Chapter 9 Chapter 9

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Oct 28, 2013 (4 years and 10 days ago)

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Chapter 9
Chapter 9
Enhanced Interior Gateway
Enhanced Interior Gateway
Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
Part I
Part I
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-1
Note for Instructors
Note for Instructors
• These presentations are the result of a collaboration among
• These presentations are the result of a collaboration among
tth he e iin ns sttr ru uc ctto or rs s a att S Stt.. C Clla aiir r C Co olllle eg ge e iin n W Wiin nd ds so or r,, O On ntta ar riio o..
•• T Th ha an nk ks s m mu us stt g go o o ou utt tto o R Riic ck k G Gr ra az ziia an nii o off C Ca ab br riillllo o C Co olllle eg ge e.. H Hiis s
material and additional information was used as a reference
material and additional information was used as a reference
iin n tth he eiir r c cr re ea attiio on n..
•• IIff a an ny yo on ne e ffiin nd ds s a an ny y e er rr ro or rs s o or r o om miis ss siio on ns s,, p plle ea as se e lle ett m me e k kn no ow w
at:
at:
• tdame@stclaircollege.ca.
• tdame@stclaircollege.ca.
CCNA2-2 Chapter 9-1E EIIG GR RP P
Introduction to EIGRP
Introduction to EIGRP
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-3
Roots of EIGRP
Roots of EIGRP
• Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is a
• Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is a
D Diis stta an nc ce e V Ve ec ctto or r,, C Clla as ss slle es ss s r ro ou uttiin ng g p pr ro otto oc co oll..
• • R Re elle ea as se ed d iin n 1 19 99 92 2 w wiitth h C Ciis sc co o IIO OS S S So offttw wa ar re e R Re elle ea as se e 9 9..2 21 1..
• Enhancement of Cisco’s Interior Gateway Routing
• Enhancement of Cisco’s Interior Gateway Routing
Protocol (IGRP).
Protocol (IGRP).
• • B Bo otth h a ar re e C Ciis sc co o p pr ro op pr riie etta ar ry y p pr ro otto oc co olls s a an nd d o op pe er ra atte e o on nlly y o on n
Cisco routers.
Cisco routers.
CCNA2-4 Chapter 9-1R Ro oo otts s o off E EIIG GR RP P
•• C Ciis sc co o’’s s IIn ntte er riio or r G Ga atte ew wa ay y R Ro ou uttiin ng g P Pr ro otto oc co oll ( (IIG GR RP P) ) h ha as s b be ee en n
d diis sc co on nttiin nu ue ed d a an nd d iis s n no o llo on ng ge er r s su up pp po or rtte ed d b by y C Ciis sc co o..
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-5
Roots of EIGRP
Roots of EIGRP
CCNA2-6 Chapter 9-1E EIIG GR RP P M Me es ss sa ag ge e F Fo or rm ma att
D Da atta a L Liin nk k
D Da atta a F FC CS S
F Fr ra am me e H He ea ad de er r
E EIIG GR RP P
IIP P P Pa ac ck ke ett T Ty yp pe e//L Le en ng gtth h//V Va allu ue es s
P Pa ac ck ke ett
H He ea ad de er r ( (T TL LV V) )
H He ea ad de er r
•• T Th he e E EIIG GR RP P ffr ra am me e iis s e en nc ca ap ps su ulla atte ed d jju us stt lliik ke e a an ny y o otth he er r ffr ra am me e
o on n a an n E Etth he er rn ne ett n ne ettw wo or rk k..
• Like any other protocol, the content of the fields
• Like any other protocol, the content of the fields
tth he em ms se ellv ve es s iis s iim mp po or rtta an ntt tto o tth he e p pr ro op pe er r ffu un nc cttiio on niin ng g o off
E EIIG GR RP P..
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-7
EIGRP Message Format
EIGRP Message Format
Data Link EIGRP
Data Link EIGRP
IP Packet Type/Length/Values
IP Packet Type/Length/Values
Frame Packet
Frame Packet
header (TLV)
header (TLV)
Header header
Header header
• Data Link Frame Header:
• Data Link Frame Header:
• • S So ou ur rc ce e M MA AC C A Ad dd dr re es ss s::
• • T Th he e M MA AC C a ad dd dr re es ss s o off tth he e s se en nd diin ng g iin ntte er rffa ac ce e..
• • D De es sttiin na attiio on n M MA AC C A Ad dd dr re es ss s::
• The multicast address 10-00-05-00-00-0A.
• The multicast address 10-00-05-00-00-0A.
•• U Un nlliik ke e a a R RIIP P b br ro oa ad dc ca as stt,, E EIIG GR RP P m mu ullttiic ca as stts s iitts s ffr ra am me es s u us siin ng g a a
specific multicast address. Only those hosts on the network
specific multicast address. Only those hosts on the network
(other routers) listening on that address will accept the frame.
(other routers) listening on that address will accept the frame.
CCNA2-8 Chapter 9-1E EIIG GR RP P M Me es ss sa ag ge e F Fo or rm ma att
D Da atta a L Liin nk k E EIIG GR RP P
IIP P P Pa ac ck ke ett T Ty yp pe e//L Le en ng gtth h//V Va allu ue es s
F Fr ra am me e P Pa ac ck ke ett
h he ea ad de er r ( (T TL LV V) )
H He ea ad de er r h he ea ad de er r
•• IIP P P Pa ac ck ke ett H He ea ad de er r::
• • S So ou ur rc ce e IIP P A Ad dd dr re es ss s::
• The IP Address of the sending interface.
• The IP Address of the sending interface.
• Destination IP Address:
• Destination IP Address:
• • T Th he e m mu ullttiic ca as stt a ad dd dr re es ss s 2 22 24 4..0 0..0 0..1 10 0..
• • P Pr ro otto oc co oll F Fiie elld d::
• 88 for EIGRP.
• 88 for EIGRP.
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-9
EIGRP Message Format
EIGRP Message Format
Data Link EIGRP
Data Link EIGRP
IP Packet Type/Length/Values
IP Packet Type/Length/Values
Frame Packet
Frame Packet
header (TLV)
header (TLV)
Header header
Header header
CCNA2-10 Chapter 9-1E EIIG GR RP P M Me es ss sa ag ge e F Fo or rm ma att
D Da atta a L Liin nk k E EIIG GR RP P
IIP P P Pa ac ck ke ett T Ty yp pe e//L Le en ng gtth h//V Va allu ue es s
F Fr ra am me e P Pa ac ck ke ett
h he ea ad de er r ( (T TL LV V) )
H He ea ad de er r h he ea ad de er r
•• E EIIG GR RP P P Pa ac ck ke ett H He ea ad de er r::
• • O Op pc co od de e::
• Specifies the type of EIGRP packet.
• Specifies the type of EIGRP packet.
• Update, Query, Reply, Hello
• Update, Query, Reply, Hello
• • A Au utto on no om mo ou us s S Sy ys stte em m N Nu um mb be er r::
• • S Sp pe ec ciiffiie es s tth he e E EIIG GR RP P r ro ou uttiin ng g p pr ro oc ce es ss s.. U Un nlliik ke e R RIIP P,,
routers using EIGRP can have multiple instances of
routers using EIGRP can have multiple instances of
E EIIG GR RP P r ru un nn niin ng g c co on nc cu ur rr re en nttlly y..
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-11
EIGRP Message Format
EIGRP Message Format
Data Link EIGRP
Data Link EIGRP
IP Packet Type/Length/Values
IP Packet Type/Length/Values
Frame Packet
Frame Packet
header (TLV)
header (TLV)
Header header
Header header
• The Type/Length/Values (TLV) field is used to convey
• The Type/Length/Values (TLV) field is used to convey
d diiffffe er re en ntt E EIIG GR RP P iin nffo or rm ma attiio on n a an nd d//o or r p pa ar ra am me ette er rs s..
•• E Ea ac ch h iis s d diis sttiin ng gu uiis sh he ed d b by y a a s sp pe ec ciiffiic c 4 4 b by ytte e h he ex xa ad de ec ciim ma all tty yp pe e
code.
code.
• We will be discussing:
• We will be discussing:
• • T Ty yp pe e 0 0x x0 00 00 01 1 – – E EIIG GR RP P P Pa ar ra am me ette er rs s
• • T Ty yp pe e 0 0x x0 00 00 02 2 – – IIP P IIn ntte er rn na all R Ro ou utte es s
• Type 0x0003 – IP External Routes
• Type 0x0003 – IP External Routes
CCNA2-12 Chapter 9-1E EIIG GR RP P M Me es ss sa ag ge e F Fo or rm ma att
D Da atta a L Liin nk k E EIIG GR RP P
IIP P P Pa ac ck ke ett T Ty yp pe e//L Le en ng gtth h//V Va allu ue es s
F Fr ra am me e P Pa ac ck ke ett
h he ea ad de er r ( (T TL LV V) )
H He ea ad de er r h he ea ad de er r
•• T Ty yp pe e 0 0x x0 00 00 01 1 – – E EIIG GR RP P P Pa ar ra am me ette er rs s::
• • C Co on ntta aiin ns s iin nffo or rm ma attiio on n r re eg ga ar rd diin ng g tth he e m me ettr riic c a an nd d tth he e h ho olld d
time for the route to the receiving neighbour.
time for the route to the receiving neighbour.
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-13
EIGRP Message Format
EIGRP Message Format
• RIP uses hop count to provide the metric used to determine
• RIP uses hop count to provide the metric used to determine
tth he e b be es stt p pa atth h tto o a a d de es sttiin na attiio on n..
•• E EIIG GR RP P w we eiig gh hs s b ba an nd dw wiid dtth h,, d de ella ay y,, r re elliia ab biilliitty y a an nd d llo oa ad d tto o
produce a composite metric value.
produce a composite metric value.
• These weights are included in the “K” value fields.
• These weights are included in the “K” value fields.
• • K K1 1 ( (B Ba an nd dw wiid dtth h) ) a an nd d K K3 3 ( (D De ella ay y) ) d de effa au ulltt tto o 1 1..
• • O Otth he er rs s d de effa au ulltt tto o 0 0..
CCNA2-14 Chapter 9-1E EIIG GR RP P M Me es ss sa ag ge e F Fo or rm ma att
•• H Ho olld d T Tiim me e::
• • T Th he e a am mo ou un ntt o off ttiim me e tth ha att tth he e E EIIG GR RP P r ro ou utte er r r re ec ce eiiv viin ng g tth hiis s
message should wait in between messages.
message should wait in between messages.
• If this timer expires before another EIGRP message is
• If this timer expires before another EIGRP message is
r re ec ce eiiv ve ed d,, tth he e r re ec ce eiiv viin ng g r ro ou utte er r w wiillll c co on ns siid de er r tth he e s se en nd diin ng g
router to be down.
router to be down.
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-15
EIGRP Message Format
EIGRP Message Format
Data Link EIGRP
Data Link EIGRP
IP Packet Type/Length/Values
IP Packet Type/Length/Values
Frame Packet
Frame Packet
header (TLV)
header (TLV)
Header header
Header header
• Type 0x0002 – IP Internal Routes:
• Type 0x0002 – IP Internal Routes:
• • T Th hiis s m me es ss sa ag ge e iis s u us se ed d tto o a ad dv ve er rttiis se e E EIIG GR RP P r ro ou utte es s w wiitth hiin n
a an n A Au utto on no om mo ou us s S Sy ys stte em m..
CCNA2-16 Chapter 9-1E EIIG GR RP P M Me es ss sa ag ge e F Fo or rm ma att
•• W We e w wiillll b be e c co on nc ce er rn ne ed d w wiitth h::
• • T Th he e m me ettr riic c ffiie elld ds s D De ella ay y a an nd d B Ba an nd dw wiid dtth h..
• Prefix Length.
• Prefix Length.
• Destination.
• Destination.
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-17
EIGRP Message Format
EIGRP Message Format
• Delay and Bandwidth:
• Delay and Bandwidth:
• • D De ella ay y iis s c ca allc cu ulla atte ed d a as s tth he e s su um m o off d de ella ay ys s ffr ro om m s so ou ur rc ce e tto o
d de es sttiin na attiio on n iin n u un niitts s o off 1 10 0 m miic cr ro os se ec co on nd ds s..
• Bandwidth is the lowest configured bandwidth of any
• Bandwidth is the lowest configured bandwidth of any
interface along the route.
interface along the route.
CCNA2-18 Chapter 9-1E EIIG GR RP P M Me es ss sa ag ge e F Fo or rm ma att
•• P Pr re effiix x L Le en ng gtth h::
• • E Es ss se en nttiia alllly y,, tth he e s su ub bn ne ett m ma as sk k..
• Subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 has a prefix length of 24.
• Subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 has a prefix length of 24.
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-19
EIGRP Message Format
EIGRP Message Format
• Destination:
• Destination:
• • T Th he e d de es sttiin na attiio on n n ne ettw wo or rk k..
• • B Be ec ca au us se e tth he e m miin niim mu um m lle en ng gtth h o off tth hiis s ffiie elld d iis s 2 24 4 b biitts s,, tth he e
remainder of the field is padded with 0s.
remainder of the field is padded with 0s.
• If a network address is longer than 24 bits
• If a network address is longer than 24 bits
( (1 19 92 2..1 16 68 8..1 1..3 32 2//2 27 7) ),, tth he e ffiie elld d iis s e ex xtte en nd de ed d ffo or r a an no otth he er r 3 32 2
bits and the unused bits are padded with 0s.
bits and the unused bits are padded with 0s.
CCNA2-20 Chapter 9-1E EIIG GR RP P M Me es ss sa ag ge e F Fo or rm ma att
D Da atta a L Liin nk k E EIIG GR RP P
IIP P P Pa ac ck ke ett T Ty yp pe e//L Le en ng gtth h//V Va allu ue es s
F Fr ra am me e P Pa ac ck ke ett
h he ea ad de er r ( (T TL LV V) )
H He ea ad de er r h he ea ad de er r
•• T Ty yp pe e 0 0x x0 00 00 03 3 – – IIP P E Ex xtte er rn na all R Ro ou utte es s
• • R Ro ou utte es s r re ec ce eiiv ve ed d ffr ro om m o ou utts siid de e tth he e A AS S..
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-21
EIGRP Message Format
EIGRP Message Format
• Note on MTU:
• Note on MTU:
• • S So om me e E EIIG GR RP P lliitte er ra attu ur re e m miig gh htt iin nc co or rr re ec cttlly y s stta atte e tth ha att tth he e
m ma ax xiim mu um m ttr ra an ns sm miis ss siio on n u un niitt ( (M MT TU U) ) iis s o on ne e o off tth he e m me ettr riic cs s
used by EIGRP.
used by EIGRP.
• While it is included in the routing update, the MTU is not
• While it is included in the routing update, the MTU is not
p pa ar rtt o off tth he e m me ettr riic c u us se ed d b by y E EIIG GR RP P..
CCNA2-22 Chapter 9-1P Pr ro otto oc co oll- -D De ep pe en nd da an ntt M Mo od du ulle es s
•• P Pr ro otto oc co oll- -D De ep pe en nd da an ntt M Mo od du ulle es s a ar re e r re es sp po on ns siib blle e ffo or r tth he e s sp pe ec ciiffiic c
r ro ou uttiin ng g tta as sk ks s ffo or r e ea ac ch h n ne ettw wo or rk k lla ay ye er r p pr ro otto oc co oll..
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-23
Protocol-Dependant Modules
Protocol-Dependant Modules
• Each PDM keeps route and topology information readily
• Each PDM keeps route and topology information readily
a av va aiilla ab blle e iin n R RA AM M s so o iitt c ca an n r re ea ac ctt q qu uiic ck klly y tto o c ch ha an ng ge es s..
•• IItt s sa av ve es s tth hiis s iin nffo or rm ma attiio on n iin n tth hr re ee e tta ab blle es s..
• Neighbour Table
• Neighbour Table
• Topology Table
• Topology Table
• • R Ro ou uttiin ng g T Ta ab blle e
CCNA2-24 Chapter 9-1P Pr ro otto oc co oll- -D De ep pe en nd da an ntt M Mo od du ulle es s
•• N Ne eiig gh hb bo or r T Ta ab blle e::
• • L Liis stts s a allll a ad djja ac ce en ntt o or r n ne eiig gh hb bo ou ur r r ro ou utte er rs s..
• Topology Table:
• Topology Table:
• Includes route entries for all destinations that the router
• Includes route entries for all destinations that the router
h ha as s lle ea ar rn ne ed d..
•• R Ro ou uttiin ng g T Ta ab blle e::
• EIGRP chooses the best routes to a destination from the
• EIGRP chooses the best routes to a destination from the
tto op po ollo og gy y tta ab blle e a an nd d p plla ac ce es s tth he es se e r ro ou utte es s iin n tth he e r ro ou uttiin ng g
tta ab blle e..
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-25
Protocol-Dependant Modules
Protocol-Dependant Modules
• Neighbor Table:
• Neighbor Table:
•• W Wh he en n n ne ew wlly y d diis sc co ov ve er re ed d n ne eiig gh hb bo ou ur rs s a ar re e lle ea ar rn ne ed d,, tth he e
a ad dd dr re es ss s a an nd d iin ntte er rffa ac ce e o off tth he e n ne eiig gh hb bo ou ur r iis s r re ec co or rd de ed d..
• When a neighbour sends a hello packet, it advertises a
• When a neighbour sends a hello packet, it advertises a
hold time.
hold time.
•• W Wh he en n tth he e h ho olld d ttiim me e e ex xp piir re es s,, tth he e lliin nk k iis s c co on ns siid de er re ed d
unavailable and the new topology must be recalculated.
unavailable and the new topology must be recalculated.
CCNA2-26 Chapter 9-1P Pr ro otto oc co oll- -D De ep pe en nd da an ntt M Mo od du ulle es s
•• T To op po ollo og gy y T Ta ab blle e::
•• T Th he e tto op po ollo og gy y tta ab blle e iis s m ma ad de e u up p o off a allll tth he e E EIIG GR RP P r ro ou uttiin ng g
tables in the autonomous system.
tables in the autonomous system.
• DUAL uses the information in the neighbour and topology
• DUAL uses the information in the neighbour and topology
tta ab blle es s tto o c ca allc cu ulla atte e tth he e llo ow we es stt c co os stt r ro ou utte es s tto o e ea ac ch h
destination.
destination.
•• A Allll lle ea ar rn ne ed d r ro ou utte es s tto o a a d de es sttiin na attiio on n a ar re e m ma aiin ntta aiin ne ed d iin n tth he e
tto op po ollo og gy y tta ab blle e..
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-27
RTP and EIGRP Packet Types
RTP and EIGRP Packet Types
• Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP) is the protocol used by
• Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP) is the protocol used by
E EIIG GR RP P ffo or r tth he e d de elliiv ve er ry y a an nd d r re ec ce ep pttiio on n o off E EIIG GR RP P p pa ac ck ke etts s..
•• R RT TP P iin nc cllu ud de es s b bo otth h r re elliia ab blle e d de elliiv ve er ry y a an nd d u un nr re elliia ab blle e d de elliiv ve er ry y o off
EIGRP packets, similar to TCP and UDP.
EIGRP packets, similar to TCP and UDP.
CCNA2-28 Chapter 9-1R RT TP P a an nd d E EIIG GR RP P P Pa ac ck ke ett T Ty yp pe es s
Hello Packet
Hello Packet
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-29
RTP and EIGRP Packet Types
RTP and EIGRP Packet Types
U Up pd da atte e a an nd d A Ac ck kn no ow wlle ed dg gm me en ntt P Pa ac ck ke etts s
CCNA2-30 Chapter 9-1R RT TP P a an nd d E EIIG GR RP P P Pa ac ck ke ett T Ty yp pe es s
Query and Reply Packets
Query and Reply Packets
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-31
Hello Protocol
Hello Protocol
M Mo os stt N Ne ettw wo or rk ks s
• Before any EIGRP packets can be exchanged between
• Before any EIGRP packets can be exchanged between
r ro ou utte er rs s,, E EIIG GR RP P m mu us stt ffiir rs stt d diis sc co ov ve er r iitts s n ne eiig gh hb bo or rs s..
•• E EIIG GR RP P r ro ou utte er rs s d diis sc co ov ve er r n ne eiig gh hb bo or rs s a an nd d e es stta ab blliis sh h a ad djja ac ce en nc ciie es s
with neighbor routers using the hello packet.
with neighbor routers using the hello packet.
• Hold Time:
• Hold Time:
• • A An n E EIIG GR RP P r ro ou utte er r a as ss su um me es s tth ha att a as s llo on ng g a as s iitt iis s r re ec ce eiiv viin ng g
hello packets from a neighbor, the neighbor and its routes
hello packets from a neighbor, the neighbor and its routes
remain viable.
remain viable.
CCNA2-32 Chapter 9-1E EIIG GR RP P B Bo ou un nd de ed d U Up pd da atte es s
•• E EIIG GR RP P u us se es s tth he e
tte er rm ms s p pa ar rttiia all a an nd d
bounded when
bounded when
r re effe er rr riin ng g tto o iitts s u up pd da atte e
packets.
packets.
•• E EIIG GR RP P s se en nd ds s iitts s
u up pd da atte es s o on nlly y w wh he en n tth he e m me ettr riic c ffo or r a a r ro ou utte e c ch ha an ng ge es s..
• Partial:
• Partial:
• • T Th he e u up pd da atte e o on nlly y iin nc cllu ud de es s iin nffo or rm ma attiio on n a ab bo ou utt tth he e r ro ou utte e
changes instead of sending the entire contents of the
changes instead of sending the entire contents of the
routing table.
routing table.
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-33
EIGRP Bounded Updates
EIGRP Bounded Updates
• EIGRP uses the
• EIGRP uses the
tte er rm ms s p pa ar rttiia all a an nd d
b bo ou un nd de ed d w wh he en n
referring to its update
referring to its update
p pa ac ck ke etts s..
• EIGRP sends its
• EIGRP sends its
u up pd da atte es s o on nlly y w wh he en n tth he e m me ettr riic c ffo or r a a r ro ou utte e c ch ha an ng ge es s..
• Bounded:
• Bounded:
• Refers to the propagation of partial updates sent only to
• Refers to the propagation of partial updates sent only to
tth ho os se e r ro ou utte er rs s tth ha att a ar re e a affffe ec ctte ed d b by y tth he e c ch ha an ng ge e..
CCNA2-34 Chapter 9-1D DU UA AL L:: A An n IIn nttr ro od du uc cttiio on n
•• D Diiffffu us siin ng g U Up pd da atte e A Allg go or riitth hm m ( (D DU UA AL L) ) iis s tth he e c co on nv ve er rg ge en nc ce e
a allg go or riitth hm m u us se ed d b by y E EIIG GR RP P..
• Routing loops can be extremely detrimental to network
• Routing loops can be extremely detrimental to network
p pe er rffo or rm ma an nc ce e..
• • D Diis stta an nc ce e v ve ec ctto or r r ro ou uttiin ng g p pr ro otto oc co olls s s su uc ch h a as s R RIIP P p pr re ev ve en ntt
routing loops with hold-down timers and split horizon.
routing loops with hold-down timers and split horizon.
• • A Alltth ho ou ug gh h E EIIG GR RP P u us se es s b bo otth h o off tth he es se e tte ec ch hn niiq qu ue es s,, iitt u us se es s
tth he em m s so om me ew wh ha att d diiffffe er re en nttlly y..
• The primary way that EIGRP prevents routing loops is
• The primary way that EIGRP prevents routing loops is
with the DUAL algorithm.
with the DUAL algorithm.
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-35
Administrative Distance
Administrative Distance
• When compared to other interior gateway protocols, EIGRP
• When compared to other interior gateway protocols, EIGRP
iis s tth he e m mo os stt p pr re effe er rr re ed d b by y tth he e C Ciis sc co o IIO OS S s so offttw wa ar re e b be ec ca au us se e iitt
h ha as s tth he e llo ow we es stt A AD D..
CCNA2-36 Chapter 9-1A Au utth he en nttiic ca attiio on n
•• L Liik ke e o otth he er r r ro ou uttiin ng g p pr ro otto oc co olls s,,
E EIIG GR RP P c ca an n b be e c co on nffiig gu ur re ed d ffo or r
authentication.
authentication.
•• A Au utth he en nttiic ca attiio on n e en ns su ur re es s tth ha att
r ro ou utte er rs s w wiillll o on nlly y a ac cc ce ep ptt r ro ou uttiin ng g
information from other routers
information from other routers
tth ha att h ha av ve e b be ee en n c co on nffiig gu ur re ed d w wiitth h
the same password or authentication information.
the same password or authentication information.
• The router authenticates the source of each routing update
• The router authenticates the source of each routing update
p pa ac ck ke ett tth ha att iitt r re ec ce eiiv ve es s..
•• A Au utth he en nttiic ca attiio on n iitts se ellff d do oe es s n no ott e en nc cr ry yp ptt tth he e r ro ou utte er r’’s s r ro ou uttiin ng g
table.
table.
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-37
EIGRP
EIGRP
Basic EIGRP Configuration
Basic EIGRP Configuration
CCNA2-38 Chapter 9-1A Au utto on no om mo ou us s S Sy ys stte em m
•• C Co on nc ce ep ptt o off A Au utto on no om mo ou us s S Sy ys stte em ms s ( (A AS S) )::
A network or group
A network or group
of networks
of networks
iid de en nttiiffiie ed d a an nd d
administered as a
administered as a
s siin ng glle e e en nttiitty y..
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-39
Autonomous System
Autonomous System
• An autonomous system
• An autonomous system
iis s a a c co olllle ec cttiio on n o off
n ne ettw wo or rk ks s u un nd de er r tth he e
administrative control of
administrative control of
a a s siin ng glle e e en nttiitty y tth ha att
presents a common
presents a common
r ro ou uttiin ng g p po olliic cy y tto o tth he e
IIn ntte er rn ne ett..
• Autonomous system numbers are assigned by the Internet
• Autonomous system numbers are assigned by the Internet
Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).
Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).
•• W Wh ho o n ne ee ed ds s a an n A Au utto on no om mo ou us s S Sy ys stte em m n nu um mb be er r? ?
• • IIn ntte er rn ne ett S Se er rv viic ce e P Pr ro ov viid de er rs s ( (IIS SP Ps s) ),, IIn ntte er rn ne ett B Ba ac ck kb bo on ne e
Providers, and large institutions connecting to other
Providers, and large institutions connecting to other
e en nttiittiie es s tth ha att a alls so o h ha av ve e a an n a au utto on no om mo ou us s s sy ys stte em m n nu um mb be er r....
CCNA2-40 Chapter 9-1P Pr ro oc ce es ss s IID D
•• A Alltth ho ou ug gh h E EIIG GR RP P r re effe er rs s tto o
tth he e p pa ar ra am me ette er r a as s a an n
“autonomous-system”
“autonomous-system”
n nu um mb be er r,, iitt a ac cttu ua alllly y ffu un nc cttiio on ns s
as a Process ID.
as a Process ID.
• The autonomous system parameter is a number chosen by
• The autonomous system parameter is a number chosen by
tth he e n ne ettw wo or rk k a ad dm miin niis sttr ra atto or r b be ettw we ee en n 1 1 a an nd d 6 65 5,,5 53 35 5..
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-41
The router eigrp Command
The router eigrp Command
• The Global configuration mode router eigrp command
• The Global configuration mode router eigrp command
e en na ab blle es s E EIIG GR RP P..
•• A Allll r ro ou utte er rs s iin n a an n E EIIG GR RP P r ro ou uttiin ng g d do om ma aiin n m mu us stt u us se e tth he e s sa am me e
process ID number (autonomous system number).
process ID number (autonomous system number).
CCNA2-42 Chapter 9-1The network Command
The network Command
•• T Th he e nneettwwoorrkk c co om mm ma an nd d iin n E EIIG GR RP P h ha as s tth he e s sa am me e ffu un nc cttiio on n a as s
iin n o otth he er r IIG GP P r ro ou uttiin ng g p pr ro otto oc co olls s::
• Any interface on this router that matches the network
• Any interface on this router that matches the network
a ad dd dr re es ss s iin n tth he e nneettwwoorrkk c co om mm ma an nd d w wiillll b be e e en na ab blle ed d tto o
s se en nd d a an nd d r re ec ce eiiv ve e E EIIG GR RP P u up pd da atte es s..
• This network (or subnet) will be included in EIGRP
• This network (or subnet) will be included in EIGRP
r ro ou uttiin ng g u up pd da atte es s..
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-43
The network Command
The network Command
• The network-address is the classful network address for this
• The network-address is the classful network address for this
iin ntte er rffa ac ce e..
•• A A s siin ng glle e c clla as ss sffu ull n ne ettw wo or rk k s stta atte em me en ntt iis s u us se ed d o on n R R1 1 tto o iin nc cllu ud de e
both 172.16.1.0/24 and 172.16.3.0/30 subnets.
both 172.16.1.0/24 and 172.16.3.0/30 subnets.
CCNA2-44 Chapter 9-1The network Command
The network Command
•• IIff y yo ou u e en ntte er r tth he e iin nd diiv viid du ua all n ne ettw wo or rk k n nu um mb be er rs s ffo or r tth he e iin ntte er rffa ac ce es s,,
tth he e C Ciis sc co o IIO OS S s so offttw wa ar re e w wiillll a au utto om ma attiic ca alllly y c co on nv ve er rtt tth he em m tto o a a
single, summarized network.
single, summarized network.
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-45
The network Command
The network Command
• When EIGRP is configured on R2, DUAL sends a notification
• When EIGRP is configured on R2, DUAL sends a notification
m me es ss sa ag ge e tto o tth he e c co on ns so olle e s stta attiin ng g tth ha att a a n ne eiig gh hb bo or r r re ella attiio on ns sh hiip p
w wiitth h a an no otth he er r E EIIG GR RP P r ro ou utte er r h ha as s b be ee en n e es stta ab blliis sh he ed d..
CCNA2-46 Chapter 9-1The network Command
The network Command
•• T Th hiis s n ne ew w a ad djja ac ce en nc cy y h ha ap pp pe en ns s a au utto om ma attiic ca alllly y b be ec ca au us se e b bo otth h R R1 1
a an nd d R R2 2 a ar re e u us siin ng g tth he e s sa am me e E EIIG GR RP P 1 1 r ro ou uttiin ng g p pr ro oc ce es ss s a an nd d
both routers are now sending updates on the 172.16.0.0
both routers are now sending updates on the 172.16.0.0
n ne ettw wo or rk k..
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-47
The network Command with a Wildcard Mask
The network Command with a Wildcard Mask
• By default, when the network command and a classful
• By default, when the network command and a classful
n ne ettw wo or rk k a ad dd dr re es ss s s su uc ch h a as s 1 17 72 2..1 16 6..0 0..0 0 a ar re e u us se ed d,, a allll iin ntte er rffa ac ce es s
o on n tth he e r ro ou utte er r tth ha att b be ello on ng g tto o tth ha att c clla as ss sffu ull n ne ettw wo or rk k a ad dd dr re es ss s w wiillll
be enabled for EIGRP.
be enabled for EIGRP.
•• T Th he er re e m ma ay y b be e ttiim me es s w wh he en n tth he e n ne ettw wo or rk k a ad dm miin niis sttr ra atto or r d do oe es s n no ott
w wa an ntt tto o iin nc cllu ud de e a allll iin ntte er rffa ac ce es s w wiitth hiin n a a n ne ettw wo or rk k w wh he en n e en na ab blliin ng g
EIGRP.
EIGRP.
•• T To o c co on nffiig gu ur re e E EIIG GR RP P tto o a ad dv ve er rttiis se e s sp pe ec ciiffiic c s su ub bn ne etts s o on nlly y,, u us se e
tth he e w wiilld dc ca ar rd d- -m ma as sk k o op pttiio on n..
CCNA2-48 Chapter 9-1The network Command with a Wildcard Mask
The network Command with a Wildcard Mask
•• T Th hiin nk k o off a a w wiilld dc ca ar rd d m ma as sk k a as s tth he e iin nv ve er rs se e o off a a s su ub bn ne ett m ma as sk k..
•• T To o c ca allc cu ulla atte e tth he e iin nv ve er rs se e o off tth he e s su ub bn ne ett m ma as sk k,, s su ub bttr ra ac ctt tth he e
subnet mask from 255.255.255.255.
subnet mask from 255.255.255.255.
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-49
The network Command with a Wildcard Mask
The network Command with a Wildcard Mask
• Some Cisco IOS software versions also let you enter the
• Some Cisco IOS software versions also let you enter the
s su ub bn ne ett m ma as sk k..
•• H Ho ow we ev ve er r,, C Ciis sc co o IIO OS S s so offttw wa ar re e tth he en n c co on nv ve er rtts s tth he e c co om mm ma an nd d tto o
the wildcard mask format.
the wildcard mask format.
CCNA2-50 Chapter 9-1N Ne ettw wo or rk k E EIIG GR RP P C Co on nffiig gu ur ra attiio on n
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-51
Verifying EIGRP
Verifying EIGRP
• Verify adjacencies using show ip eigrp neighbors.
• Verify adjacencies using show ip eigrp neighbors.
CCNA2-52 Chapter 9-1V Ve er riiffy yiin ng g E EIIG GR RP P
•• T Tr ro ou ub blle es sh ho oo ottiin ng g::
• • IIff a a n ne eiig gh hb bo or r iis s n no ott lliis stte ed d
after adjacencies have
after adjacencies have
b be ee en n e es stta ab blliis sh he ed d w wiitth h a a
r ro ou utte er r’’s s n ne eiig gh hb bo or rs s,,
check that the local
check that the local
iin ntte er rffa ac ce e iis s a ac cttiiv va atte ed d u us siin ng g tth he e sshhooww iipp iinntteerrffaaccee
brief command.
brief command.
• If the interface is active, ping the IP address of the
• If the interface is active, ping the IP address of the
n ne eiig gh hb bo or r..
• • IIff tth he e p piin ng g ffa aiills s,, iitt m me ea an ns s tth ha att tth he e n ne eiig gh hb bo or r iin ntte er rffa ac ce e iis s
down and needs to be activated.
down and needs to be activated.
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-53
Verifying EIGRP
Verifying EIGRP
• Troubleshooting:
• Troubleshooting:
• • IIff tth he e p piin ng g iis s s su uc cc ce es ss sffu ull
a an nd d E EIIG GR RP P s sttiillll d do oe es s n no ott
see the router as a
see the router as a
n ne eiig gh hb bo or r,, e ex xa am miin ne e tth he e
ffo ollllo ow wiin ng g c co on nffiig gu ur ra attiio on ns s::
• Are both routers configured with the same EIGRP
• Are both routers configured with the same EIGRP
p pr ro oc ce es ss s IID D? ?
• • IIs s tth he e d diir re ec cttlly y c co on nn ne ec ctte ed d n ne ettw wo or rk k iin nc cllu ud de ed d iin n tth he e
EIGRP network statements?
EIGRP network statements?
• • IIs s tth he e ppaassssiivvee--iinntteerrffaaccee c co om mm ma an nd d
iin na ap pp pr ro op pr riia atte elly y c co on nffiig gu ur re ed d,, tth hu us s p pr re ev ve en nttiin ng g E EIIG GR RP P
hello packets on the interface?
hello packets on the interface?
CCNA2-54 Chapter 9-1V Ve er riiffy yiin ng g E EIIG GR RP P
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-55
Examining The Routing Table: R1
Examining The Routing Table: R1
• Notice that EIGRP routes are denoted in the routing table
• Notice that EIGRP routes are denoted in the routing table
w wiitth h a a D D,, w wh hiic ch h s stta an nd ds s ffo or r D DU UA AL L..
CCNA2-56 Chapter 9-1E Ex xa am miin niin ng g T Th he e R Ro ou uttiin ng g T Ta ab blle e:: R R2 2
•• E EIIG GR RP P iis s a a c clla as ss slle es ss s r ro ou uttiin ng g p pr ro otto oc co oll ( (iin nc cllu ud de es s tth he e s su ub bn ne ett
m ma as sk k iin n tth he e r ro ou uttiin ng g u up pd da atte e) )..
• EIGRP supports variable-length subnet masks (VLSM) and
• EIGRP supports variable-length subnet masks (VLSM) and
c clla as ss slle es ss s iin ntte er r- -d do om ma aiin n r ro ou uttiin ng g ( (C CIID DR R) )..
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-57
Examining The Routing Table: R3
Examining The Routing Table: R3
• By default, EIGRP automatically summarizes routes at the
• By default, EIGRP automatically summarizes routes at the
m ma ajjo or r n ne ettw wo or rk k b bo ou un nd da ar ry y..
•• Y Yo ou u c ca an n d diis sa ab blle e tth he e a au utto om ma attiic c s su um mm ma ar riiz za attiio on n w wiitth h tth he e
no auto-summary command, just as you did for RIPv2.
no auto-summary command, just as you did for RIPv2.
CCNA2-58 Chapter 9-1Introducing the Null0 Summary Route
Introducing the Null0 Summary Route
•• T Th he e 1 19 92 2..1 16 68 8..1 10 0..0 0//2 24 4 a an nd d 1 17 72 2..1 16 6..0 0..0 0//1 16 6 r ro ou utte es s d do o n no ott
a ac cttu ua alllly y r re ep pr re es se en ntt a a p pa atth h tto o r re ea ac ch h tth he e p pa ar re en ntt n ne ettw wo or rk ks s..
• If the packet matches the level 1 parent, but none of the child
• If the packet matches the level 1 parent, but none of the child
r ro ou utte e s su ub bn ne etts s,, tth he e p pa ac ck ke ett iis s d diis sc ca ar rd de ed d ( (s se en ntt tto o tth he e NNuullll00
iin ntte er rffa ac ce e) )..
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-59
Introducing the Null0 Summary Route
Introducing the Null0 Summary Route
• EIGRP automatically includes a Null0 summary route as a
• EIGRP automatically includes a Null0 summary route as a
c ch hiilld d r ro ou utte e w wh he en ne ev ve er r b bo otth h o off tth he e ffo ollllo ow wiin ng g c co on nd diittiio on ns s e ex xiis stt::
• • T Th he er re e iis s a att lle ea as stt o on ne e s su ub bn ne ett tth ha att w wa as s lle ea ar rn ne ed d v viia a E EIIG GR RP P..
• Automatic summarization is enabled.
• Automatic summarization is enabled.
CCNA2-60 Chapter 9-1R R3 3 R Ro ou uttiin ng g T Ta ab blle e
•• B Be ec ca au us se e R R3 3 iis s g ge ettttiin ng g e eq qu ua all c co os stt r ro ou utte es s ffo or r 1 17 72 2..1 16 6..0 0..0 0//1 16 6
ffr ro om m R R1 1 a an nd d R R2 2,, b bo otth h a ar re e iin nc cllu ud de ed d iin n tth he e r ro ou uttiin ng g tta ab blle e..
• Both R1 and R2 are automatically summarizing the
• Both R1 and R2 are automatically summarizing the
1 17 72 2..1 16 6..0 0..0 0//1 16 6 n ne ettw wo or rk k a an nd d s se en nd diin ng g iitt a as s a a s siin ng glle e r ro ou uttiin ng g
u up pd da atte e..
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-61
EIGRP
EIGRP
EIGRP Metric Calculation
EIGRP Metric Calculation
CCNA2-62 Chapter 9-1E EIIG GR RP P C Co om mp po os siitte e M Me ettr riic c a an nd d tth he e K K V Va allu ue es s
•• E EIIG GR RP P u us se es s tth he e ffo ollllo ow wiin ng g v va allu ue es s iin n iitts s c co om mp po os siitte e m me ettr riic c tto o
c ca allc cu ulla atte e tth he e p pr re effe er rr re ed d p pa atth h tto o a a n ne ettw wo or rk k::
• Bandwidth
• Bandwidth
• Delay
• Delay
• • R Re elliia ab biilliitty y
• • L Lo oa ad d
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-63
The Composite Metric
The Composite Metric
O On nlly y b ba an nd dw wiid dtth h a an nd d d de ella ay y
are used for the default
are used for the default
c co om mp po os siitte e m me ettr riic c..
• By default, K1 and K3 are set to 1, and K2, K4, and K5 are
• By default, K1 and K3 are set to 1, and K2, K4, and K5 are
s se ett tto o 0 0..
CCNA2-64 Chapter 9-1V Ve er riiffy yiin ng g tth he e C Co om mp po os siitte e M Me ettr riic c
•• T Th he e K K v va allu ue es s o on n R R1 1 a ar re e s se ett tto o tth he e d de effa au ulltt..
•• C Ch ha an ng giin ng g tth he es se e v va allu ue es s tto o o otth he er r tth ha an n tth he e d de effa au ulltt iis s n no ott
recommended unless the network administrator has a very
recommended unless the network administrator has a very
g go oo od d r re ea as so on n tto o d do o s so o..
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-65
Examining the Metric Values
Examining the Metric Values
• The show interface command, lets you can examine the
• The show interface command, lets you can examine the
a ac cttu ua all v va allu ue es s u us se ed d ffo or r b ba an nd dw wiid dtth h,, d de ella ay y,, r re elliia ab biilliitty y,, a an nd d llo oa ad d
iin n tth he e c co om mp pu utta attiio on n o off tth he e r ro ou uttiin ng g m me ettr riic c..
CCNA2-66 Chapter 9-1E Ex xa am miin niin ng g tth he e M Me ettr riic c V Va allu ue es s
•• B Ba an nd dw wiid dtth h::
• • T Th he e b ba an nd dw wiid dtth h m me ettr riic c ( (1 15 54 44 4 K Kb bp ps s) ) iis s a a s stta attiic c v va allu ue e u us se ed d
by protocols such as EIGRP and OSPF.
by protocols such as EIGRP and OSPF.
• Displayed in kilobits per second (Kbps).
• Displayed in kilobits per second (Kbps).
• • T Th he e v va allu ue e d diis sp plla ay ye ed d m miig gh htt o or r m miig gh htt n no ott r re efflle ec ctt tth he e a ac cttu ua all
physical bandwidth of the interface.
physical bandwidth of the interface.
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-67
Examining the Metric Values
Examining the Metric Values
• Bandwidth:
• Bandwidth:
• • M Mo od diiffy yiin ng g tth he e b ba an nd dw wiid dtth h v va allu ue e d do oe es s n no ott c ch ha an ng ge e tth he e
a ac cttu ua all b ba an nd dw wiid dtth h o off tth he e lliin nk k..
• If the actual bandwidth of the link differs from the default
• If the actual bandwidth of the link differs from the default
bandwidth value, you should modify the bandwidth value
bandwidth value, you should modify the bandwidth value
tto o e en ns su ur re e a an n a ac cc cu ur ra atte e c co om mp po os siitte e m me ettr riic c..
CCNA2-68 Chapter 9-1E Ex xa am miin niin ng g tth he e M Me ettr riic c V Va allu ue es s
•• D De ella ay y::
• • D De ella ay y iis s a a m me ea as su ur re e o off tth he e ttiim me e iitt tta ak ke es s ffo or r a a p pa ac ck ke ett tto o
traverse a route.
traverse a route.
• The delay (DLY) metric is a static value based on the
• The delay (DLY) metric is a static value based on the
tty yp pe e o off lliin nk k a an nd d iis s e ex xp pr re es ss se ed d iin n m miic cr ro os se ec co on nd ds s..
• The router does not actually track how long packets are
• The router does not actually track how long packets are
tta ak kiin ng g tto o r re ea ac ch h tth he e d de es sttiin na attiio on n..
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-69
Examining the Metric Values
Examining the Metric Values
• Reliability:
• Reliability:
• • R Re elliia ab biilliitty y iis s a a m me ea as su ur re e o off tth he e p pr ro ob ba ab biilliitty y tth ha att tth he e lliin nk k w wiillll
ffa aiill o or r h ho ow w o offtte en n tth he e lliin nk k h ha as s e ex xp pe er riie en nc ce ed d e er rr ro or rs s..
• Unlike delay, reliability is measured dynamically with a
• Unlike delay, reliability is measured dynamically with a
value between 0 and 255, with 1 being a minimally
value between 0 and 255, with 1 being a minimally
r re elliia ab blle e lliin nk k a an nd d 2 25 55 5 b be eiin ng g 1 10 00 0 p pe er rc ce en ntt r re elliia ab blle e..
CCNA2-70 Chapter 9-1E Ex xa am miin niin ng g tth he e M Me ettr riic c V Va allu ue es s
•• R Re elliia ab biilliitty y::
• • R Re elliia ab biilliitty y iis s a a m me ea as su ur re e o off tth he e p pr ro ob ba ab biilliitty y tth ha att tth he e lliin nk k w wiillll
fail or how often the link has experienced errors.
fail or how often the link has experienced errors.
• Reliability is expressed as a fraction of 255; the higher
• Reliability is expressed as a fraction of 255; the higher
tth he e v va allu ue e,, tth he e m mo or re e r re elliia ab blle e tth he e lliin nk k..
• 255/255 would be 100 percent reliable, whereas a link of
• 255/255 would be 100 percent reliable, whereas a link of
2 23 34 4//2 25 55 5 w wo ou ulld d b be e 9 91 1..8 8 p pe er rc ce en ntt r re elliia ab blle e..
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-71
Examining the Metric Values
Examining the Metric Values
• Load:
• Load:
• • L Lo oa ad d r re efflle ec ctts s tth he e a am mo ou un ntt o off ttr ra affffiic c u us siin ng g tth he e lliin nk k..
• • L Lo oa ad d iis s e ex xp pr re es ss se ed d a as s a a ffr ra ac cttiio on n o off 2 25 55 5.. A A llo ow we er r llo oa ad d
value is more desirable.
value is more desirable.
• 1/255 would be a minimally loaded link.
• 1/255 would be a minimally loaded link.
• • 4 40 0//2 25 55 5 iis s a a lliin nk k a att 1 16 6 p pe er rc ce en ntt c ca ap pa ac ciitty y..
• • 2 25 55 5//2 25 55 5 iis s a a lliin nk k tth ha att iis s 1 10 00 0 p pe er rc ce en ntt s sa attu ur ra atte ed d..
CCNA2-72 Chapter 9-1Using the bandwidth Command
Using the bandwidth Command
•• O On n m mo os stt s se er riia all lliin nk ks s,, tth he e b ba an nd dw wiid dtth h m me ettr riic c d de effa au ulltts s tto o
1 15 54 44 4 K Kb bp ps s..
• Because both EIGRP and OSPF use bandwidth in default
• Because both EIGRP and OSPF use bandwidth in default
m me ettr riic c c ca allc cu ulla attiio on ns s,, a a c co or rr re ec ctt v va allu ue e ffo or r b ba an nd dw wiid dtth h iis s v ve er ry y
iim mp po or rtta an ntt tto o tth he e a ac cc cu ur ra ac cy y o off r ro ou uttiin ng g iin nffo or rm ma attiio on n
• Use the interface command bandwidth to modify the
• Use the interface command bandwidth to modify the
b ba an nd dw wiid dtth h m me ettr riic c..
• • U Us se e tth he e iin ntte er rffa ac ce e c co om mm ma an nd d nnoo bbaannddwwiiddtthh tto o r re es stto or re e
the default value.
the default value.
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-73
Using the bandwidth Command
Using the bandwidth Command
D De effa au ulltt
Bandwidth
Bandwidth
CCNA2-74 Chapter 9-1Using the bandwidth Command
Using the bandwidth Command
•• V Ve er riiffy y tth he e c ch ha an ng ge e u us siin ng g tth he e sshhooww iinntteerrffaaccee c co om mm ma an nd d..
Chapter 9-1
CCNA2-75
Calculating the EIGRP Metric
Calculating the EIGRP Metric
IIff y yo ou u lliik ke e u us siin ng g a a c ca allc cu ulla atto or r,,
this slide is for you!
this slide is for you!
J Ju us stt k kn no ow w tth ha att tth he e c co om mp po os siitte e m me ettr riic c
appears here in the routing table entry.
appears here in the routing table entry.
CCNA2-76 Chapter 9-1