Greedy Perimeter Stateless

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Nov 25, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Greedy Perimeter Stateless
Routing (GPSR)

vs.

Geographical Energy Aware
Routing (GEAR)



A Presentation by:

Noman Shahreyar

Outline


Introduction


Motivation


Goals


GPSR


GEAR


Simulation


Results


Conclusions

Introduction


Topology changes are more frequent in
wireless networks as opposed to wired
networks


Traditional routing algorithms such as
Distance Vector (DV) and Link State (LS)
are not efficient (network congestion,
mobility overhead) for packet forwarding
in wireless networks


Routing protocols based on DV and LS
consume enormous network bandwidth
and have low scalability

Motivation


Routing table exchange proportional
to network size & mobility


Nodes often overloaded with
participating in the network; not
enough time to sense


Routing information storage


Adaptability requirement


End
-
to
-
end route maintenance


No support for regional query

What to Do ????

Answer is LOCATION !!!!!

Why Geographical
Routing ???

Geographic routing allows nodes to be

nearly stateless and requires propagation

of topology information for only a single hop

The position of a packet’s destination and next
-
hop
neighbor positions are sufficient for making
packet forwarding decisions

Why Regional Support ???

What is the average temperature in a
region R during time period (t
1
, t
2
)

Find the road traffic flow in region X for
time duration t

Goals


Reduce size of topology information
stored (state) in the nodes



Provide geography
-
based forwarding



Minimize the mobility overhead traffic



Extend life
-
time of the network

Geographical Routing


Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing
(GPSR)



Geographical Energy Aware Routing
(GEAR)


GPSR Facts


Scalability


Location
-
based communication


Nearly Stateless


Routing adaptability


Mobility support

Assumptions


Source knows its position


Each node knows position of its neighbors
by simple beacon message


Sources can determine the location of
destinations


Local directory service (Node ID to
location mapping), location registration


Bonus: location
-
based communication
make directory service unnecessary

GPSR Modes



GPSR has two modes of operation for
packet forwarding



Greedy Forwarding



Perimeter Forwarding

Greedy Forwarding

Sourc
e

Destination

Geographically
Closest to
Destination

When Greedy Forwarding
Fails ???

Destination

X


Reached local maxima

Perimeter Forwarding

X

Destination

Assembling GPSR Together

Perimeter

Forwarding


greedy


fails

have left local maxima

greedy fails

greedy works

Greedy

Forwarding

GEAR Facts


Geographic packet forwarding


Extended overall network lifetime


High Scalability


Routing adaptability


Mobility Support


Nearly Stateless


Regional Support


Extension of GPSR

Assumptions


Each query packet has target region
specified in the original packet


Each node knows its position (GPS)
and remaining energy level


Each node knows its neighbors’
position (beacon) and their remaining
energy levels


Links (Transmission) are bi
-
directional

GEAR Modes


GEAR has two modes of operation for
packet forwarding



Energy
-
aware Regional Forwarding



Recursive Geographic Forwarding /
Restricted Flooding



Sourc
e

Region

Geographically
Closest to Region

Energy
-
aware Regional
Forwarding

Recursive Geographic
Forwarding

Region

Restricted Flooding

Region

Assembling GEAR
Together

Region


Region
arrived

If RGF fails or
sparse region

Energy
-
aware Regional
Routing

Source
-
region

Restricted Flooding

Recursive Geographic
Forwarding

Simulation Environment


Forward packets to all nodes in the region


No need for location database


Static sensor nodes


Existence of localization system


Energy
-
metrics + Geographical Information
utilization

Simulation Scenarios


Uniform Traffic Distribution



The source and target regions are

randomly selected throughout the network



Non
-
uniform Traffic Distribution (Clustered
sources and Destinations)



Sources and Destinations are randomly

selected but source
-
pairs and destination
-

pairs are geographically close to each other




Comparison For Uniform Traffic

Comparison For Non
-
uniform
Traffic

Total broken pairs vs. Total
data delivered

Results


Uniform Traffic (GEAR vs. GPRS)


25


35 % more packet delivery



Non
-
uniform Traffic (GEAR vs. GPRS)


70


80 % more packet delivery



GEAR vs. Flooding


40


100 times more packet delivery

Goals Achieved !!!!

Reduced mobility traffic
overhead

Localized topology information
storage

Extended network life
-
time

Geography
-
based Dissemination

Summary

GEAR

GPSR

DSR

Scalability

Energy
-
Awareness

Regional Support

Location
-
aided
Routing

Periodic
Beaconing

Routing
Adaptability

Conclusions


GEAR propagates query to target region
without flooding


GEAR provides extended life of the sensor
networks


GEAR outperforms GPSR in both uniform
and non
-
uniform scenarios in packet delivery


GEAR performs better in terms of
connectivity after partition

Issues That I Recommend
To Explore



Reliability of packet delivery


Sensor positional error


Secure data transmission


Protocol Implementation in 3
-
D
space

References


Yan Yun., Ramesh Govindan, and Estrin Deborah: Geographical and Energy
Aware Routing, August 2001


Paper Website:
http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/shah02energy.html



Brad Karp, H. T. Kung : GPSR
-
Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing for Wireless
Networks, MobiComm 2000


Paper Website:
http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/karp00gpsr.html



Rahul Jain, Anuj Puri, and Raja Sengupta: Geographical Routing Using Partial
Information for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks, 1999


Paper Website:
http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/336698.html



Chenyang Lu: GPSR Ad Hoc Routing III, Fall 2002


Presentation Website:
http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~lu/cs537s/presentations/gpsr.ppt



Brad Karp: Geographic Routing for Wireless Networks, Phd Dissertation,
Harvard University, October 2002


Paper Website:
http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/472843.html

Greedy Perimeter Stateless
Routing (GPSR)

vs.

Geographical Energy Aware
Routing (GEAR)



A Presentation by:

Noman Shahreyar