Honors World History

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Oct 23, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Honors World History

Unit 5: Cold War, Space Age, & the Collapse of Communism

(
1945
-
1991
)

Study Guide


Directions
: Using your essential reading packet
, Wikipedia or other online encyclopedia, or Google as
references
, answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.
Be sure to group them/label them
according to topic heading.
When you are finished, staple this cover sheet to your completed pages.


Topic
60
: Third World
Independence Movements

1.

Define
bold faced

terms.

2.

What was the 20
th

century like?

3.

How did discoveries in the fields of health and medicine impact people in the 20
th

century?

4.

What was the single biggest cause of de
-
colonization?

5.

What was
Pre
-
WWII European imperialism based on?

6.

How long after WWII did most Euro
pean colonies gain independence?


Topic
61
:
Gandhi
: Father of Modern India

7.

Define
bold faced

terms.

8.

Where did the wave of post
-
war independence movements begin?

9.

Who led the movement
for Indian independence from Britain?

10.

Gandhi preached nonviolent protest. What were he and his followers willing to do? What were they not willing to do?

11.

What tactic did they adopt?

12.

How did Gandhi shame Britain?

13.

Why did Gandhi’s independence movement gain
widespread popular support?

14.

What was the Amritsar massacre? How many people were killed? Wounded?

15.

How was India divided after WWII?

16.

During what two decades did most African and Asian countries

gain their independence?

17.

Who else adopted Gandhi’s nonviolent a
pproach to protest?

18.

What political and economic systems did India adopt after independence from
Britain
?

19.

What gap existed in India after independence?


Topic
62
: The
People’s Republic of China

20.

Define
bold faced

terms.

21.

What happened to China after the fall
of the Qing dynasty in 1911?

22.

What was the situation in China like after World War II?

23.

Who was Mao Zedong?

24.

What happened to the losers of the Chinese civil war?

25.

How were the independence movements of India and China different?

26.

What was Mao’s biggest mistake
? What was its impact on the Chinese people?

27.

What happened in China after Mao’s death in 1976?


Topic
63
:
The Cold War

28.

Define
bold faced

terms.

29.

How did Europe end its own dominance of the modern world?

30.

What two nations emerged at the end of WWII as the new

‘superpowers’?

31.

Why was the ‘West’ afraid of the Soviets in the post
-
WWII years?

32.

Why did the Soviets take control of the Eastern European countries? What did these countries come to be known as?

33.

What was the Marshall Plan? Why did the U.S. develop this
program? How was it in the U.S. interest to do so?

34.

Describe the ‘Cold War’…what was it? Who participated? Why was it ‘cold’ and not ‘hot’? When did it occur? How
long did it last?



Topic
64
: The
Berlin

Blockade Ignites the Cold War

35.

Define
bold faced

terms.

36.

What happened to Germany after they surrendered at the end of WWII?

37.

How was Berlin treated differently than the rest of Germany?

38.

What did Stalin attempt to do in 1948?

39.

How did President Truman respond to Stalin’s action? What were his other two opt
ions?

40.

Describe the Berlin Airlift. What was it? How long did it last? Where did it take place? What were the sides? What was
the end result?

41.

Describe NATO. What do the letters stand for?
Who were the members? Why was it created?

42.

Why were Europeans grateful

to the U.S. in the Post
-
War years?

43.

What was America’s reputation like in the Post
-
War years?

44.

Why did the Soviets/East Germans build a dividing wall between East and West Berlin?

45.

What was the most prominent symbol of the Cold War


Topic
65
:
Containment
: Th
e Cherry Koolaide Policy

46.

Define
bold faced

terms.

47.

How much of the Earth did communists control by 1950?

48.

What were Western leaders afraid of at this time (1950s)? What was this theory called?

49.

Describe the policy of ‘
containment’
. Who followed it? Who was it

meant to contain? How would it be contained?

50.

What was the first big test for the policy of containment?

51.

What was/is the United Nations? Who are the 5 permanent members of its Security Council?

52.

When was the Korean War? What were the two sides? Who started
it? Who won it?


Topic
66
: The Domino Effect & The Vietnam War

53.

Define
bold faced

terms.

54.

Who did Vietnam belong to before WWII? What happened to Vietnam during WWII? Who did the Vietnamese fight
after WWII?

55.

Why did the U.S. support French forces in Vietnam?

56.

How did the U.S. work to stop the spread of Vietnamese communism?

57.

Who decided to escalate the war in Vietnam? What event led him to this action?

58.

By 1968, how many American troops were in Vietnam? How many

bombs had been dropped?

59.

In Vietnam, how were the two sides fighting different wars?

60.

What was the fighting like during the war? About how long did it last? Who won?


Topic
67
:
Proxy Wars

61.

Define
bold faced

terms.

62.

How did the U.S. and the Soviet Union engage

each other? In other words, why is it called the ‘Cold War’ instead of the
‘Hot War’?

63.

What is a proxy war? Give two or three examples during the Cold War.

64.

What did critics have to say about U.S. policy during the Cold War? What was the U.S. response to th
is criticism?

65.

What was the Soviet Union’s ‘Vietnam’ experience?

66.

Who did the U.S. support in this conflict with the Soviets? Why is that ironic today?


Topic
68
:
The Nuclear Arms Race

67.

Define
bold faced

terms.

68.

What country was the first to develop the
atomic bomb? Who was second?

69.

What exponentially more powerful weapon did the U.S. first detonate in 1952? How much more powerful was it than
the atomic bomb?

70.

In what was were these new weapons supposed to be delivered to their targets?

71.

What would have bee
n the result of WWIII between the U.S. and the Soviet Union?

72.

What two events, one by the U.S. and one by the Soviets led to the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962?

What was the result
of this crisis?



Topic
69
: The
Space Age

& The Final Frontier

73.

Define
bold
faced

terms.

74.

Why was the space race tied to the arms race? How were they related?

75.

With what event did the Space Age begin? When? Who was responsible for it?

76.

What was America’s reaction to this event?

77.

What event, in 1969, could turn out to be viewed as one

of the major turning points in history?

78.

How was Earth different than other planets we had seen?


Topic
70
:
Modern Art

79.

Define
bold faced

terms.

80.

Why is modern art difficult to
understand?

81.

What are the two main categories of modern art? How are they
different?

82.

How does modern art reflect its time in history?

83.

Who used both types of modern art to convey his horror at modern warfare? In what painting? What does this painting
suggest?

84.

How did art change by the 1950s? Give three examples of this change.

85.

Wh
at art form do many scholars believe is the foremost of our age?


Topic
71
:
The Collapse of the Soviet Union

& American Victory in the Cold War

86.

Define
bold faced

terms.

87.

Who came to power in the Soviet Union in 1985? Who was the American president at that
time and through much of
the 1980s?

88.

How did the Soviet leader believe progress could be made?

89.

What was and is the problem with communism as an economic system?

90.

What was this Soviet leader, as well as his American counterpart, calling for?

91.

What two surprisi
ng moves did this Soviet leader make in the late 1980s?

92.

What happened in Eastern Europe in 1989? What symbol of the Cold War was destroyed in that same year? Why is this
considered one of the big turning points of the 20
th

century?

93.

What unintended
consequences were taking place in the Soviet Union at the same time?

94.

What happened to the Soviet Union in 1991? What replaced it?

95.

What signaled to the world that the Cold War was over? Who was victorious?



Honors World History: 1500
-
Present

Unit 6

-

Current Issues: A Changing World Order
: 1991
-
Present

Study Guide



Directions
: Using your essential reading packet
, Wikipedia or other online encyclopedia, or Google as
references
, answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.
Be sure to gro
up them/label them
according to topic heading.
When you are finished, staple this cover sheet to your completed pages.


Topic
72
:
A
New World Order?

96.

Define
bold faced

terms.

97.

At the dawn of the 21
st

century, what had happened in the Cold War? Who had won?

98.

What happened to the Cold War era balance of power? What do you know about the importance of a balance of power
among nations?

99.

Always looking for an enemy to fight, America soon found two new ones.

What/who were they?

100.

Because of declining birth rates and population in the West and massive economic growth in Asia, a new fear may be
starting to haunt Western nations. What is that fear?

101.

Today when the West looks east, it sees a new reality. What is tha
t new reality?

102.

The Cold War had many lasting effects on today’s world. What is the one major fear left over from that era?

103.

How many countries are believed to have developed nuclear weapons? Which Middle Eastern country is on the verge of
developing them?

104.

The U.S. has told some other countries they are not allowed to develop nuclear capabilities. First, why is this ironic and
second, which two countries in particular has the U.S. told not to develop this capability?

105.

What are the nine nuclear powers in the w
orld today? Which countries in the world are you MOST surprised DON’T
have nuclear weapons?


Topic 73
: China: Return of the Dragon

106.

Define
bold faced

terms.

107.

According to some observers, there is now a second superpower in the world. Which country has
elevated to this status?
What characteristics or factors have made this country a superpower? What event triggered its rise to superpower status
in the early 1980s?

108.

What kind of political system does China have? What does China’s government deny to its cit
izens? What do China’s
economic and political systems prove?

109.

What three factors have always led to tense relations between the United States and the People’s Republic of China?

110.

How are the Chinese and American economies linked? What is one product you or y
our parents have purchased that
was made in China?

111.

What uncertainty are American officials faced with regarding
their

relationship with China? Why?


Topic 74
: Globalism
: An American World?

112.

Define
bold faced

terms.

113.

What three aspects of globalism are bring
ing the world closer together?

114.

Where do industries do business now?

115.

Why do Western companies outsource work?

116.

There are both positive and negative views of globalism. What are the positive justifications? What are the negative
justifications?

117.

In post
-
WWII E
urope, an attempt has been made to guarantee that another war will not be fought between Germany and
France/Britain. What is this attempt called?


Topic 75
:
Extreme Poverty in an Age of Plenty

118.

Define
bold faced

terms.

119.

According to Gandhi, what is the
worst form of violence? Do you agree? Explain.

120.

What is one of the extreme challenges of the 2st century?

121.

The gap between rich and poor is widening as the rich nations get richer and the poor nations get poorer. What do you
think should or can be done abou
t this?

122.

According to economist Jeffrey Sachs, 8,000,000 people die every year for what reason?

123.

What is the U.N.’s goal for eliminating extreme poverty? Do you think this is possible? What are you willing to do to
make it happen?

124.

How much of their national
incomes have wealthier nations pledged to donate to the fight against global poverty? Does
this sound like a lot? Explain.

125.

How much does the U.S. contribute? Which country do you think donates the largest actual dollar amount?

126.

Why might helping the world’s

poor be more than an act of kindness and actually be in the interests of the wealthier
nations?

127.

According to James Wolfensohn, what is the best way to bring peace to the world?



Topic 76
: Third World Economic Development

128.

Define
bold faced

terms.

129.

What
two terms are used to identify or categorize the world’s poorest countries?

130.

Where are most of these poor countries located? What former status do they share?

131.

Many of these countries are still struggling to find economic models that will work for them. Thr
ee basic models have
been tried. What are these three models? Give an example of a country that has adopted each of the three models.

132.

How has the Japanese economy changed since the end of WWII?

133.

What other Asian countries followed the successful Japanese mo
del?


Topic 77
: Latin America
: Slow Rise In America’s Shadow

134.

Define
bold faced

terms.

135.

Western nations have long dominated the smaller economies of Latin America. What pattern of development did most
Latin American countries follow? Who did this pattern
benefit? Who did it hurt?

136.

What helps to explain why economic progress in Latin America has lagged behind that of the U.S. and Canada?

137.

Coincidentally, or not, since the late 1990s, Latin America has been experiencing its greatest period of economic
growth.
What other factor might be causing this growth?

138.

What was America’s reaction to political movements that tried to improve economic conditions for the poor in Latin
America? Why do you thing America took this position?

139.

In the early 1950s, Guatemala had a democratic government that
took

unused land from the giant American
-
owned
United Fruit Company and gave the land to peasants. What was the American government’s response to this
nationalization?

140.

Because of American inte
rvention in Latin America against the spread of communism/socialism, what reputation did
the U.S. acquire?

141.

What has been a recent political trend in Latin America? What is Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez’s complaint about
America? Do you think he is justi
fied in feeling this way?


Topic 78
: Africa: Is There Hope?

142.

Define
bold faced

terms.

143.

What is the world’s poorest continent? Why is this true?

144.

What was the cause of modern Africa’s strange country borders that have little correlation to ethnic and tribal g
roups?

145.

Why did most newly independent African governments fail?

146.

What are two regions of Africa that have experienced ethnic violence recently?

147.

Besides weather patterns and unexpected population growth, what else can also lead to famine?

148.

Africa does lead th
e world in one category: it has the world’s worst epidemic of what disease? Why can this hurt
African economies?

149.

What are two signs of hope in Africa today?


Topic 79
:
Ethnic

C
leansing

Gets Messy

150.

Define
bold faced

terms.

151.

Ethnic violence is nothing new.
What four series of wars did ethnic hatred lead to?

152.

What new type of ethnic violence was identified in 1999? Who was responsible for it? Where did it take place?

153.

Who responded to this new form of ethnic violence? What was the result?

154.

Did the U.S. have the
right to interfere in the internal affairs of Serbia? Does the world have a moral responsibility to
stop atrocities like genocide and ethnic cleansing?

155.

Who decides when war will be waged to enforce morality? Should it be international organizations lik
e the United
Nations or NATO or individual countries like the U.S. or China?


Topic
80
:
Arab
-
Israeli C
onflict
: A Bridge to Nowhere

156.

Define
bold faced

terms.

157.

After WWI, who took control of the Middle East? From whom? Who did Britain encourage to immigrate
to Palestine?

158.

After World War II, what did Britain do? What did the Jews do? Why?

159.

What was the reaction of neighboring countries to the founding of Israel? Which side won?

160.

Why does Israel face violent terrorism today? By whom?

161.

Why is the U.S.

also targeted from the same people?

162.

What balancing act does America face in the Middle East?

163.

Why do Arabs today feel resentment against Western nations?


Topic 81
:
Iran

and the Arrival of Islamic Fundamentalism in the Modern World

164.

Define
bold faced

terms
.

165.

What happened in Iran in 1951? How did the CIA respond? Were they justified? Explain.

166.

What benefit did the U.S. get from installing the shah in Iran?

167.

In 1979, what happened to the shah? Why were the Iranian people angry?

168.

Who replaced the shah? What happe
ned to him?

169.

Demanding that the shah be turned over to Iran, a group of young Iranian revolutionaries did what?

170.

How did Saddam Hussein use this event to his advantage? Who supported Hussein at this time? Why?

171.

What event triggered a change in American attitu
de towards Iraq? What was the result of this change in American
attitude?

172.

What is America’s relationship with Iran like today? What is the major issue between the two nations today?



Topic 82
:
Terrorism
, Islamic Fundamentalism, and The

Awakening of a Sleeping Giant

173.

Define
bold faced

terms.

174.

What is the definition of terrorism?

175.

What movement did the Islamic revolution against the shah in Iran give birth to?

176.

What do fundamentalists tend to believe? How do they feel about other religions?

177.

How do Muslim extremists justify violent acts against civilian targets? What is the most notorious terrorist act in history?
How
many people were killed? When? Where?

178.

What was President Bush’s response to 9/11? Who was responsible for the 9/11 attacks? Who

is the leader of al Qaeda?

179.

What terrorist attack occurred in America in 1995? How many people died?



Topic 83
:
Invasion and Conquest of
Iraq

180.

Define
bold faced

terms.

181.

What was the second step or phase in America’s War on Terror that occurred in 2003?
What policy was the U.S. following?
Describe this policy

182.

What were the three main justifications for America’s invasion of Iraq? What do critics say about America’s intentions in Ira
q?

183.

What are/were some of the costs of the war in Iraq?


Topic 84
: Arab
Spring Uprisings

184.

Define
bold faced

terms.

185.

Who led the way in seeking a better future? Why is it so important for people your age to understand what is going on in the
world and to get involved?

186.

Why do you think the leaders in Tunisia and Egypt were ‘forced
’ out by peaceful protesters? How was this possible? What role
do you think the U.S. played, if any? Should we be involved at all?

187.

How was Libya’s experience during the Arab Spring different? What role do you think the U.S. played, if any?

Should we be
inv
olved at all?

188.

What kind of governments do you think are most likely to emerge in the countries that experienced the ‘Arab Spring’? Explain
your prediction.


Topic 85
:
Biotechnology: The Promise of the Future?

189.

Define
bold faced

terms.

190.

Recent advancements
in science are taking biotechnology into new and unfamiliar territory that holds great promise for
improving human life but also poses difficult questions about the future of human life. What is biotechnology?

191.

What is genetic engineering? Why are genes imp
ortant?

192.

What is the argument for or potential benefit of the use of gene
-
based treatments?

193.

How might the same technology be used in a negative or inappropriate way?

194.

Will people be tempted to alter their children to make them smarter and more attractive? Is it morally acceptable for humans

to
modify human life in this way? If such technologies are developed, will it be possible to prevent people from using them?


Top
ic 86
: Capitalism Victorious Around the World

195.

Define
bold faced

terms.

196.

Most countries in the world today have what kind of economic system?

197.

What did governments do in order to prevent another depression? Whose policies did they follow?

198.

How did Keynes’
ideas compare to Adam Smith’s ideas?

199.

According to Keynes, how could depressions be avoided?

200.

What kind of safety net did Keynes suggest?

201.

In today’s global capitalist economy, money flows to countries where wages are lower, which has the effect of gradually
leveling incomes across nations. Workers in China and India are making more money than in the past, while American workers
on average are earning less. Is this fair? Is leveling incomes around the world a good idea? Explain.

202.

What is happening to the inco
me gap in the United States?

Why do you think that is happening?


Topic 87
: Challenges to Liberal Democracy

203.

Define
bold faced

terms.

204.

Although most countries claim to be democracies, true democracy is not easy to achieve or maintain. Evidence from Japan an
d
South Korea suggests that authoritarian governments may become more democratic over time. Where does democracy appear
to work best? Why might this be so?

205.

What is the greatest threat facing American democracy today? How is this a threat?

206.

Biologists say s
elfishness is built into our genes. How does selfishness manifest itself in politicians?

207.

What are two groups in American society whose role is key in making democracy succeed?

208.

Whose responsibility was it, according to Jefferson, to guard liberty/freedom?
What subject did he think Americans should
study in order prepare them to participate in and defend their democracy?


Topic 88
: The Environment and
the COMING END OF THE WORLD!!! Or Maybe Not?

209.

Define
bold faced

terms.

210.

According to many, especially on the
left of the political spectrum, what is the biggest issue of our times? Why?

211.

How are humans upsetting this balance?

212.

Why is global warming seen as harmful by many scientists and citizens?

213.

Who is the world’s largest polluter? Why do you think this is the
case? Consider our level of economic output each year
compared to the rest of the world.

214.

What will future historians say about America?
Will they see the U.S. as just another selfish superpower? Or will they say that
America was able to overcome short
-
te
rm self
-
interest in order to protect the long
-
term well being of our nation and our planet?