Chapter 12 DNA Technology and Genomics

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Oct 23, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Chapter 12 DNA Technology and Genomics



Name:






Key Terms

biotechnology

clone

complementary DNA (cDNA)

DNA
fingerprinting

DNA ligase

DNA microarray

DNA technology

forensic science

gel electrophoresis

gene cloning

gene therapy

genetic engineering

genetic marker

genetically modified (GM) organisms

genomic library

genomics

Human Genome Project (HGP)

nucleic acid p
robe



12.1

What is recombinant DNA technology and how is it useful?





Describe how a gene can be turned into many copies of its protein.






12.2

Why are restriction enzymes so predictable in their use?






Why does the “foreign” DNA have to be cut with the
same restriction enzyme?










PCR

plasmids

polymerase chain reaction

proteomics

recombinant DNA

recombinant DNA technology

repetitive DNA

restriction enzymes

restriction fragment length polymorphisms
(RFLPs)

restriction fragments

restriction site

reverse transcriptase

telomeres

Ti plasmid

transgenic organism

transposons

vaccine

vector

12.3

Label the following diagram and describe what is happening in your own words.






























12.4

What is the purpose of a genomic library?






12.5

How is cDNA different from regular DNA?






12.6 What
organisms are commonly used to help mass produce gene products?





12.7 How has DNA technology changed the way we treat disease and prevent illness?



12.8 How do scientists use a nucleic acid probe to locate a segment of DNA of interest?





12.9

How does DNA

microarray assays reveal patterns of gene expression?





12.10

Why does DNA move through the gel?





Why do smaller pieces of DNA move farther?





12.11

Explain how restriction enzymes, RFLPs and gel electrophoresis can solve a crime.






Explain how genetic
markers and probes can detect a genetic illness.






12.12

Why is a DNA fingerprint able to prove or disprove a persons guilt?





Why does the Maury Povich Show use genetic analysis to test for paternity rather than a blood test?





12.13

What is gene therapy and how does it treat the disease?





Do you think that defective genes should be removed from the human gene pool? Defend your answer.


12.14

When do scientists use PCR?




12.15

Now that the human genome sequence is known, what is the ne
xt step?




12.16

Initially the HGP estimated that there were 100,000 human genes but they only discovered
25,000 genes. How do we have so much complexity if we don’t have that many different genes?





What are telomeres and why are they important?





What
are transposons and why are they important?





12.17

What can be learned by studying the genomes of other organisms?





12.18

What is a GMO and why is it created?





What are transgenic organisms are why are they created?





12.19

What are the concerns for human h
ealth concerning GMOs?





What are the concerns for the environment concerning GMOs?




12.20

What direction
is the HGP research now heading?