Biotechnology Notes 2010

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Oct 23, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Biotechnology Notes 2010

*Refer to Chapter 13 for more detail


I.
Biotechnology


A. Definition
-
use of organisms to perform


practical tasks for humans


B. Much of biotechnology deals with


analyzing and manipulating genomes


of
o
rganisms

at the molecular level




(
DNA technology
)


C.
Genome
-
complete set of an organism

s


genetic material


D.
Human genome
project


a project


aimed at sequencing the human


genome and identifying its genes


E.
Re
combinant DNA technology
-


technology that combines genes from


different sources into a single DNA


molecule


II. Some basic tools of biotech
nology

A.

B
acteria
-
used to mass produce
desired
genes and proteins

B.

P
la
s
mids

1.
“Extra” DNA that bac
teria


often carry

2.
Can be manipulated to move foreign
genes into bacteria

C.

Restriction enzymes

1.
Molecular “scissors”

2.
Can cut DNA into small piece
s


D.

Nucleic acid probe
-
radioactively



labeled nucleic acid molecule used to



t
ag a specific DNA sequence


III. Examples

of b
iotech
nology

A.

Cloning
-
the process of making a


genetic duplicate of an organism
.


Cloning has the potential to mass


produce an animal with a desirable


set of traits.

B.

Genetic engineering
-
any ty
pe of


alteration in the genetic make
-
up of


an organism
.


1. Humans create genetically


modified plants and animals


(GMOs) for a variety of reasons.


i
ncluding increased nutrition and


pest resistance

2.

Transgenic
-
an organism that has



genes from more than one species



due
to genetic modification

C.

Gel Electrophoresis


1. Process used to separate different


DNA segments


2. Restriction

enzymes cut DNA into


s
hort and long fragments.


f
ragments are then pulled along a


g
el during a certain time period.


3.
DNA fingerprint
-

a person’
s




u
nique banding pattern on an


electroph
oresis gel based upon t
he


restriction fragments of their DNA