ISM 3410 Telecommunications and Networking in Business

clutteredreverandData Management

Oct 31, 2013 (4 years and 9 days ago)

542 views


ISM 3410 Telecommunications and
Networking in Business


Telecommunication
s

Adopted by

Hong Kong Public Libraries (HKPL)










Group 4


Members:

Chan Wai Lung, Nathan

(08034427)

Chow Ying Ho, Jacky


(09000305)

Tang Wing Han, Tiffany

(09000402)

Chu Tsui Ling, Tracy


(09000410)

Liu Sai Ming, Lewis


(09007164)




1.

Introduction

The Hong Kong Public Library (HKPL)
network

consists

of 66 static libraries and 10
mobile libraries. They

are

interconnected by an integrated automated library system
and

provide convenient access to
public by offering
a wide range of library

services
.
The libraries

offer a total collection of 12.47 million

items

including books,
newspapers, periodicals,
audio
-
visual materials, CD
-
ROM
databases etc,.

The first public library opened in 1962 at
City Hall

in Hong Kong, which was the
main library for many years before the opening of the Central Library in 2001. After
the Central Library was opened to the public, it is the administrative headquarters and
the main library of the Hong Kong public library netwo
rk. It equipped with
state
-
of
-
the
-
art technologies and digital library facilities and becomes the major
information centre
in

Hong Kong.

T
he Hong Kong Central Library provides
a range of library facilities
,
comprehensive reference and information
services
.
Some o
ther major facilities
include self
-
charging terminals, book

drop service, information kiosks and
Multimedia Information System.
As
all
the
reading tables are provided with
power points and dataline outlets, readers
can

search for the information av
ailable on the library system and the Internet

by
using their portable computers
.
Besides, r
eaders
are able to

access a wide range of
multimedia databases on the Internet
or on the CD
-
ROMs
through the LAN/ATM
workstations.

The automated library system of H
KPL is one of the largest computerized library
systems in the world which enable
s

Chinese and English capabilities. All information
in electronic and multimedia formats has been integrated into the library's resources
through the Library Catalogue terminal
s, Internet facilities and multimedia terminals.
Moreover, the remote access to library services including telephone and web renewal
service and online reservation service etc,.
give the readers more convenience
.

Accessing to online databases and the Inter
net, readers can find a lot of local studies
materials, general reference materials, electronic databases and special collections
which satisfy their need for information. As the advanced technology, the extensive
use of information technology can better d
eliver library service and help public to
access to the library collections conveniently. Also, the use of available staff
resources can be optimized. Therefore, it improves the efficiency of the library’s
operations.

In this report, we will discuss the
I
ntegrated Library System
,
Multimedia Information
System,
Internet Workstation,

Internet Express Terminal

and
Wireless Internet Access

of HKPL We will also give some suggestion
s

to HKPL.


2
.
Integrated Library

System
(ILS)

The

I
ntegrated Library System

(ILS)

in use by Hong Kong Public Libraries in its
day
-
to
-
day operation is Dynix. The system was first introduced in 1993 for the
ex
-
Regional Council Public Libraries. Two years later, it was also being used in the
ex
-
Urban Council Public Libraries for deliverin
g library services to public. In
1999
-
2001, the two library automation systems were upgraded to Dynix (Release 180)
and merged to serve HKPL formed under Leisure and Cultural Services Department
(LCSD) in 2000.




Dynix is an integrated library management
system operating on UNIX platform with
functions of acquisition, cataloguing

support for internal library operation
,
library
material
circulation, management statistics report and
public access to the O
nline
P
ublic
A
ccess
C
atalogue (OPAC).


2.1
Hardware Server Components

1.
RS/6000 SP

2.
SSA Disk System

2.
2

Software Components

1.

Dynix library management system

2.

DB2

3
.
IBM Content Manager


2.3
Network infrastructure

1. Network connections with the use of WAN to connect all
major and district
libraries across the territory
.

2. Selected Library use

dedicated re
mote
Fiber
-
Optic Cable to transmit the data for its
Multimedia Information System server.

3. Those
internet access
terminals in each library are connected in a broadcast
network (LANs) an
d

LANs are using to connect the Internet among the terminals


Diagram of
I
ntegrated Library System













2.4
Functions

2.4.
1.
Cataloging

Cataloging activities in
ILS

provides an electronic catalog. The means of access to the
catalog for users which is limited to search and display is called an Online Public
Access Catalog or OPAC. An OPAC is usually offered as an add
-
on module that is
integral with the cataloging modu
le which allow users to access the information
locally at the library
and/or remotely through the Web as a Web OPAC
.


It
enables
users

to search the entire Chinese and
English collections of the Hong Kong Public Libraries.
In addition to a wide range of search options, such as
author, title, subject etc.,

Also , it

allows users

to narrow their search to books
only, to audio
-
visual mater
ials only or to some other
categories or materials.

Though OPAC

terminals,

user

will know instantly
whether the item
in
need is available on the shelf or
on loan, or being reserved, and if it is on loan
. Besides
users can check their
borrowing record,

or
perform
a
renewal

and

make
reservation
,

An OPAC Terminal

2.4.
2.

Circulation

Circulation activities including lending, return, renewal, and place on hold are
provided in
ILS
. It records and manages all details of the library material such as
circulation type, location and s
tatus.


2.4.
3.
Acquisitions

With adoption of
ILS
, it

automates the overall acquisition process by increasing
accuary and efficiency on ordering, receiving, claiming materials from suppliers and
returns, and cancellations of materials.


3.
Multimedia
Information System (MMIS)


The

Multimedia Information System (MMIS) was designed and developed by IBM
and was custom
-
built for the specific needs of Central Library. The system was
implemented by Hong Kong Central Library (HKCL) in 2001.

It applies flexibl
e
information technology application and wide expands the scope of a digital library.
Readers can use the interactive multimedia service
through

the internet at
http://hkclweb.hkpl.gov.hk or through the 600
-
odd workstations in the Hong Kong
Central Librar
y and other branch public libraries.

The Multimedia Information
Services have already been extended to other public libraries with about 160
workstations.


MMIS provides a three
-
level
audio
-
on
-
demand (AOD) and video
-
on
-
demand (VOD)
system:

1st level: high

quality video
-
audio servers. Users can access the system at the same
time

2nd level: consists of servers and jukeboxes. It enables users to search for audio/video
materials which are less frequently used.

3rd level: a conventional video/audio distribution

network. Users can use the
economical service, like LD, VCD, DVD, CD player and cassette player.

So the system includes about 70,000 items which contain both digitized and
non
-
digitized material, it allows readers to search, view and listen to audio
-
visua
l
materials.


There are about 90 Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) terminals installed in the
HKCL in order to enable more users to use the first level video and third level audio
and video of the AOD/VOD system. Also, the user can use the AOD system via ov
er
300 LAN workstations in the Central Library.



3
.1
Components

3.1.1
Hardware components


1. RS/6000 SP

2. SSA Disk System

3. Jukebox

4. VCR collection VHS recorder


3.1.2
Software components


1.

DB2

2.

IBM Content Manager

3.2
Network infrastructure

1. Network connections with the use of
'MetroNET' Gigabit Ethernet Wide Area
Network (WAN)
to connect Hong Kong Central Library and 26 major and district
libraries across the territory
.

2. Selected Libraries are linked with
dual Gigabit Ethernet core links

and they use 26
dedicated re
mote
Fiber
-
Optic Cable to transmit the data for its Multimedia
Information System server.
HKPL can upgrade network capacity at anytime to
complement its unceasing transformation to the provision of digitalized library
services.

The capacity of the two core links can be boosted from the current
bandwidth of 100Mbps to 1Gbps, while the remote links can be upgraded from
13Mbps to 100Mbps upon request.

3. Those internet access terminals in each library are connected in a broadcast
n
etwork (LANs) and

LANs are using to connect the Internet among the terminals


3.3Advantages

The system
enables public users to transcend geographical boundaries, allowing easy
access to MMIS services from major and district libraries that are convenient to them.
Also multiple users can search and use the same library materials at the same
time
,
they can
exp
erience
seamless broadband access to multimedia information with a high
transmission speed that i
nformation search becomes more effective and efficient. As
the system c
onverges data, voice and video over a single fiber network, it provides an
end
-
to
-
end so
lution that simplifies network administration while developing the
infrastructure in an efficient and cost effective manner.

4
. Internet Workstation

In 2010,
Hong Kong Public Libraries has set up over

1600 fixed public access
Internet terminals in all libraries.
Hong Kong
Central Library (HKCL)

provide
more
th
an 470 Internet workstations

which

public can reserve for either a one hour or two
hour session by call
ing in at the library in order to access variety of service.

Each c
omputer workstation in the Library
provides free and one
-
stop access to the
library catalogue, the Multimedia Information
System and the Internet. Many online
databases, e
-
journals and e
-
Books subscribed
by the Library are also available through the
computer workstations.

Selected databases are available for access via the Internet at the Hong Kong Public
Libraries website by HKPL library card holders. They include Access

Science,
e
-
Book C
ollection at net

Library, Grolier Online, Naxos Spoken Word Library,
Opposing Viewpoints Resource Centre and Biography Resource Center.

Besides,
digitized images , audio and video via the Multimedia Information System


4.1 Components


4
.1.1 Hardware
components

1.
Internet
-
connected computer

2.
Headphone Jack

3.
H
andwriting pad for Chinese input

4. Mouse


4
.1.2 Software components

1. A web browser

2. Windows XP


4.2 Newrok Infrastructure

The terminals are connected to local area network (LAN) in the
Library. The local
Area Networks are connected to server within same library, while the server is
supported by service provider.

5
. Internet Express Terminal

(IET)

Next Internet Access Services provided by
Hong Kong Public Library is the Internet
Express

Terminal (IET). The terminals are
installed in order to provide quick and
immediate access to internet for library users,
without prior reservation. Hong Kong Public libraries has installed over 90 Internet
Express Terminals at its branches since 2005. Th
ese terminals can be founded in
branched such as Kowloon Public Library, Ma On Shan Public Library, Sha Tin
Public Library and Tuen Mun Public Library.

5
.1
Components

5
.1.1
Hardware

components

1.

Internet
-
connected computer

2.

Height Adjustable Monitor and
keyboard

3.

Trackball Mouse

4.

Headphone Jack

5.

H
andwriting pad for Chinese input

6.

USB slot

5
.1.2
Software

components

1.

Internet Browser

2.

ZoomText, a screen magnification software

3.

Cantonese and English voice synthesizer software

5
.2 Network Infrastructure
:

The
terminals are connected to local area network (LAN) in the Library. The local
Area Networks are connected to server within same library, while the server is
supported by service provider.

5
.3 Usage

For intended users, l
ibrary users aged 12 or above are
welcome to use

the terminals

for
checking web
-
based emails or surfing the Internet without prior reservation. Each
session lasts for 15 minutes.

A
new model of IET was introduced in 2009 for further
improvement of the service.

New features include handwrit
ing pad for Chinese input,
USB slot for flash memory devices
,
etc.


Furthermore, the height of the screen and
keyboard of the terminal is adjustable to facilitate usage by wheelchair users.


To facilitate the browsing of the Internet by the visually impaire
d, some Internet
workstations are installed with special aiding devices, including screen magnifying
software as well as Cantonese and English voice synthesizer software. Users may use
their own headphone or

borrow

a headphone

from library staff at service

counters,
and listen to sound files by plugging headphone to the headphone jack.


5
.
4

Advantages & Disadvantages

For advantages, those terminals provides ready, free and convenient internet access
service for citizens that want to have
quick access to internet. For those library users
who do not have smart phones or notebook to use the Wi
-
Fi services, IETs provide a
quick and immediate solution. User can also save their files from the IET to their USB
flash memory devices
through the bui
lt
-
in USB slot.

The IET’s software and hardware also cares about the visually impaired and
wheelchair users. For example the
voice synthesizer software and the height
adjustable screen and keyboard.

For the disadvantages, this system has time limit of 15
minutes. If users want to
download large files which may take over 15 minutes, they need to make reservation
for user of other internet workstation, as the IET will be automatically log off. It is
quite inconvenient. Also, if the system was inactive for 5
minutes, the system will log
off and all downloaded files will be removed.

Like one coin has two sides, it protects
user’s privacy but on the other hand users cannot

log on the IET again and get back
their files from the “Download Folder” if he/she forgets

to save the files in previous
session.
Also, as the internet express terminal is not linked to any printing devices, in
order to print files, users are required to make reservation for use of other Internet
workstations in libraries for the printing servi
ce.

Also, the existing model of IET

does not support USB flash memory device with
password protection function.

5
.
5

Security

About the security issue, for protection of users' privacy, IET will automatically log
off at the end of a session or when it has been left idle for 5 minutes. All browsing
history or downloaded files will be cleared automatically.

6
. Wireless Internet Ac
cess


Starting from November 2008, the Hong Kong
Government launched the
Digital 21 Strategy to build
Hong Kong into a wireless city
. T
he Government has
started to install Wi
-
Fi

(
Wireless Fidelity
)

facilities in
some of its

public

premises

including public libraries.
Wireless Internet access was first available at all 31
static public libraries in 2008. In three years, the Gov
Wi
-
Fi service is now extended to all 66 public
libraries.


6
.1
Standard and Hardware


The Gov Wi
-
Fi programme is
powered by PCCW
-
HKT
Telephone Limited and adopts the IEEE 802.11g standards
(802.11b included) in 2.4GHz frequency. Maximum data
transfer speed is 54 Mbps and indoor transfer distance is
around 30M.


The number of Wireless Access Point (WAP) in public
lib
raries that connect clients (user’s device) to the main
distribution system ranged from 2 (Tsim Sha Tsui Public
Library) to 64(Hong Kong Central Library), depending on
the area of the library.



6
.2
User Requirement
s

6
.2.1
Hardware

requirements
:

To connect

to the government Wi
-
Fi
network
, a
n

IEEE 802.11b/g compatible Wi
-
Fi
device
such as
notebook computer, personal digital assistants (PDA)
, or smart
phone

is needed.


6
.2.2
Software

requirements
:

1.

A web browser

2.

Windows based operating system or

3.

Mac OS based
operating systems or

4.

Mobile Operation system such as Symbian, Android, Windows Mobile, IOS, etc


To access GovWi
-
fi service in public libraries, simply connect to the Network ID
(SSID) to "freegovwifi
-
e" and input user name and password as "govwifi".


6
.3
Security

1.

Channel Encryption:

WPA2
-
Enterprise

standard,

t
o prevent the transmission
of
information in mobile devices and wireless access points
from being

tapped
.

2.

Firewall: To p
rotect the network services and their users from
being hacked or
attacked by
oth
er computers
.

3.

P2P Blocking: To p
revent Internet hackers to launch attacks
,

or

other

illegal
invasion to other mobile devices on the same wireless network
.

4.

C
ontent filtering
: to
prevent users from unintentionally entering into obscene,
malicious
,

or indecen
t
web sites.
W
ebsites that contain illegal contents such as
pirated software
are prohibited.


6
.4
Advantages & Disadvantages

Gov Wi
-
Fi provides convenient internet access for readers to locate the required
information. Readers can access internet with thei
r own devices at every location in
the library. Also, Wi
-
Fi service could help reduce the burden or usage of other internet
access facilities in the Library such as Internet Workstation, Internet Express Terminal,
etc. With wireless network, more people co
uld access the internet and the cost of
providing internet services could be reduced. (An Access Point can be connected by
numerous devices).


Apart from advantages, Gov Wi
-
Fi has been criticized by its slow transferring speed.

T
here is bandwidth contro
l
for each connection.

In general, the bandwidth allocated to
each user is about 1Mbps downlink and 512Kbps uplink.



And according to the OFTA, the actual download speed of Gov Wi
-
Fi in Hong Kong
Central Library is
2.11Mbps

which is much slower than the spe
ed of Wi
-
Fi in
McDonald’s
5.1
Mbps and 4.42Mbps Starbucks provided by commercial service
provider.



The latest IEEE standard is 802.11N which theoretically can transfer data with
300Mbps. Even worse, the actual speed of Gov Wi
-
Fi is just similar to the act
ual
speed of 3G cellular network.


Also, the content filter is also not functioning well, website selling l
ingerie

or
underwear is filtered by the system and some popular tools such as MSN Messenger
has been blocked by the filtering system.

Therefore, ther
e is still plenty of space for improving the Wi
-
Fi service in public
library.


7
.
Suggestion


Although the telecommunication adopted by the Hong Kong public library seems
very well, there are still some ways they can improve. In this section, we are going to
give some suggestion for the Hong Kong public library to improve.


As the Dynix system is
a legacy library system reaching its end of product life cycle,
HKPL should think of replacing the existing library system or improve it in order to
enhance library services to users. The new system should bring more advanced
functionality and higher effic
iency in terms of search capacity and delivery of online
library services in order to improve the experience of library users.


First of all, the Hong Kong public libraries are still using barcode system now. All the
library materials attach a conventiona
l barcode and security strip. We think that it is a
little bit out
-
of
-
dated and should be replaced. One of the possible solutions to the
problem is radio
-
frequency
-
based technology with microchip technology or RFID
(Radio Frequency Identification) for libr
ary book processing. An RFID tags can
replace the traditional barcode and security tag. The information of the library
materials can be stored in the microchips in the tag affixed to the materials. The
hardware required for using RFID are i
nterrogators

and

tags. The software required is
just the RFID software or RFID middleware.


The advantages of using RFID are:

1.

Reduce the amount of time to perform back
-
end circulation operations.

2.

Increase throughput as both security circulation applications can be done
by one
operation.

3.

Increase reliability as the RFID technology is more reliable than the old
technology.

4.

Enhance inventory management as the RFID tracking system is also a hand
-
held
inventory reader. It can not only update the inventory, but also to identif
y items. It
can reduce the chance of out of proper order.


Also, in the year 2010, the library in the University of Hong Kong, it had been
recorded that more than 1.2 million of library materials contained RFID tags which is
the largest for academic librar
y.


We can take also take a look at Singapore, in May 2002, the 20 libraries in Singapore
were fully equipped with RFID technology enabling Singaporeans to borrow and
return books or materials in any libraries.


Therefore, we think that the Hong Kong pub
lic library should take implementing
RFID technology in libraries into consideration to improve the services quality they
provide.



Second, we suggest the Hong Kong public library should improve the system they are
using now. We suggest that Hong Kong pub
lic library can learn from Singapore. The
Singapore public library adopted a system called Information Management and
Delivery System (IMDS) developed by CARL at the year 1999. The system consists
of a total of five user
-
friendly interfaces for circulation

as well as Everybody’s
Catalog,
CARLweb, and switch
-
on
-
the
-
fly multilingual OPAC interfaces.



The system is now handling more than 30 millions of borrowing processes annually.


The IMDS supports many different functions such as allowing public to access to 150
self
-
services circulation stations including 3M self
-
check and RFID.
U
sers
can

place
holds and renew items online

via the
multilingual Phone Circulation system allows.

Ther
e is also a Borrower Enquiry (BNQ) stations which allows user to make enquiry
about their records and pay fine or fees using cash card technology.


The IMDS is designed to provide user
-
friendly public access which is suitable for
youngsters and oldsters. T
he system runs on Compaq’s Tandem S7000 Himalaya
server. The system is run by 12 CPU which allows it to provide a reliable and s
calable
access 24 hours a day.


Therefore, we suggest that Hong Kong public library can learn from Singapore to
improve the onli
ne services they provide to deal with the increasing demand of public
library services.


8
.
Reference


Consultancy Study on the future development of HKPL
-
Final Report

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RFID

http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/lita/litamembership/litaigs/rfidtechnology/What
-
W
ent
-
Right6
-
18
-
06.ppt

http://www.biblio
-
tech.com/BTR999/Summer_1999/carl_singapore.html

http://www.hkpl.gov.hk/english/aboutus/aboutus_intro/aboutus_intro.html

http://www.gov.hk/en/theme/wifi/

http://www.gov.hk/en/theme/wifi/helpdesk

http://www.ofta.gov.hk/en/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wi
-
Fi

http://hk.news.yahoo.com/article/110
205/4/mkd5.html

http://www.hkpl.gov.hk/english/services/services_cf/services_cf_isn/services_cf_isn.
html

http://www
-
07.ibm.com/hk/e
-
business/case_studies/government/cen_library.html

http://www.kohadocs.org/Koha_architecture.html

http://www.hkpl.gov.hk/english/services/services_cf/services_cf_isn/services_cf_isn.h
tml

http://www.hongkongextras.com/internet_access.html