Biotechnology - Cloning

clusteriranianBiotechnology

Oct 23, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Biotechnology Unit Vocabulary


Biotechnology
-

is
a broad term generally used to describe using and adapting
biological processes to meet human needs.


Cloning

-

Technology that uses DNA from the body cell of one organism and
places that DNA into the empty

egg of another organism. The fertilized egg is
shocked and placed into the uterus of a third organism.


Differentiation



The process of stem cells turning on certain genes and forming
the different body cells of an organism during embryonic development.

When
a cell gets its specific job.


Gamete Cell



A sex cell, egg or sperm.


Genetic Engineering



(
Gene Splicing
)
-

Technology that uses enzymes to cut a
human gene from DNA. Then cut out a section of a bacterial plasmid and
combine the two together usi
ng enzymes. The end result is recombinant DNA.


Plasmid



circular piece of DNA from a bacteria cell used during genetic
engineering.


Recombinant DNA



The end result of genetic engineering when a human gene
has been inserted into a bacterial cell.


Res
triction Enzyme



Enzyme used to cut DNA in a specific location.


Restriction Site



The exact spot in which a restriction enzyme cuts a piece of
DNA.


Selective Breeding

-

(
Artificial Selection
)

-

Humans select plants and animals with
desired traits to br
eed and produce organisms with desired characteristics. They
continue to mate offspring until those traits are expressed.


Somatic Cell



A body cell, any cell other than an egg or sperm.


Stem Cell



The undifferentiated cells that have the ability to tu
rn into any cell of
the body. Stem cells most abundant in an embryo but are also found in the
umbilical cord and adults.


Surrogate Mother



Animal that carries and delivers a cloned offspring. The
surrogate mother is of no relation to the clone.


Vector



the bacterial plasmid used to transport human DNA into the bacteria
cell.