Age of Revolutions

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Dec 11, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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Age of Revolutions

Scientific Revolution

Scientific Revolution


What was it
?


the period roughly between
1500 and 1700

during which the
foundations of modern science

were laid down in Western
Europe


Influenced by the
Renaissance


Curiosity
,
investigation
, and
critical approach


Scholars no longer wanted to rely on the explanations that
ancient

or
religious

beliefs told them


People began
experiments

and
mathematics

to explain mysteries of the
unknown


People move away from
mysticism, superstition and ignorance


Who were some
important figures
?


Nicolas Copernicus
:


Developed heliocentric theory


Dispelled old geocentric theory (earth
is center of universe)


Johannes
Kepler
:


Discovered planetary motion


Galileo Galilee:


Used telescope to support/prove
heliocentric theory

Challenge of the Church’s stance that
Earth was the center of the universe
was an essential aspect of the
Scientific Revolution



Isaac Newton
:


Discovered Laws of Gravity


Formulated basics of physics


William Harvey
:



Discovered circulation of the blood
and expanded knowledge of how the
heart worked




There were many more… too many to
name

Pioneers of the scientific revolution


Nicolaus Copernicus
: Developed heliocentric
theory


Johannes Kepler
: Discovered planetary
motion


Galileo Galilei
: Used telescope to support
heliocentric theory


Isaac Newton
: Discovered Laws of Gravity


William Harvey
: Discovered circulation of the
blood

The Roots of Modern Science


The Medieval View


Most knowledge in the
Middle Ages comes from
the Bible and
Greek/Roman sources.


Supports
geocentric

theory

moon, sun,
planets revolve around
earth

The Roots of Modern Science


A New Way of Thinking


Renaissance prompts new ways of thinking (1300
-
1600)


Scientific Revolution

new way of viewing the
natural world

based on observation and inquiry


New discoveries, overseas exploration open up
thinking


Scholars make new developments in astronomy
and mathematics.

Pioneers of the scientific revolution



Nicolaus Copernicus: Developed heliocentric
theory



Copernicus


1473
-
1543


His “heliocentric” model


of the universe removed


men from


the center of everything


His ideas were in direct conflict with the Bible
and the accepted assumptions of the Catholic
Church


A Revolutionary Model of the Universe


The Heliocentric Theory


Widely accepted geocentric
theory challenged as
inaccurate


Copernicus develops the
heliocentric theory

planets
revolve around the sun


Later scientists
mathematically prove
Copernicus to be correct

Nicolaus

Copernicus

Johannes Kepler


1571
-
1630..student of Brahe


Discovered planetary motion


Elliptical, not circular…fan of Copernicus


His 3 new laws were based on mathematical
relationships….

Galileo Galilei (1564
-
1642)


Used telescope to support heliocentric
theory and discover 4 moons of Jupiter

A Revolutionary Model of the Universe


Galileo’s Discoveries


Italian scientist Galileo Galilei
makes key advances in
astronomy.



He makes discovery about
planet surfaces


supports heliocentric theory


4 moons of Jupiter (Jupiter
has 8 moons)


Sun spots

Galileo Galilei

Galileo and the Inquisition, 1633…


Conflict with the Church


Church attacks Galileo’s
work, fears it will weaken
people’s faith


Pope forces Galileo to
declare his and other new
findings are
wrong


On 31 October 1992, Pope
John Paul II expressed
regret for how the Galileo
affair was handled, and
officially conceded that the
Earth was not stationary

Cristiano
Banti's

1857 painting
Galileo
facing the Roman Inquisition

Isaac Newton: GRAVITY


1642
-
1726 (born same year Galileo died)


Removes last doubts over HELIOCENTRIC model of
the universe



Newton Explains the Law of Gravity


Newton’s Theories


English scientist Isaac
Newton develops
theory of motion

states some forces
rule motion of
planets, matter in
space, and earth


LAW OF GRAVITY

Isaac Newton in 1689

Newton Explains the Law of Gravity


Newton’s Theories
(continued)


Motion in space and
earth linked by the law
of universal gravitation

holds that every object is
universe attracts every
other object


Newton views the
universe as a vast,
perfect mechanical clock

Isaac Newton in 1702

William Harvey: 1578
-
1657


Discovered circulation of the blood and the
role of the heart


The Scientific Revolution Spreads


Medicine and the
Human Body


Andreas Vesalius
improves knowledge of
anatomy

Andreas Vesalius

The Scientific Revolution Spreads


Medicine and the
Human Body
(continued)


Edward Jenner produces
world’s first
vaccination

for
smallpox

1802 caricature of Jenner vaccinating patients who
feared it would make them sprout cow like
appendages.

The Scientific Revolution Spreads


Scientific Instruments


Scientists develop
microscope, barometer,
and thermometer


New instruments lead to
better observations and
new discoveries

microscope

thermometer

simple mercury
barometer

How did they do this?


Creation of the
Scientific
Method

1.
Ask a Question

2.
Do Background Research

3.
Construct a Hypothesis

4.
Test Your Hypothesis by
Doing an Experiment

5.
Analyze Your Data and
Draw a Conclusion

6.
Communicate Your
Result

Examples of tools
they used
:

-
Barometer
-

Microscope

-
Telescope
-

Thermometer

The Scientific Method


A Logical Approach


Revolution in thinking leads to development of scientific
method

a series of steps for forming and testing scientific
theories


Bacon and Descartes


Thinkers Bacon and Descartes help to create scientific
method


Bacon urges scientists to experiment before drawing
conclusions


Descartes advocates using logic and math to reason out
basic truths

The Scientific Method

Francis Bacon (1561
-
1626)

Ren
é

Descartes (1595
-
1650)

What did this lead to?


Emphasis on reason and systematic study of nature


Explosion scientific knowledge and curiosity


Greatest leap in knowledge up until that point in time


Creation of scientific communities


Role of the Printing Press

Importance of the scientific revolution


Emphasis on reason and systematic
observation of nature


Formulation of the scientific method


Expansion of scientific knowledge

Francis Bacon, Galileo, and Isaac
Newton promoted the idea that
knowledge should be based on


A.
The experiences of past civilizations

B.
Experimentation and observation

C.
Emotions and feelings

D.
The teachings of the Catholic Church


Answer is B.

Which was a result of the Commercial
Revolution

A.
Decline in population growth in Europe

B.
Shift of power from Western Europe to
Eastern Europe

C.
Spread of feudalism throughout Western
Europe

D.
Expansion of European influence overseas


Answer is D

Which system developed as a result of
the Commercial Revolution

A.
Manorialism

B.
Communism

C.
Bartering

D.
Market economy



Answer is D

According to the theory of
mercantilism, colonies should be

A.
Acquired as markets and sources of raw
materials

B.
Considered an economic burden for the
colonial power

C.
Grated independence as soon as possible

D.
Encouraged to develop their own industries


Answer is A.

Which statement best describes the
effects of the works of Nicolaus
Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, Sir Isaac
Newton, and Rene
´

Descartes?

A.
The acceptance of traditional authority was
strengthened.

B.
The scientific method was used to solve problems

C.
Funding to education was increased by the English
government.

D.
Interest in Greek and Roman drama was renewed


Answer is B


Which was a characteristic of the policy of
mercantilism followed by Spanish colonial
rulers in Latin America?

A.
The colonies were forced to develop local industries to
support themselves

B.
Spain sought trade agreements between its colonies
and the English colonies in North America

C.
The colonies were required to provide raw materials to
Spain and to purchase Spanish manufactured goods

D.
Spain encouraged the colonies to develop new
political systems to meet colonial needs


Answer is C