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Oct 7, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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RF electronics for wireless communication and remote sensing systems



The continuous progress in electron device technologies
,
still providing improved
performance
in
terms of
great
er
bandwidth
,
computational
speed,
reduced dimensi
ons, manufacturing
cost

and
energy consumption
,
has opened a wide
r

range of applications for high
-
complexity integrated
circuits

also in the field of wireless communication
and remote sensi
ng system
s
. In fact, the
Software

Defined Radio approach, where
many of the fundamental
s
ig
nal processing functions
(e.g
.
filtering,
mo
/demodulation
,

etc..
..)
are
based on special
-
purpose
digital signal processing
alg
orithms implemented on
DSP
computing
architectures, is
widely adopted in
new generation
wireless communications (e.g. not only

long
-
range

terrestrial/satellite radio links
,

but also short
-
range wireless
links
and networks
, like WLANs
) or

remote sensing
systems
(e.g. not only r
adar

systems
,

but also wireless sensors

and sensor networks
).

In such a contex
t
, wh
ile DSP
-
implemented

S
DR algorithms provide both

high flexibility (e.g.
reconfigurability, f
requency

agil
ity”
)
and accurate,
reliable operation (e.g. fault
-
tolerant SW/HW
d
e
sign)
,

the main system performance (S/N ratio, interference immunity, non
-
linear distortion,
dynamic ran
ge, bit error rate, power consumption, etc..) mainly depend on the characteristics of
the
electronic circuits (i.e. Low
-
Noise Amplifiers, Voltage Controlled Oscillato
rs

and
frequency
synthetiz
ers, Power Amplifiers, fast A/D and D/A converters) which play a

fundamental role in the
Radio Fre
quency

receiver and transmitter front
-
ends of wireless system
s
.

This course will provide an introd
uction to
RF front
-
end architectures and circuit topologies, with
the
aim of pointing out
the main research topics arising

in the development of suitabl
e RF circuit
design tools and
measurement techniques
for
device/
circuit
performance
characterization
,

modeling

and optimization
.


In particular,

by considering specific case studies, special attention
will be paid to noise,

non
-
linear distortion and interference resistance in broad
-
band LNAs and A/D
conversion channels, phase
-
noise in VCOs for frequency synthetizers, and the trade
-
off issues
between non
-
linear distortion
, output power
and power
-
added efficiency in RF power

amplifiers.

Different a
pplication scenarios

and associated circuit performance requirements

in the areas of
terrestrial communication systems and satellite remote sensing/communication payloads
will be
described
by
ex
perts from industrial R&D labs.


Ti
me span
: 12 hours

Final assessment
: short essay on agreed topics


Instructors
/Speakers


Ericsson
:


Maurizio Pagani


Thales Alenia Space:


Fernando Marchetti, Marziale Feudale


Università di Bologna
:


F. Filic
ori, A. Santarelli, A. Costanzo,
D.Ma
sotti, E. Franch
i,
A. Gnudi, P.A.Traverso, C.Florian


IEIIT
-
CNR


Rudi Paganelli




Schedule
:
13, 14, 20
July

2010

Scuola di Dottorato in Scienze e
d

Ingegneria dell'Informazione


D
OTTORATO DI
R
ICERCA IN
I
NGEGNERIA
E
LETTRONICA
I
NFORMATICA E DELLE
T
ELECOMUNI
CAZIONI


Short course on
:



RF electronics for wireless communication and remote sensing systems”


13
th
, 14
th

and 20
th

July 2010,
Facoltà di Ingegneria, Viale Risorgimento 2, Bologna



The
short
course is organized as a set of integrated seminars accordin
g to the
following

p
rogramme
:



Tuesday 13
th

July,


Facoltà di Ingegneria, Aula 5.5.




9.30 a.m
to 10.00 a.m.

Fabio Filicori, Università di Bologna:


G
oals and
contents
:

foreword on main issues and research topics in
RF
electronics for wireless commu
nication and remote sensing systems


10.00

to 11.00

a.m.
:

Maurizio Pagani

-
Ericsson Design Centre


New hardware solutions in future microwave links for mobile network applications


New components are required for the next generation of microwave links in
mobile backhaul
applications in order to
increase capacity, energy efficiency, and manufacturability.
Faster and more
energy efficient mobile communication is expected in microwave link systems operating at 4
-
38
GHz. Present data rates up to 170 Mbps in a
single channel must be radically increased in future
systems to meet concurrent evolution in broadband mobile networks.

The new components which
are based on advanced semiconductor technologies and microwave circuit designs, will allow
reducing costs, enha
ncing the performance and enabling new system solutions, more compact and
flexible

than the existing ones.

This will be addressed by directing research towards novel reconfigurable circuit solutions, in
particular focusing on highly linear receivers and hi
gh efficiency linear transmitters, fabricated in
new semiconductor technologies combined with a new functional design approach.


Tuesday 13th July, Facoltà di Ingegneria, Aula 5.5.


11
.00

a.m to 13
.00
p.m.
: Fernando Marchetti and
Marziale Feudale

-
Thal
es Alenia
Space


Remote Sensing: from Earth Observation to Space Exploration


This presentation provides an
overview
of the
satellite
remote sensing equipment

us
ed
in Earth
Observation and Planetary Exploration.
After recalling
the basics of operation an
d different
application scenarios of satellite payloads for remote sensing, the present and future architectures
of the

RF
front
-
ends of


Earth
-
Observing and Planetary Explorations Radars

(SARs in particular)
and Radiometers

will be outlined, by pointi
ng out
the main requirements
in the design
of the basic
building blocks
(
Receivers, Up
-
Converters

/
Transmitters, Frequency Generators
,..) of the satellite

RF equipment for r
adar payloads.

Present and future technological issues for
the manufacturing of

satellite
RF payloads will be
outlined, by also considering the specific requirements (reliability, radiation resistance, power
consumption, weight, ..)
associated
with space
-
born electronic equipment.


Tue
sday 13th July, Villa Griffone, Pontecchi
o Ma
rconi


15.30

a
.m.

to 17.30

p.m.
:

Barbara Valotti, Maurizio Bigazzi
-
Fondazione G. Marconi


Guided visit to
the Guglie
l
mo Marconi Museum


This guided visit will provide a s
ynthetic
, historical yet stimulating
(
for
both
young and not
-
so
-
young researchers
)

description of

the
first
experiments, evolution and achievements in
the
very
early development of
radio communication
techniques
,
by
directly
ex
amining the operating modes

of the functioning prototypes of Marconi’s wireless communication equipment



We
dnesday 14th July, Facoltà di Ingegneria, Aula 5.5.


9.30 a.m. to 10.30 a.m.
:
Alberto Santarelli, Università di Bologna


N
on linear distortion and dynamic
-

range issues in the design of microwave
electronics for communication and remote sensing systems


-
Non linear distortion, noise
and dynamic
-
range issues in the
basic circuits used as the
bui
l
ding
block
s in
RF electronics for wireless communication and remote sensing systems
.


-

T
rade
-
off issue
s between
nonlinear distortion
, output power and power

ad
ded efficiency in the
design/
optimization of
highly
-
linear
microwave
power
amplifiers for high capacity radio
links
.



-
Basics of new generation electron devices and modeling/design tools for low
-
distortion
, high
-
dynamic
-
range

microwave circuit

design.


Wednesday 14
th July, Facoltà di Ingegneria, Aula 5.5.


10.30 a.m. to 12.30 a
.m.:

A
lessandra Costanzo and Diego Masotti
, Università di
Bologna


Integration of Nonlinear, R
adiation, and Propagation Analysis Techniques for
circuit
-
level

Design of entire
RF links


The talk outlines an exhaustive CAD procedure for the circuit
-
level simulation of entire modern RF
links, such as SISO, MIMO, and UWB links.
Simplifying assumptions typical of system
-
level
a
p
proaches are overcome with this procedure, while keepin
g comp
u
tational time at acceptable
levels.

In the SISO case,
the simulation of a micr
o
wave link from the transmitter to the r
e
ceiver
intermediate
-
frequency ports is described by means of a rigorous circuit
-
level nonli
n
ear analysis
approach coupled with the

electromagnetic cha
r
acterization of the transmitter and receiver front
ends.

In the MIMO case the mult
i
ple transmitting and receiving antennas are treated as multiport
radiating systems, always characterized by EM analysis. The effects of mutual couplings

in terms of
the frequency
-
dependent near
-
field and far
-
field performance of each element are accounted for in a
straightforward and rigorous way. The set of transmitters is treated as a unique nonlinear system
loaded by the multiport antenna, and is analy
zed again by nonlinear circuit techniques. The same is
done for the set of receivers.

Both in SISO and MIMO cases, the conne
c
tion between transmitters and receivers is established by
means of the following steps: i) the radiated far
-
field is evaluated by E
M analysis, and the field
incident on the receiver side is computed by an available ray tracing technique; ii) EM theory is
then used to d
e
scribe the receiving (single
-

or multi
-
port) antenna as a linear active single
-

or multi
-
port network. BER computatio
n and minimization is demonstrated for the first time at the circuit
level.

The circuit
-
level approach is applied also to the analysis of pulse
-
UWB receiver front ends in the
presence of interfering communication signals. The resulting simulation tool allo
ws rigorous
computation of interfe
r
ence effects on the nonlinear regime of UWB receivers and acc
u
rate circuit
-
level prediction of receiver sensitivity and channel capacitance.



15.0
0 a
.m. to 16.0
0 p.m.:
Corrado Florian, Università di Bologna


Nonlinear n
oise in RF and microwave communication front
-
ends: theory,
modelling and practical examples


-

Basics of noise in electronics components: broad
-
band noise and low
-
frequency noise
in linear
and non linear

operation



-

Noise in oscillators: Phase N
oise

def
inition,
generation mechanism and effects; PN

minimization
techniques


-
N
oise

in amplifiers
: Noise Figure
in
linear, small
-
signal

and
n
onlinear
, large
-
signal

operating
conditions; non
-
linear noise generation
, characterization

and modelling in strongl
y interfered Low
-
Noise Amplifiers



Wednesday 14
th July, Facoltà di Ingegneria, Aula 5.5.


16.00 a
.m. to 17.00 p.m.:
Pier Andrea Traverso, Università di Bologna


RF Analog
-
to
-
Digital conversion channels


-
B
asics of f
ast
S/H and

A
DC circuits
for
RF
si
gnal sampling/conversion


-
Characterization and
modelling
of A/D conversion channels



-
Modelling and algorithmic compensation of the dynamic non
-
linearity of A/D conversion channels
using a modified Volterra
-
based approach



17
.00 a
.m. to 18
.00 p.m.:
Rud
i Paolo Paganelli,
IEIIT
-
CNR


Microwave power amplifiers for satellite remote sensing and communication


Design issues of h
igh
-
efficiency power amplifiers for

microwave transmitters in satellite payloads
are dealt with by examining the
most important f
igures of merit

in relation to some typical

transistor

operating classes (A, AB, B, etc..). After considering a nearly ideal active device in the assessment
of general criteria for
load
-
line and operating condition optimization, also non
-
ideal effects in
p
ower electron devices will be considered. Possibility of achieving
higher levels of efficiency

by
adopting a near
-
switch
-
mode transistor operation
even at microwave frequencies will be also
examined. Power dissipation, maximum channel temperature for reli
able operation and thermal
stability problems will also be discussed.
Two practical examples of HPA design will be illustrated
for two different technologies (pHEMT, HBT) and class
es

of operation (AB, E).

Finally,
examples of power amplifier architecture
s optimizing efficiency or
lineari
ty in
applications
with
advanced

modulation
schemes
are briefly illustrated.



Tuesday 20th July, Facoltà di Ingegneria, Aula 5.1



10.00 a.m. to 12.00 a.m.:

Eleonora Franchi an
d
Antonio Gnudi
, Università di
Bologna


Fr
equency synthesizers for RF transceivers


-
Short introduction to frequency synthesis for integrated RF transceivers.

-
Phase locked
-
loops (PLL): architecture, waveforms,

building blocks (phase
-
frequency detectors,
charge pump, loop
-
filter,
VCO, frequency
dividers).

-
Modelling of PLL in

the frequency and time domain;
Noise in PLLs.


-
Design examples:

1) Synthesizer for UWB receiver
s

2) Synthesizer
and VCOs for fully
-
integrated reconfigurable multi
-
standard transceivers: high
tuning
-
range VCO, fractional
-
N s
ynthesizers with techniques for spur
ious
compensation and
increased linearity.