Round Table - Rice

clusteriranianBiotechnology

Oct 23, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Round table: Rice in Europe and in the Mediterranean basin




















ROUND TABLE


Rice in Europe and in the Mediterranean basin:

actual situation, classical breeding, genetic resources

and biotechnology impact







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SUSTAINABILITY OF RICE PRODUCTION IN EGYPT


Dr. Badawi A. Tantawi

Director of Field Crops
Research Institute and Rice Research Program.

Agricultural Research Center. Giza 12619, Egypt.

Fax: 02
-
5736570, 047
-
225099 Tel: 02
-
5726953, 02
-
5726127, 02
-
5736570
badawi_a_tantawi@dns.claes.sci.eg



Abstract

Rice is one of the most important crops in Egyp
t and its production plays a
significant role in the strategy to overcome food shortage and improvement of self
sufficiency for local consumption and export. It occupies annually, about 0.60
million hectares. Because of the limited land available for culti
vation in Egypt, Rice
Research Program (RRP) has aimed at increasing production and yield of rice since
eighties by cultivating high yielding varieties of short and long grain, whereas the
yield average in 1984 was 5.71 ton/ha, then reached 9.29 ton/ha in
2001 with an
increment of about 3.6 ton/ha representing 63%, that make Egypt to take place the
first rank among the main rice producing countries all over the world; these
achievements due to the well organized Multi
-
Disciplinary Rice Research Program,
and

the efficiency of the vital role of the rice National Campaign. Recently
researches have managed to cultivate short duration new varieties which are
harvested 30 to 45 days earlier than the long aged traditional varieties with high
productivity of 13.0 to
n/ha, also the yield/day of the short duration varieties is
higher than the long duration traditional varieties, that means saving of 3.5 milliard
m
3

of irrigation water which represents about 30% of the rice water consumption.
The strategy of
RRP

to reduc
e the gab between rice potentiality (13 t/ha) and
national average (9.29 t/ha), through sustainability factors which are:
1)

Government policy,
2)

Improved technology through: Genetic improvement,
management of crop, soil, nutrient, water, pests and agricu
ltural machineries,
3)

External support through: marketing input and output, institution credit, extension
and ownership and
4)

Farmers participation through: farmer’s goal, income,
preference, resource constraints, land, labor, capital, and organization.

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BIOTECH
NOLOGY IN RICE CULTURE: FARMERS

POINT OF
VIEW


Martin D’Autrice, Azienda Agricola Castello



In this last period, as farmers we had to face the biotechnology question, with particular
reference to the GMO problem.

We could react by saying: “This i
s not our business. We seed only what seedling firms
offer us, and that is all.” In this case, we probably should delegate the decision to other
people such as environmentalists, moved not by a scientific spirit, but by an ideology, and,
on the flip
-
side,
to industry.

But then we should be prepared as we will be exposed to laws developed by people who
never tilled the land and who never managed a farm, or tried handing it down to future
generations.


Two important considerations:

1. Technological progress h
as always been unstoppable and the attempts to cancel or
destroy it never succeeded, ultimately damaging the people who are against it. Example:
Luddism of the XIX century in England. In order to avoid excesses or drifts, progress must
always be guided and

canalized.

2. All are equal before the law and the law must be respected. In Italy seeding GMO seeds
is not allowed, and we must respect it.

It is up to the scientific community, to seedling firms, and to agricultural organizations to
spread information

and persuasion that laws must be changed.


What do we expect from biotechnology in rice culture?


First of all I wish to remind you that European agriculture, and in particular rice culture,
has two main functions: the production of a high quality alimen
tary food and
environmental protection.

I think that Biotechnology could help European rice culture in dropping production costs
and improve qualities, respecting the variety of differences (140 registered qualities in
Italy), and on the other hand to incr
ease its function as advocate of the wet lands.


Production of an alimentary good


1.

Reduce production costs:



Increase of germinative power and resistance to fungi attacks (seed cost)



Possibility to decrease fertilizer with the best usage of nitrogen gener
ated by
phosphorus and potassium (fertilizer cost)



Possibility to decrease the use of herbicides, reducing the possibility of undesired
resistances created (pre
-

and post
-
emergences herbicide cost)



Defence against fungi attacks (piricularia and helmintosp
orium), and once
againreducing the possibility of undesired resistances created (pesticide costs)



Possibility of obtaining a more rugged strain of rice ( less interventions and less
work)



Possibility of reduction of size in order to reduce the flatten (har
vest cost)

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Possibility of homogenization of the ripeness of caryopsis ( harvest and drying
process costs)



Possibility of humidity reduction of ripe caryopsis (drying process cost)



Possibility of using less water, obtaining varieties less dependent from sud
den
changes in temperature (irrigation cost)



Adaptation of market requested varieties as basmati or perfumed types.


2.

Quality increase




Increase the output of the working processes



Increase cooking resistance



Decrease defects



Problems with mycotoxins and a
flatoxins



Resistance to insect attacks in storage plants



Golden Rice


B. Environment and landscape defence


1. Problems connected to the rice environment



Pesticides and fertilizers, particularly nitrates and phosphorus



Production of methane in rice fields



Water purification


3.

Differentiation of the product exalting its characteristics:



Industrial utilization of rice: starch, oil



Husks utilization, not only as burning material



Straw utilization: paper orpaper related products


I am persuaded that biotechnolo
gies must give substantial help to the European rice
culture, exalting its role of environmental tutor, in order to offer to the consumer, always
respecting the variety diversity, a high quality product, with a cost as cheap as possible.

If we want prompt
results, the coordination between research and goals is essential and I
wish that at least in Italy, the leading country in Europe, this will be possible.

In order to focus research aims, it is important that a close comparison among research,
seed firms,

transformation industry, farmers and consumers, without doctrinal prejudices,
that we must pay close attention to the facts only.

We need to educate the population regarding the positive effects of biotechnology on the
final product, and more importantly
, for the betterment of our environment.

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DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN RICE GENETIC
RESOURCES AND ESTABLISHMENT OF A CORE COLLECTION
1


H.
Feyt
,
C. Dubois, G. Clement, J. P. Jacquemoud
-
Collet, M. Giner, C. Luce, J. L. Noyer,
B.

Pons, A. M. Risterucci, D.
Tharreau et X. Perrier

Cirad, TA 40/03, Avenue Agropolis, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France



Summary

430 genotypes of rice genetic resources collected from European breeders have been
described with 50 phenotypic traits and 16 micro
-
satellite markers asse
mbled in a reliable
database. Four independent methods have been investigated to establish a core collection,
conducting to four sets which have been evaluated by comparing the distributions of
original population with each of them for traits non implicate
d in the building process of
core collections.


Keywords

European rice, genetic resources, core collection, phenotypic & SSR markers,


Introduction

Due to climatic conditions, Southern Europe is at the limit of the rice cropping area. All
European rice cr
opping regions shares common constraints (short vegetative period and
cold tolerance) but also have specific problems (cryptogamic or insect pests, salt tolerance,
grain quality...). So, European rice breeding has specific needs. Facing this issue, a
resea
rch program supported by the European Commission was coordinated by Cirad for
the characterization of available European rice genetic resources in order to evaluate their
diversity and structure and to establish a core collection for European breeders.


M
aterials and methods

The evaluation of the phenotypic traits was conducted from 1996 to 2000 in France, Spain,
Italy, Greece and Portugal. The micro
-
satellite profiles, the statistical and diversity analysis
and the establishment of the core collection wer
e performed by Cirad in Montpellier. For
most of the observed phenotypic traits, the obtained data show that genotype x
environment interactions are low ; so the database established using these data can be
considered to be reliable.

As a first step, the 4
30 genotypes have been
a priori

classified within 10 agro
-
morphological types on the basis of available passport information and 7 classic
characteristics of plants (leaf width, form of the panicles, etc). Two multivariate analysis
(principal components) b
ased on the one hand on the 7 morphological traits, and on the
other hand on grain technological characteristics have been performed.

As a second step, the analysis of the diversity of the 430 genetic resources has been
performed on the basis of the sole S
SR makers, according to the Neighbor
-
joining method
of Saitou and Nei., leading to the construction of a diversity tree.

As a third step, four different methods have been investigated in order to build up the core
collection of European rice genetic resour
ces.





1

T
his work was supported by the European Community in the frame of the European project
RES

GEN

CT95
-
37


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Results

The two multivariate analysis clearly identify three main groups :
indica
, "traditional"
japonica

and "North American"
japonica
. The analysis of distribution of some characters
of interest and of existing correlations between some of them,
reveals the strong impact of
human selection.

The diversity tree based on the sole SSR makers, very clearly separates indica types and
basmati types in opposition to all japonica types. The japonica types are themselves
divided between sub
-
groups which can

be related to the area of origin (North America,
South America, Australia…), the culinary use, etc.

The first method to build up a core collection consists in collecting all the existing alleles
in the population with a minimum number of individuals : it
results in a set of 43
accessions. The second core also contains all the existing alleles in the population by
collecting in priority individuals with rare (frequency < 1 %) alleles (84 accessions). The
third approach considers each branch (homogeneous sub
-
group) of the diversity tree issued
from SSR markers as different steps of the evolutionary process ; in this logic, 100 sub
-
groups have been identified on the tree and one individual was randomly sampled from
each sub
-
group (100 accessions). The last app
roach combines the frame of the diversity
tree obtained from SSR makers (condensed by erasing the internal structure of the groups,
leaving only the essential organization), which is considered as revealing the long term
evolutionary process, with the phen
otypic characteristics which are submitted to the
pressure of selection, conducting to a new diversity tree with 105 sub
-
groups. Each of them
is randomly sampled (choosing two accessions of the most important sub
-
groups) leading
to a core with 117 accessio
ns.

The interest and the representativeness of these core collections are discussed, by
comparing the distributions of original population with each one of the core collections for
traits non implicated in the building process of core collections.


Conclu
sion

Eventually, core collection 4 was finally chosen after several minor modifications and
addition of three accessions (to ensure better representativeness of susceptibility to the
various blast strains) conducting to a final core collection of 120 acces
sions. This set of
material representative of the diversity of European genetic resources, and the attached
database is available to rice breeders and researchers, for whom it constitutes a reference
and

very useful
material.


References



H. Feyt, G. Clémen
t, M. Aguilar Portero, R. Ballesteros, L. Martins da Silva, D. Ntanos, S. Russo,



M. del Mar Catala, F. Mazzini and E. Gozé (2001)
.
Agronomic, morphological and technological
traits of 430 genotypes from European rice genetic resources collections: mean val
ue and genotype x
environment interactions.
Eurorice 2001, Krasnodar, Russian Federation



Glaszmann J.C. (1987)
.
Isozymes and classification of Asian rice varieties
. Theor. Appl. Genet. 74: 21
-
30.



Goldstein, D. B. , Pollock, D., D. (1997)
. Launching microsa
tellites: a review of mutation processes and
methods of phylogenetic inference.
Journal of Heredity.
88: 335
-
342.



Perrier, X., Bonnot, F. , Jacquemoud
-
Collet, J. P. (1998)
.

Individus supplémentaires et construction
d'arbres sous contraintes topologiques.

6
emes Rencontres de la Société Francophone de Classification,
Montpellier. Agro Montpellier
:
163
-
168.



Roumen E,. Levy M., and Notteghem J.L. (1997). Characterisation of the European pathogen
population of Magnaporthe grisea by DNA fingerprinting and patho
type analysis. European
Journal of Plant Pathology 103:363
-
371.



Saitou, N. , Nei, M. (1987)
.
The Neighbor
-
Joining method: a new method for reconstructing
phylogenetic trees
. Molecular Biology and Evolution
.
4(4): 406
-
425.

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FAO ACTIVITIES IN SUPPORT MEMBER
COUNTRIES IN PLANT
BIOTECHNOLOGY


Hoan L. Le, Plant Production and Protection Division, FAO, Rome I



In 1999, FAO issued a statement on biotechnology
http://www.fao.org/biotech/stat.asp

and
took measures
to strengthen its in
-
house capacity to support Member Countries to harness
biotechnology for food security while taking measures to minimise potential risks. FAO
recognises that there are also risks in not taking advantage of this technology. Since then,
b
iotechnology activities have been co
-
ordinated under one of FAO 16 Priority Areas of
Interdisciplinary Action (PAIA) http://www.fao.org/paia/index.asp?lang=en,


As a neutral forum and information centre, FAO facilitates information exchange through
networ
k building, e.g. the REBIO (http://www.rlc.fao.org/redes/redbio/html/home.htm)
and electronic fora on biotechnology (http://www.fao.org/biotech/forum.asp?lang=en).


As an intergovernmental agency, FAO has a mandate to assist Member Countries in policy
adv
ice, including conducting authoritative studies for policy options. As the world largest
information centre in food and agriculture, FAO is working toward setting up databases for
crop biotechnology in use and in the pipeline in Member Countries. FAO is al
so working
to develop an information system, namely the Crop Biotech Bites, to aid policy makers on
issues related to biotechnology, particularly knowledge at the cutting edge, using simple
language. In collaboration with ISNAR, FAO is developing web
-
based

(CD
-
ROM)
decision support systems to assist policy makers on biotechnology
-
related matters. As a
standard setting body, FAO is providing assistance on regulatory matters related to
agricultural biotechnology, including biosafety, food safety and IPRs. Upo
n request, FAO
can provide technical assistance to Member Countries in Biotechnology.


Recognising that rice is the staple food for half of the world population living in
developing countries, FAO and its international rice commission (IRC) promotes supp
ort
for research, including that of modern biotechnology, to improve food security. FAO
supports MEDRICE, the only inter
-
regional network dealing with japonica rice, and its
activities in promoting collaborative research in the Mediterranean climate area.
In
addition, for the coming 20
th

Session of the IRC (July 23
-
25, 2002) in Bangkok, progress
and potential impact of biotechnology on rice breeding, including advances in modern
biotechnology for the improvement of rice nutritional quality, will be an impor
tant part of
the agenda. In the fight against hunger, FAO is striving to work in partnerships at the
national and international levels to fulfil its mandate to improve rural conditions set out in
1945 in Quebec City and to improve food security as declared

in the World Food Summit
in 1996 in Rome.

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RESISTANCE TO WHITE TIP RICE BREEDING PROGRAMMES IN
RUSSIA


G.
Zelensky
*, Ye. Kharchenko**


* Kuban State Agricultural University, 350044, 13 Kalinina st., Krasnodar (Russia)

**All
-
Russsian Research Institute
of Rice, p/o Belozernoe, Krasnodar (Russia)

Tel.: (7 8
-
612) 26 32 12, fax: (7 8
-
612) 20 29 35, E
-
mail:
zelensky@mail.kuban.ru



Summary
.

White tip (caused by
Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie p.v.oryzae
) is one
of widely spread
and economically harmful rice diseases in Russia.

Six years of breeding pr
o
grammes on
rice resistance to leaf nematode resulted in evaluation of 2,000 varieties and sa
m
ples of
working collection of VNIIR and world collection. 70% of tests
samples proved to be
susceptible to nematode. Nonetheless, 30 samples had resistance of 86
-
98 %.


Key word
s

white tip, nematode,
rice, varieties


Abstract

Under conditions of intensive farming major role in crop performance belongs to crop
pr
o
te
c
tion meas
ures. White tip (caused by
Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie p.v.oryzae
) is
one of widely spread and economically harmful rice diseases in Russia. Infestation of rice
plants with
A. besseyi Christie

results in drastic reduction of grain yield: from 14 to 100
%.

White tip was discovered in the then USSR in 1939 in rice fields of Krasnodar territory.
Later it was found in other rice growing areas. Nematode caused serious economic damage
to seed producing farms since good quality seeds cannot be received.

We mad
e assessment of rice resistance to nematode under controlled and field co
n
ditions.
According to research data 70 to 90% of perspective rice varieties and selection sa
m
ples
are highly susceptible to rice nematode. It proves on the one hand lack of attention

to such
fe
a
ture as nematode resistance while selecting parent forms for new rice varieties, and
absence of reliable donors of resistance, on the other hand. Thus search for sources and
donors of rice resi
s
tance to nematode is a top priority.

Six years of
breeding programmes on rice resistance to leaf nematode resulted in
evalu
a
tion of 2,000 varieties and samples of working collection of VNIIR and world
collection. 70% of tests samples proved to be susceptible to nematode. Nonetheless, 30
samples had resist
ance of 86
-
98 % (infestation grade 0
-
3).

The following rice samples of VNIIR working collection prove to be the most interesting:
K
-
0584, K
-
0956, K
-
01494, K
-
02214. Their index of resistance under field conditions was
91
-
95%, under vegetation trial conditio
ns
-

94
-
98%. Invasion intensity in infested plant
was 4
-
20 nematodes per tassel (in susceptible varieties
-

up to 200 nematodes). These
samples can be re
c
ommended as sources of high resistance to nematode while breeding
tolerance rice varieties.

Among sam
ples of the VIR world collection at all stages of tests high resistance to
Kra
s
nodar population of nematode was displayed by varieties Belle Patna (K
-
5741),
Bluebonnet (K
-
4772 ant K
-
6620), Bluebonnet 50 (K
-
4773), Bluebelle (K
-
5969 and K
-
6177), Century Patn
a (K
-
4642 and K
-
6164), Vergold (K
-
4871).

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Assessing resistance of rice collection samples to nematode there was discovered a number
of varieties showing no symptoms of plant infestation in spite of nematodes found in them.
In this group there are following
varieties: from Hungary (K
-
5180), from Japan (K
-
5560,
K
-
5196), Taiwan (K
-
6151), Korea (K
-
7955), Nepal (K
-
6808), Pakistan (K
-
5389), India
(K
-
5761, K
-
5762), Brazil (K
-
5202, K
-
5217), Uruguay (K
-
6621) and some Russian
varieties (K
-
5940, K
-
5947, K
-
5953, K
-
3441,

K
-
01535).

These rice samples and forms can be used in breeding programmes for rice field resistance
to nematode.

It is important in rice breeding to select rice samples with complex resistance to such
di
s
eases as rice blight and white tip. Evaluation of w
orld collection samples resistant to
blight shows their susceptibility to nematode. But following varieties with efficient genes
of resistance to

Pyricularia oryzae Cav.
: Osenniy ris, Teichung Native 1, Dourado
Precoce, Zenith, Hasi Kalmi, Teichungsen 10
and varieties with field resistance to blight
Norin, Mochi 43
-
44, PT 29, Dwarf CH
-
1039, Badmase, Son Khorcha, Taluli Masino have
shown medium resistance and to
l
erance to nematode. During assessment at high invasion
exposure they had very low invasion and h
igh tolerance to nematode. Thus these samples
can be used as initial material for rice bree
d
ing programmes to create varieties with
complex resistance to rice blast and rice leaf nematode.

Joint activity of rice breeders and specialists in helminthology sh
ows that at present it is
possible to select from available breeding material rice samples and varieties with high
resistance and to
l
erance to rice leaf nematode. In such plants propagation of rice
nematodes is low. Rice resistance and reduction of product
ivity are determined by the
degree of their tolerance to infe
s
tation. It known that even in case of white tip epiphytoty
infestation of tolerant varieties is 1
-
6%, thus practically not reducing the yield. Thus
selection of tolerant rice samples under field

cond
i
tions of high nematode invasion
exposure produces varieties with field resistance to it. Comme
r
cial use of these varieties
will reduce the acuteness of the white tip problem in the affected areas.

Practice has confirmed that this task can be achieved
. After numerous sample assessments
and selections in invasion nursery some varieties with high rice nematode tolerance have
been pr
o
duced. Thus these tolerant to rice leaf nematode varieties will play their positive
role before vari
e
ties immune to rice le
af nematode are selected.