s
Knowledge Management
Center (KMC) is
committed to evaluation,
assessment, development,
and deployment of tools
for managing personal,
educational, and
professional records.


Campus Implementation of
Knowledge Management Tools


Students



Faculty



Staff

UMD’s Knowledge Management Center

Best Practice: ePortfolio use by UMD’s
Chemical Engineering Program



Entry Wizard prompts students
to put artifacts in ePortfolio


Artifacts are repurposed for:


Admission to program


Graduation from program


ABET accreditation


Employment following
graduation


Best Practice: ePortfolio use by UMD’s
Chemical Engineering Program








Selectivity


Repurposability


Interoperability


Individual Control
and ownership


Openness


Best Practice: ePortfolio use by UMD’s
Chemical Engineering Program

Implementation Tips

1.
Chemical Engineering faculty identify portfolio learning
artifacts for entry wizards and presentation templates

2.
Portfolio sharing is a requirement, used for summative
purposes at key programmatic milestones

3.
All students are taught how to use portfolio in a freshman
course. Faculty are taught how to use portfolio in short
workshops.

4.
Course projects and assignments throughout program
meet identified portfolio requirements

Best Practice: Health Services Use of

Managed Information System





Health Services enters and
shares information and
knowledge through MIS
system, a web
-
based,
password protected,
database for entering and
sharing:


Strategic Objectives


Measures


Evaluation

Best Practice: Health Services Use of

Managed Information System



Health Services is part of
Academic Support and
Student Life (ASSL):



Management by
objectives


Unit and Process
Teams


Quarterly Reviews


Baldrige
Assessments


MIS System


Best Practice: Health Services Use of

Managed Information System


Selectivity


Repurposability


Interoperability


Individual
Control and
Ownership


Openness



Best Practice: Health Services Use of

Managed Information System


Implementation Tips


The Health Services director, assisted by an
administrative aide, developed strategies and measures


The objectives and measures were peer reviewed


The process of developing objectives and measures
was done by all HS Staff.


Results and evaluative comments are shared with HS
staff, Group Leaders, Process Teams, and
administrators


Results are tied to unit planning process action steps



Emerging Best Practice:

UM Enterprise System Advising Tools


On
-
line UM System Advising
Tools are integrated in
ePortfolio platform:



Advisee List


APAS Report (degree Audit)


Academic Profile in


UM Advisor Reports





College of Natural Resources Advising

Emerging Best Practice:

UM Enterprise System Advising Tools


On
-
line UM System Advising
Tools are integrated in
ePortfolio platform:



Advisee List


APAS Report (degree Audit)


Academic Profile in


UM Advisor Reports


Grad Planner




College of Natural Resources Advising

Knowledge

Management:
Summary and Questions


Knowledge is created in an information
-
rich
world through processes


Technology facilitates creation and sharing of
knowledge


Higher Education is an environment where
knowledge is created and shared


KM is about contextualizing information and
knowledge through the use of rapidly evolving
on
-
line/electronic communication tools