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Oct 2, 2013 (4 years and 12 days ago)

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Teaching an Agent by Playing a Multimodal Memory Game:

Challenges for Machine Learners and Human Teachers


AAAI 2009 Spring Symposium: Agents that Learn from Human Teachers

March 23
-
25, 2009, Stanford University

Byoung
-
Tak Zhang


Biointelligence

Laboratory

School of Computer Science and Engineering

Cognitive Science, Brain Science, and Bioinformatics

Seoul National University, Seoul 151
-
744, Korea


btzhang@cse.snu.ac.kr

http://bi.snu.ac.kr/

© 2009, SNU Biointelligence Lab, http://bi.snu.ac.kr/

2

Talk Outline


Multimodal Memory Game (MMG)


Challenges for Machine Learners


Challenges for Human Teachers


Toward Self
-
teaching Cognitive Agents

© 2009, SNU
Biointelligence

Lab, http://bi.snu.ac.kr/

Image

Sound

Text

But, I'm getting married tomorrow

Well, maybe I am...

I keep thinking about you.

And I'm wondering if we made a mistake giving up so fast.

Are you thinking about me?

But if you are, call me tonight.

Image
-
to
-
Text
Generator

(I2T)

Text
-
to
-
Image
Generator

(T2I)

Text

Hint

But, I'm getting married tomorrow

Well, maybe I am...

I keep thinking about you.

And I'm wondering if we made a mistake giving up so fast.

Are you thinking about me?

But if you are, call me tonight.

But, I'm getting married tomorrow

Well, maybe I am...

I keep thinking about you.

And I'm wondering if we made a mistake giving up so fast.

Are you thinking about me?

But if you are, call me tonight.

But, I'm getting married tomorrow

Well, maybe I am...

I keep thinking about you.

And I'm wondering if we made a mistake giving up so fast.

Are you thinking about me?

But if you are, call me tonight.

But, I'm getting married tomorrow

Well, maybe I am...

I keep thinking about you.

And I'm wondering if we made a mistake giving up so fast.

Are you thinking about me?

But if you are, call me tonight.

Hint

Image

Machine Learner

Toward Human
-
Level Machine Learning:
Multimodal Memory Game (MMG)

Image

Sound

©
2009,
SNU
Biointelligence

Lab, http://bi.snu.ac.kr/

4

Text Generation Game (from Image)

Text

I2T

Learning

by Viewing

T2I

Game

Manager

Text

Hint

T

Text

Image

Sound

©
2009,
SNU
Biointelligence

Lab, http://bi.snu.ac.kr/

5

Image Generation Game (from Text)

I2T

Learning

by Viewing

T2I

Game

Manager

Hint

Image

I

Characteristics of MMG Game


Interactive


Multimodal


Long
-
lasting


Hard to learn


Scalable data


Humans as teachers


Difficulty controllable


Learning by imitation (viewing and watching)


© 2009, SNU Biointelligence Lab, http://bi.snu.ac.kr/

6

Three Approaches


Learning Architecture


Model


Learning Strategies


Algorithms


Teaching Strategies


Humans

© 2009, SNU
Biointelligence

Lab, http://bi.snu.ac.kr/

7

Methods of Machine Learning


Symbolic Learning


Version Space Learning


Case
-
Based Learning


Neural
(Connectionist)
Learning


Multilayer
Perceptrons


Self
-
Organizing Maps


Hopfield Networks


Evolutionary Learning


Evolution Strategies


Evolutionary Programming


Genetic Algorithms


Genetic Programming


Probabilistic Learning


Bayesian Networks


Boltzmann Machines


Hidden Markov Models


Deep Belief Networks


Hypernetworks


Other Machine Learning
Methods


Reinforcement Learning


Decision Trees


Boosting Algorithms


Kernel Methods (SVM)


PCA, ICA, LDA etc.

Learning with Hypernetworks

© 2009, SNU
Biointelligence

Lab, http://bi.snu.ac.kr/

9

x1

x2

x3

x4

x5

x6

x7

x8

x9

x10

x11

x12

x13

x14

x15

[Zhang, DNA12
-
2006]

© 2009, SNU Biointelligence Lab, http://bi.snu.ac.kr/

10

How to Learn from Image
-
Text
Pairs

© 2009, SNU Biointelligence Lab, http://bi.snu.ac.kr/

11

How to Generate Image from Text

Image
-
to
-
Text Translation Results

© 2009, SNU
Biointelligence

Lab, http://bi.snu.ac.kr/

12

Answer

Query

I don't know what happened

There's a kitty in my guitar
case

Maybe there's something I
can do to make sure I get
pregnant

Maybe there's something


there's something I





I get pregnant

There's a


a kitty in





in my guitar case

I don't know


don't know what


know what happened

Matching
& Completion

Text
-
to
-
Image Translation Results

© 2009, SNU
Biointelligence

Lab, http://bi.snu.ac.kr/

13

Query

Matching
& Completion

I don't know what happened

Take a look at this

There's a kitty in my guitar case

Maybe there's something I can
do to make sure I get pregnant

Answer

Further Challenges

Challenges for Machine Learners


Incremental learning


Online learning


Fast update


One
-
shot learning


Predictive learning


Memory capacity


Selective attention


Active learning


Context
-
awareness




Persistency


Concept drift


Multisensory integration


© 2009, SNU Biointelligence Lab, http://bi.snu.ac.kr/

15

Challenges for Human Teachers


Getting feedback


Sequencing examples


Identifying the weak points


Choosing problems


Controlling parameters


Evaluating progress


Estimating difficulty


Generating new queries


Modeling the effect of


learning parameters



Catching environmental change


Minimal interactions


Multimodal interaction

© 2009, SNU Biointelligence Lab, http://bi.snu.ac.kr/

16

Conclusion


Multimodal memory game (MMG)


Highly
-
interactive lifelong learning scenario


Challenges current machine learning techniques


Challenges for machine learners


More attentive, active behavior


Rather than parameter fitting, passive adaptation


Human partners


More active role in interacting with the agents


The future:
Self
-
teaching cognitive agents


Cognitive learning agents that teach themselves


= Active learning agents + cognitively
-
aware human teachers


Design new queries and test their answers by interacting with humans


© 2009, SNU Biointelligence Lab, http://bi.snu.ac.kr/

17