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Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

The environment

for HR

Finding & placing

qualified workers

Assessing & developing

qualified workers

Labour relations

Emerging HR

practices

1

2

3

4

5


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

PART 1



The
environment
for HR


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning


The environment

for HR

Finding & placing

qualified workers

Assessing & developing

qualified workers

Labour relations

Emerging HR

practices

1

CHAPTER 1:


Foundation & challenges for
HR

CHAPTER 2:


Information technology for HR

CHAPTER 3:

Managing diversity &
regulatory challenges


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Chapter 1
-


The foundation
and challenges
of Human
Resource
Management


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Chapter outcomes


Evaluate the development of human resource
management (HRM)


Distinguish the strategic approach to human
resources from the traditional approach to HRM


Summarise the key HRM functions


Explain the roles of the HR Department


Identify eight challenges/issues facing HR today


Explain the trends relevant to the growing
importance for HRM


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
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7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Human resources: Past & present


Scientific management


Human relations


The HR approach


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
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84480
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328
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© 2006 Thomson Learning

Strategic HR


Strategic management



making
those decisions that define the overall
mission & objectives of the
organisation, determining the most
effective utilisation of its resources and
crafting and executing the strategy in
ways that produce the intended results


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
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328
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© 2006 Thomson Learning

Strategic HR (continued)


Business strategy


management’s game plan


SHRM


address a wide variety of people
issues relevant to business strategy


Process is led & coordinated by top
management



Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
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7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Strategic vs traditional HRM

Dimensions

Strategic HRM

Traditional HRM


Planning
and
strategy
formulation




Authority





Scope





Participates in formulating
overall organisational
strategic plan and aligning
HR functions with company
strategy



Has high status and authority
for top HR officer (e.g. vice
president for HR)



Is concerned with all
managers and employees



Is involved in
operational planning
only





Has medium status
and authority (e.g.
HR director)



Is concerned
primarily with hourly,
operational and
clerical employees


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
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84480
-
328
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© 2006 Thomson Learning

Strategic vs traditional HRM
(continued)

Dimensions

Strategic HRM

Traditional HRM



Decision
making



Integration






Coordination



Is involved in making
strategic decisions



Is fully integrated with
other organisational
functions e.g. marketing,
finance, production



Coordinates all HRM
activities



Makes operational
decisions only



Has moderate to
small integration with
other organisational
functions



Does not coordinate
all HR functions


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
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© 2006 Thomson Learning

A model of strategic HRM

Corporate
strategy

External environment

Internal environment

Competition,
government
regulation,
technology,
market trends,
economic

Culture,
structure,
politics,
employee skills,
past strategy

Employee
separation

HR planning,
design of jobs &
work systems,
what workers
do, what
workers need,
how jobs
interface with
others

HR strategy

Laws
regulating
employment

HRIS

Labour
relations

Compensation

Performance
management

Training

Staffing

Business
unit strategy


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
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7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

HR functions


Assigned exclusively to HR:


Compensation and benefits issues


AA & EE


JA programmes


Pre
-
employment testing


Attitude surveys


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
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328
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7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

HR activities (jointly with other
departments)


JA & JD


Recruitment and selection


Appraisal, training and development and
career management


Compensation and health


Labour relations


HRIS & problem
-
solving


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
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328
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7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

HR department roles


Does the HR function affect the success of an
organisation?


HR policies


Critical policy issues


Employee influence


Personnel flow


Reward system


Work systems


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
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328
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7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Communication


Downward



New employee
orientation


Bulletin boards


Communication
meetings


Newsletters


Employee handbooks


Upward


Suggestions
programmes


Complaint procedures


Electronic mail


Attitude surveys


Open
-
door meetings




Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
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7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

HR department roles (continued)


Advice & services


Control functions


Collection & analysis of hiring, selection,
placement & promotion


Analysis of performance appraisal records


Analysis of statistics on absenteeism,
grievances and accidents


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
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7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

The structure of the HR
department


Clerical, professional, managerial staff


Responsibilities for HR functions


Does not only reside with HR


All managers at all levels share in the
responsibility


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
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328
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7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Current issues & challenges


Worker productivity


Quality improvement


Downsizing, delayering & decruiting


The changing workforce


Global economy


The impact of government


Quality of working life


Technology and training


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Challenges facing HR managers
in 21
st

century

External
macro
environment

External
micro
environment

Critical
people
issues

Internal
macro
environment

Internal
micro
environment


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
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7

© 2006 Thomson Learning


HR career opportunities


Professionalisation of HRM


Ethics and HRM


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Summary


Strategic HR activities address a broad range of issues relevant to
the successful formulation and implementation of company plans.


The management of people has seen three distinct approaches since
the turn of the last century: scientific management, human relations
and the HR approach. The trend has been toward the HR approach,
whereby two complementary goals are sought: increased
organisational effectiveness and the satisfaction of individual
employee needs. HR policies and programmes strive to achieve both
goals.


A number of critical issues face HR managers and administrators in
South Africa today. Improving worker productivity through HR
programmes, policies and techniques remains a challenge.
Increasing the quality of working life (QWL) is a goal of many
organisations, and programmes such as the redesign of jobs have
been implemented to enhance QWL.


Hiring and motivating today's changing workforce is a major HR
challenge. Innovative HR programmes must meet the needs of a
diverse labour force while enabling the company to compete
successfully in a global economy.


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Summary


Although the HR programmes of different organisations will vary, the
HR departments of most organisations have these common
responsibilities: job design and analysis; recruitment and selection;
induction and internal staffing; appraisal, training and development;
compensation; and labour relations.


HR managers and administrators play a number of roles in achieving
effective HR management. These include creating HR policies, offering
advice to line managers, providing services (e.g. recruiting, training,
and research), and controlling activities to ensure that employment
legislation and HR policies are being followed. Also, it is usually HR's
responsibility to design and maintain effective communication flows.


Jobs in the HR department include clerical (support), professional and
managerial positions.


Free trade and globalisation are putting most firms in fiercely
competitive markets where success depends on the quality of HR
management.


Work itself will be redefined in the future; more high
-
order thinking,
constant learning and flexibility.


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Chapter 2



Information
Technology for
Human
Resources


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Chapter outcomes


Describe the Internet and identify the two functional
categories of information available on the Internet that
are most useful to HR managers


Define a human resource information system (HRIS)


Discuss the structural design of an HRIS


Distinguish between the different types of HRISs


Discuss some of the modules of an HRIS database


Discuss the steps to be followed in the development
and implementation of an HRIS


Discuss five critical standards that must be met if
information provided by an HRIS is to be viewed as
quality information


List several things HR can do to foster data security
throughout the organisation


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

HR and the Internet


Conversational resources


Reference sources


Intranets



organisational network that operates
over the Internet connecting people to people and
people to knowledge and information


Extranets



an Internet
-
linked network that allows
employees access to information provided by external
entities


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Human Resource Information
System (HRIS)


Nature of an HRIS


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Benefits of an HRIS


Reduces errors


Strategic tool


Provide valuable information to decision
makers



Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Components of an HRIS


Hardware


Software


Data


Procedures and users



Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Functional components of an
HRIS

Employee information

Software

Reports

Input

Transformation

Output


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Structural design of HRISs


Concentrated HRIS


Distributed HRIS


Independent HRIS


Hybrid approach


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Types of HRISs


EDP (electronic data processing)



automated processing of routine information


MIS (management information system)



integration and planning of the information
system’s function


DSS (decision support system)



decisions made at a higher level in the
organisation


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Reasons for the slow introduction
of computer
-
based systems in HR
departments


Lack of support by top management


Satisfaction with the status quo


Defensiveness about revealing HR
operations


Lack of HRIS knowledge and skills by
HR managers


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Fully developed HRIS database

Succession
planning

Skills
inventory

HR planning &
forecasting

Compensation
administration

Future use



Benefits



Health claims

Health &
safety

Applicant
tracking

Position control

Affirmative
action

Training &
development

Personnel module
Corporate, Bio
-
graphical, Histo
-
rical, Company/
HR policies

DATABASE

Career
development
& planning


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Applications of the HRIS
database modules


Applicant
-
tracking module


T&D module


Position control module


Wage & salary administration module


HRP module


Skills inventory module


Succession planning module


Basic personnel module


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Why do HRISs fail?


Lack of management commitment & resources and
inadequate numbers of personnel are made available


Project team not assigned for the duration of the
project


Project is set up for failure (political intrigue, conflict
& hidden agendas)


Incorrect decisions are made


poorly written needs
-
analysis reports


Key personnel are not included in the project team


Clients are not surveyed/interviewed to determine
their needs



Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Development, implementation &
maintenance of an HRIS
database


Phase I


Needs analysis


Phase II


Design & development


Phase III


Implementation &
maintenance


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
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7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Securing the integrity of HR data


Biggest risk


Keeping records unaltered


Controlling access


Security technology


Information to be accessed


Type of access


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Summary


Automation came late to the HR department. When it did, the system
put in place resembled payroll more than personnel.


The appearance of the personal computer (PC), perhaps more than
any other single event, shifted information control away from the data
processing/MIS department.


The computer is becoming an integral part of the HR department. As
a tool, it has moved beyond producing simple reports to helping HR
managers make complex decisions. Human resource information
systems (HRISs) are making this possible. As a whole, an HRIS
creates more opportunities for the HR profession to influence the
company.


A typical HRIS is composed of a database, computer software and
hardware.


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
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7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Summary


There has been an explosion of PC hardware improvements and
software offerings that greatly expand the possibilities of HRISs.
Small employers can now benefit by getting the same results on
PCs and minicomputers that could only be obtained using
mainframes a few years ago.


The choice between mainframes, minicomputers and PCs is
complicated by the blurring of distinctions between them.
Technological improvements are levelling the playing field
between competitive technologies, and a likely scenario is that a
medium
-
sized to larger employer will employ a combination of
networked computer systems.


Improvements in computer technology allow more tasks to be
accomplished than ever before. Very sophisticated analyses can
be performed on an ad hoc basis. Even PC programs allow
complicated 'what if' questions to be answered.


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Summary


Modern HRISs place HR professionals in a better position to play
a more integral role in the strategic management of today's
organisation. Computer technology, which first seemed to divide
departments, now serves to bring them closer together as they
share information, and more of it, to implement the business
strategy.


For an HRIS to be effective, users must be properly trained to
use it, and it must be used by those whom it is intended to
serve.


HRIS concerns about he privacy of information that the
database contains are very important. Proper care must be
taken to restrict access to the system to those individuals who
have a legitimate need for its information.



Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Chapter 3



Managing
diversity and
regulatory
challenges


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Chapter outcomes


Discuss the composition of the South African
workforce


Define diversity management, and discuss why it is
important


Distinguish between the concepts affirmative action
and diversity management


Identify the primary principles of the South African
Constitution and other related employment legislation
regarding discrimination


Discuss the two types of sexual harassment and how
employers should respond to complaints


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

South Africa’s diverse population


Ethnic groups


Women


Younger workers


Disabilities


Sexual/affectional orientation


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
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84480
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328
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7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

An organisational fitness model


Refer to Figure 3.1 page 69


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
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© 2006 Thomson Learning

Managing diversity


A planned systematic and comprehensive
managerial process for developing an
organisational environment in which all
employees, with their similarities and
differences, can contribute to the strategic
and competitive advantage of the
organisation, and where no
-
one is excluded
on the basis of factors unrelated to
productivity



Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Managing diversity


What is diversity?

Recognition of the groups
of people who share such common traits


Primary dimensions


Secondary dimensions


Stereotypes & prejudices


Stereotype


a fixed, distorted generalisation about
the members of a group: it is not generalisation


Prejudice


processing our stereotypes in such a way
to reinforce your own sense of superiority to
members of that group


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Managing diversity (continued)


Assimilation


Valuing diversity


Diversity programmes


Diversity awareness training



Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
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84480
-
328
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7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Managing diversity (continued)


Problems with diversity training


Language sensitivity


The multicultural organisation


How can an organisation truly become a
multicultural organisation?



Step 1

Unfreezing

Step 2

Moving

Step 3

Refreezing


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Response to diversity:
Government legislation


LRA 66 of 1995


The Constitution 108 of 1996


BCEA 75 of 1997


EEA 55 of 1998


Promotion of equality and prevention of
unfair discrimination act 4 of 2000


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Sexual harassment


Defining sexual harassment


Quid pro quo harassment


Hostile work environment harassment


Measuring & researching sexual harassment


Different forms of sexual harassment


HR’s responsibility


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
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7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Summary


The rapid diversification of the South African workforce is changing
the way in which managers succeed in administrating
organisations. They must be able to harness the energies, talents
and differences of a more diversified workforce. This requires an
ability to recognise value and to manage individuals from diverse
cultures and perspectives.


Diversity
-
awareness training and diversity programmes strive to
increase employees' recognition of the value of everyone in the
workplace. Some programmes, however, have caused problems
among certain employees. To achieve diversity, HR managers must:
(1) hire a diverse workforce; (2) enforce policies and laws on
discrimination; and (3) learn to value and manage employees'
differences.


Affirmative action programmes by employers seek to determine
areas of under use of women and disadvantaged group members.
Employers establish goals and timetables to increase recruitment
and selection of women and other groups in underutilised job
categories.


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Summary


Government legislation has greatly affected the
selection process. Employers must ensure that their
recruitment practices are nondiscriminatory and that
each applicant is given an equal opportunity.


Sexual harassment has developed into a complex but
critical HR issue. Both quid pro quo and hostile
environment forms of harassment are clearly
prohibited. Employers realise that developing
complaint investigation procedures and training
supervisors to respond must be done before a
complaint is filed to provide objectivity.


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

The environment

for HR

Finding & placing

qualified workers

Assessing & developing

qualified workers

Labour relations

Emerging HR

practices

2

CHAPTER 4:


HR planning, research &
problem
-
solving

CHAPTER 5:


Job design and job analysis

CHAPTER 6:

Recruitment & selection

CHAPTER 7:

Induction, motivation & retention

CHAPTER 8:

Internal staffing & career
management


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Chapter 4



HR planning,
research and
problem
-
solving


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
-
7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Chapter outcomes


Define strategic human resource planning (SHRP)


Understand the importance of SHRP to the organisation


Identify the steps in the SHRP process


Identify the methods by which an organisation can
develop forecasts of anticipated personnel (supply and
demand)


List several common pitfalls in SHRP


Recognise the importance of the HR research function
and cite the individuals and institutions that conduct HR
research


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
-
84480
-
328
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7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Chapter outcomes (continued)


Provide an overview of the major HR research
methods


Describe in detail the employee survey process
-

by
far the most common form of HR research


Recognise the importance of conducting
-

whenever
possible
-

a cost
-
benefit analysis of HR activities and
to provide an example using employee absenteeism


Cite some of the major personnel/HR problems
-

absenteeism, turnover, job dissatisfaction and
perceptions of unfairness


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
rnich et al ISBN 1
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84480
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328
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7

© 2006 Thomson Learning

Types of HR planning


Input linkages


Decision inclusion linkages


Review and reaction linkages


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


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ä
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© 2006 Thomson Learning


Planning horizon


Strategy
-
linked HRP


Who is responsible for SHRP?


Main responsibility lies with HR
managers


HR managers must liaise with line
management


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


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Why is SHRP so important?


Elements of SHRP


Steps in the SHRP process


Situation analysis


HR demand analysis


HR supply analysis


Strategy development


Common pitfalls in SHRP






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HR research


Types of research


Basic/Pure


Applied


The researchers


HR research publications


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Research techniques


Surveys


Job satisfaction survey


Specific
-
use questionnaire


Survey administration


Exit interviews


Historical study


Controlled experiments


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HRIS


Cost
-
benefit analysis


Problem
-
solving and analysis


Absenteeism


Causes of absenteeism


Measuring absenteeism


Researching absenteeism


Reducing absenteeism


Turnover


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Problem
-
solving and analysis (continued)


Job dissatisfaction


Causes of job dissatisfaction


Measuring job dissatisfaction


Reducing job dissatisfaction


Perceptions of fairness


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Problem
-
solving and analysis (continued)


Perceptions of fairness


Procedural & distributive justice


Measuring perceptions of fairness


Researching fairness


Reducing unfairness



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Factors that affect turnover

Employee

turnover

Demographic

factors

General
economic
trends

Local
labour
market

Personal
mobility

Job
security


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Summary


SHRP is the process of getting the right number of qualified
people into the right job at the right time.


To be effective, the SHR plan must be derived from the long
-
range plans of the organisation.


Strategy
-
linked HRP is based on a close working relationship
between HR staff and line managers.


Various methods for forecasting HR needs exist.


Sound HR research can significantly strengthen an
organisation’s HR programmes. Some specific uses of research
include measurement and evaluation of current personnel
policies, programmes and activities, and appraisal of proposed
policies, programmes and activities.


Research is generally classified as basic or applied. Most HR
research is applied research to solve a particular problem or
evaluate a proposed HR programme or activity.


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Summary


HR research is conducted by a variety of individuals and public
and private organisations, including government departments,
private organisations, personnel associations, universities and
individual business firms. In a business firm, HR research is
usually conducted by a member of the personnel staff. Results
are available in a number of journals and other publications.


Techniques that are frequently used in HR research include
surveys, specific
-
use questionnaires, interviews and historical
studies. The controlled experiment has only limited use because
of the difficulties in applying this technique in an organisational
setting. The primary uses of surveys, questionnaires and
interviews are to gather employees’ feelings and perceptions
about areas of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction and to
evaluate present and proposed HR programmes and policies.


An important requirement for HR research is a valid HRIS.
Without relevant information, it will not only be difficult to carry
out meaningful research but the HR staff’s day
-
to
-
day
effectiveness will also be limited.



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Summary


Whenever possible, HR professionals should analyse HR
problems and evaluate their programmes using a cost
-
benefit analysis. Some problems and activities that lend
themselves to this form of analysis are turnover,
absenteeism, attitudes and employee grievances.


Although HR professionals and line managers must
confront a wide array of people problems, a small, hard
-
core group of problems seem to permeate many
organisations and consume an inordinate amount of the
time of line and staff decision
-
makers. These problems
typically include absenteeism, turnover, job dissatisfaction
and unfairness. For problems such as these, decision
-
makers must, through the use of HR research,
systematically analyse the extent of the problem in their
organisations, determine where the problems exist and
develop strategies to overcome them.


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Chapter 5



Job design and
job analysis


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Chapter outcomes


Discuss workflow analysis and business process re
-
engineering as approaches to organisational work.


Understand how the design of a job affects employee
motivation and performance.


Show various methods of designing motivating jobs.


Understand how motivating jobs can be created by
building work teams.


Become aware of radically new organisational
programmes such as TQM.


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Chapter outcomes (continued)


Understand the basic elements of a job analysis
programme.


Describe the end products of job analysis.


Identify the major methods of job analysis.


Discuss the future use and updating of job analysis
information.


Cite techniques useful in writing job descriptions.


Recognise the major elements of job descriptions and
job specifications.



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Dividing work into jobs


Work



effort directed towards producing and
accomplishing results


Job



grouping of tasks, duties &
responsibilities that constitute the total work
assignment


As organisations change, these tasks, duties &
responsibilities may also change over time


When all jobs are added together they should
= the amount of “work” that is to be completed


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Dividing work into jobs (continued)


Workflow analysis


studies the way work
moves through the organisation


Starts with examination of
desired & actual

outputs

(goods & services) into quantity &
quality


Activities

(tasks & jobs) that lead to the outputs
are evaluated to see if they can achieve the
desired outputs


Inputs

(people, material, information, data,
equipment etc) must be assessed to determine if
these inputs make the outputs & activities more
efficient



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Dividing work into jobs (continued)


Re
-
engineering


generates the needed
changes in the business processes


Purpose of business process re
-
engineering


improve such activities as product
development, customer service & service delivery


Require

the use of work teams, training
employees to do more than one job and
reorganising operations, workflow and offices to
simplify and speed up the work


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Designing jobs


Major HR concerns:


Employee productivity


Job satisfaction


Job design (JD)



determines how work is
performed & greatly affects how an employee feels
about a job, how much authority an employee has
over the work, how much decision
-
making the
employee performs on the job and how many tasks
the employee should complete


JD determines working relationship with employees &
relationship among employees


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Designing jobs (continued)


JD determines:


The nature of social relationships that exist on
a job


Relationships between the employee and the
work


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A framework for job design

Feedback

Feedback

Task
Accomplishment

Productivity
Effectiveness
Efficiency


Worker reaction

Satisfaction
Absenteeism
Turnover

Job content

Task variety, autonomy,
complexity, difficulty, identity

Job functions

Responsibility, authority,
information flow, work
methods, co
-
ordination
requirements

Relationships

Dealing with others,
friendship opportunities,
teamwork requirements


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Major approaches to job design


Specialisation
-
intensive jobs


Job simplification (job specialisation)


Motivation intensive jobs


Job rotation


Job enlargement


Job enrichment


Work teams


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Advantages
-

Major approaches
to job design

Specialisation intensive




Productivity of skilled
workers




Training time required


Easy to replace workers


Few mental work errors


Greater manager control of
operations

Motivation intensive




Productivity of
challenged workers




Absenteeism




Turnover




Product quality


More employee ideas


Greater employee job
satisfaction




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New organisational approaches


Total quality management (TQM)


Focuses on the quality of all the processes that
lead to the final product or service


To be successful it requires support of top
management & the belief that quality is a key part
of every employee’s job


Customer focus in the process of designing and
improving quality


Proper implementation requires a clear vision &
support of top management and a focus on results
NOT the process


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The office environment


Work environment (space, workstations, light
etc) affects employee morale, productivity
and quality, absenteeism & turnover


Creativity can happen anywhere


Retain the services of an architect or design
consultant


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Robotics


The use of robots to perform routine tasks


Industrial robots:


Anthropomorphic

(approximate the appearance and
functions of humans)


Nonanthropomorphi
c

(machine
-
like and have limited
functions)


First
-
generation robots


performed simple jobs and
had limited capabilities


Second
-
generation robots


built with senses, vision
or touch, making them more adaptable


New robots
-

perform most of the drilling, shaping &
bending tasks previously performed by robots


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Ergonomics


Taking into account the human factor in
designing the employee’s workstation


Relationship between the employees and
their workstations


machines used, lighting,
noise, chairs etc, these can affect productivity


IBM Employee handbook identifies the
following:


Posture


Back


Hand


Environment


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Productivity measures


Quantity or volume produced


Accurate measure of productivity is vital to
organisational improvement effort


Gain competitive advantage


Strategies to improve productivity & quality


Depends on employee seeing a link between what
they produce & what the company is attempting
to achieve


What will work for one company may not for
another


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Productivity measures
(continued)


Organisations must be careful not to measure
the wrong things or overlook those that are
critical to success


Merely implementing quality techniques,
including employee empowerment and
benchmarking will not produce benefits


Productivity is the relationship between what
is put into a piece of work (input) and what is
yielded (output)


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Three major components of productivity

Effectiveness

“Doing the right things”

Resource
market

Market
needs

Utilisation & efficiency

“Doing things right”

The production process

Labour,
materials
and capital

Inputs

Conversion

Goods
and
services

Outputs


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Three major components of
productivity


Utilisation



the extent to which we
use resources


Efficiency



rate of conversion while
resources are being used


Effectiveness



measured in terms of
“doing the right things”


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Other JD issues


Work schedules


Flexitime


Compressed workweeks


Alternative physical work locations


Telecommuting


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The nature of job analysis (JA)


Job analysis



systematically investigate the
tasks, duties and responsibilities of the jobs
within the organisation


Investigates:


Levels of decision
-
making


Skills employees need to do a job adequately


Autonomy of the job


Mental effort required to perform the job


Machines operated, reports completed & special
financial/other responsibilities


Working conditions (levels of temperature, light
etc)


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The importance of JA


New realities:


Organisational restructuring due to
downsizing


The need to motivate and reward people


The impact of technology on jobs
throughout the organisation


Labour legislation pertaining to
employment equity and general
discriminatory practices


The implementation of teams


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Components of a job


To understand a specific job and to be
able to make comparisons among or
between jobs, it is important that
anyone analysing a job should know
that it can be broken down into several
components and arranged into a
hierarchy of work activities


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Hierarchy of work activities

Job family

Occupation

Job

Position

Duty

Task

Element


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Programme implementation

1.
Committee review

2.
Information collection


General methods


Site observations


Work sampling


Interviews


Diaries


Questionnaires


Specific methods


PAQ


FJA


CMQ


WPS


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Programme implementation

3.
Information review

4.
Product completion


Job description (JD)


Uses of a JD:


Recruitment


Interviewing


Orientation


Training


Job evaluation


Wage/salary surveys


Performance appraisal


Outplacement


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Programme implementation

4.
Product completion (continued)


Job description (JD) (continued)


Elements of a JD:


Job identification


Job summary


Job duties & responsibilities


Job specification (JS)


Skills


Knowledge


Abilities

5.
Future use & updating



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JA problems


Employee fear


Need to update information regularly


Job is held by only one or two
employees


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Summary


Understanding how people are motivated, that is, their needs
and goals, is critical to modern job design.


The task employees perform on the job and the variety,
difficulty level and autonomy of the job greatly affect job
satisfaction and productivity.


Employees, individually or in work teams, are being asked to
take on greater responsibility for the design and control of their
jobs. Simple, repetitious tasks are eliminated whenever possible,
generally resulting in jobs that are more motivating and
challenging. At the same time, some degree of job specialisation
is necessary so that new employees can learn their jobs quickly
and make fewer errors.


Programmes such as job enrichment, self
-
managed work
groups, TQM and re
-
engineering have resulted in redesigned
jobs that were previously highly specialised and boring. There is
also a trend toward multiskilling, whereby team members learn
multiple tasks. Organisations are adopting work teams and
giving them more freedom and responsibilities.


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Summary


Total Quality Management (TQM) is one of the fastest
-
growing
productivity improvement programmes in the world. It is based on
the principle of commitment to continuous improvement and
meeting customers' needs. It is largely a bottom
-
up change effort.


Re
-
engineering is more radical. It involves more than tweaking old
procedures; it is the redesign of business processes to achieve major
gains in cost, service or time. The process begins with the simple but
powerful question: If we could start from scratch, how would we do
this? It is different from TQM because it comes from the top down.


Technology plays an important role in modern job design. Robotics,
ergonomics and the office environment can improve employee
creativity, productivity and quality.



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Summary


In addition to job design, organisations may choose to implement
programmes that increase workplace flexibility. These programmes tend
to adopt a scheduling mix between employees' needs and the
organisation's staffing requirements in ways that are consistent with the
company's culture. Compressed work weeks, flexitime programmes and
telecommuting are the most common approaches. Employees who
desire greater control over work hours, who would like easier
commuting or want a different lifestyle will be attracted to organisations
that offer these types of programmes.


A sound JA programme produces many benefits for an organisation.
Information critical to employment and compensation is collected on a
systematic basis. JDs, JSs and JEs can easily be produced from the JA
data. Thus, critical HR practices such as hiring, wage determination and
administrative record
-
keeping are assisted by job analysis.


Information collection should always begin by conducting a background
search. Internal sources can include previous job analyses, interviews
with job incumbents and job supervisors, site observations by the
analyst, questionnaires and diaries.



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Summary


There is a variety of job analysis methods, with each having certain
advantages, depending on the purpose, cost and time. The most
popular method is the PAQ. A more complex method that demands
computer analysis and that can handle thousands of jobs and people is
the FJA.


Job analysis is necessary to comply with the primary employment
provisions. The process helps to determine essential functions and
whether an individual can carry out the essential functions with or
without reasonable accommodation.


Job descriptions generally should contain a complete identification of
the job and its location within the organisation. The section on duties
and responsibilities should group all tasks into major functional
categories, and each entry should begin with verbs. Job specifications
should include all SKAs needed to perform the job, as well as other
minimum qualifications.



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Chapter 6



Recruitment &
selection



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Chapter outcomes


Identify different ways that labour markets can be
identified and approached


Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of internal
versus external recruiting


Identify internal and external methods of recruiting


List and discuss a number of hiring alternatives


Explain the HR department's role in the selection
process


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Chapter outcomes (continued)


Diagram and discuss the sequence of a typical
selection process


Discuss several types of selection interviews and
some key considerations when conducting these
interviews


Discuss the merits of references


Describe the various decision strategies for selection


Explain how legal concerns impact on both
recruitment and selection


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Definitions


Recruitment



the process of acquiring
applicants who are available and qualified to
fill positions in organisations


Selection

-

the process of choosing from a
group of applicants the individual best suited
for a particular position


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Linking the role of recruitment
and selection

External
labour
market

Selection
activities

Recruitment
activities

Organisation’s
need for
additional
labour


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The recruitment process

Environment

HRP

AA &
EE

Specific
requests

Satisfactory pool
of recruits

Manager’s
comments

JA info

Job openings identified

Job requirements

Internal
sources

Internal
methods

External
sources

External
methods


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Recruitment strategies in a
diverse workforce


Non
-
traditional recruitment strategies:


Disadvantaged training programmes


Learnerships and mentoring programmes


Career exhibitions


Telerecruiting


Diversity data banks


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Labour markets information


Labour market sources


Part
-
time employees


Underemployed individuals


Pirating


Operation of the labour market


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Recruitment sources


Internal sources

(Also discuss employee relocation, glass
ceiling)


External sources

(also discuss Peter Principle)


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Advantages


Internal recruitment




Morale


Knowledge of
records


Chain effect of
promotion


Need to hire at entry
level


Usually faster, less
expensive


External recruitment


Applicant pool is bigger


New ideas, contact




Internal infighting


Minimises Peter
Principle


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Disadvantages


Internal recruitment


Unhealthy competition


Inbreeding


Morale problem for those
not promoted


Strong management
development programme
needed


External recruitment


Destroy incentive of
employees to strive for
promotion


Individual’s ability to fit in is
unknown


Increased adjustment
problem


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Methods of recruitment


Internal methods


Job posting


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Methods of recruitment


External methods


Direct applications


Employee referrals


University campus recruiting


Private employment agencies


Advertising


Direct mail


Radio, TV & the Internet


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Hiring alternatives


Assigning overtime


Temporary help


Leasing employees


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Recruitment and the law


LRA 66 of 1995


BCEA 75 of 1997


EEA 55 of 1998


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Selection


An HR responsibility


Selection and the law


Selection process


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Framework for selection

Organisational goals

Job design

Job success criterion

Job specification

Selection instruments


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


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Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


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Steps in the selection process

Initial screening

Application blank

Pre
-
employment
testing

Interviews

Reference checks

Medical examination

Comply?

Yes
/
No

Yes
/
No

Yes
/
No

Yes
/
No

Yes
/
No

Yes
/
No

Reject

Job
offer


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


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Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


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ä
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Initial screening (step 1)


Removing obviously
unqualified/undesired applicants


Critical job specifications or
requirements of EEA


CV red flags


CV tracking system


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


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Application blank (step 2)


Information obtained is compared to JS
to determine if there is a potential
match


Weighted application blank


CV method


Uses of application blank


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Pre
-
employment testing (step 3)


Reliability

of a test refers to
consistency of measurement, usually
across time but also across different
raters


Validity

is the extent to which scores
on a test or interview correspond to
actual job performance


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Pre
-
employment testing (continued)


Employment Equity Act Section 8 of
Chapter II


Managerial selection devices


Assessment centres


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Interviews (step 4)


Purpose of the interview:

(1)
Does the applicant have the ability to
perform the job?

(2)
Will the applicant be motivated to be
successful?

(3)
Will the applicant match the needs of the
organisation?


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Interviews (continued)


Reliability & validity of interviews


Problems with interview


Structured & objective process


Effective interviewing:


Setting


Documentation


Standardisation


Scoring


Reviewing specifications


Reviewing the application blank


Training the interviewer


Job
-
related questions


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Interviews (continued)


Types of interviews


One
-
on
-
One


Panel


Structured interview
(directive/patterned)


Realistic job preview


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Reference checks (step 5)


Methods (personal visits, telephonic,
mail)


Telephone


advantages:


Immediate clarification


More information


Relatively little expense


Additional areas


A structured form


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Reference checks (continued)


Personal references


Verify data received on application blank


Evaluate the quality of the personal
recommendation


Determine how well the person knows the
applicant


Previous employers


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Medical examination (step 6)


After job offer has been made


Contingent to passing the medical
examination


EEA Section 7(1) and (2) & Section
50(4)


Can test if it can be justified


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The selection decision


Compensatory selection


all applicants
who pass the initial screening will be
tested, interviewed etc


Multiple hurdles selection


applicant
needs to pass each hurdle (step)


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


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Record keeping


EEA


LRA


Keep complete set of records of the
recruitment and selection process


Proof of non
-
discrimination


Keep documents such as advertisements,
contract with employment agencies etc


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Summary


Recruitment requires the HR specialist to acquire a pool of
available and qualified applicants. The recruiters can tap a
variety of sources, including current employees, part
-
time
workers, the unemployed and employees of other organisations
who feel they are underemployed.


Job
-
posting programmes are widely used to recruit applicants
for positions. New voice
-
mail and electronic
-
mail systems offer
several advantages over traditional bulletin boards.


Effective recruitment advertising has increased because of the
use of common marketing research tools. The need for
advertising has increased because of dual
-
career couples and a
general unwillingness to relocate on the part of professional and
technical employees.


Current employees are the most common source of applicants
for higher
-
level positions. They offer the organisation several
advantages over external applicants and give all employees the
incentive of knowing that they may be promoted as a reward for
hard work.


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


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ä
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Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


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ä
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© 2006 Thomson Learning

Summary


Overtime, temporary help and leasing are alternative sources of
additional labour. Depending on the number of hours and skills
needed, these recruitment sources may be more desirable than
hiring permanent employees.


University/school campus recruitment has become more
competitive and employers more sophisticated in their
methods. A poor economy should signal to students the need
to sue innovative job leads.


Pre
-
employment tests can be effective tools in the selection
process. If carefully selected, validated and monitored, they
can help select applicants who will match the position's
requirements.


Reference checking has increased in use but has been
subjected to legal challenges. Employers can legally provide
factual and accurate information, but they should be able to
verify any job
-
related information they release.


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


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Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


by Grobler, W
ä
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© 2006 Thomson Learning

Chapter 7



Induction,
motivation and
retention


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


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Chapter outcomes


Identify different ways that labour markets can be
identified and approached


Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of internal
versus external recruiting


Identify internal and external methods of recruiting


List and discuss a number of hiring alternatives


Explain the HR department's role in the selection
process



Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


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Chapter outcomes (continued)



Diagram and discuss the sequence of a typical
selection process


Discuss several types of selection interviews and
some key considerations when conducting these
interviews


Discuss the merits of references


Describe the various decision strategies for selection


Explain how legal concerns impact on both
recruitment and selection


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Definition


Induction/orientation/socialisation



the process of integrating the new employee
into the organisation and acquainting him/her
with the details and requirements of the job


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


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Objectives of induction


Acquainting new employees with
job procedures


Establishing
relationships

with co
-
workers,
including subordinates and supervisors


Creating a
sense of belonging

among employees
by showing them how their job fits into the overall
organisation


Acquainting new employees with the
goals of the
organisation


Indicating to the employees the
preferred means

by which these goals should be attained


Identifying the
basic responsibilities of the job


Indicating the
required behaviour patterns for
effective job performance


Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e


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Model for induction


Phase I


Anticipatory socialisation


Realism about the organisation


Realism about the job


Congruence of skills and abilities


Congruence of needs and values



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Model for induction (continued)


Phase II


Encounter


Management of outside
-
life conflicts


Management of intergroup role conflicts


Role definition


Initiation to the task


Initiation to the group



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Model for induction (continued)


Phase III


Change and acquisition


Resolution of role demands


Task mastery


Adjustment to group norms and values


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Benefits of induction




Job satisfaction




Labour turnover




Commitment to values and goals




Performance as a result of faster learning times




Costly and time
-
consuming mistakes




Absenteeism




Customer service through heightened productivity




Manager/subordinate relationships




Understanding of company policies, goals and
procedures


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Reasons for the lack of effective
induction


The supervisors responsible for the task either lack
the time or ability to fulfil this obligation


Organisations do not regard anxiety and stress,
owing to insecurity and unfulfilled expectations, as a
primary cause of labour turnover among new
employees