Environmental Perception And CognitionEnvironmental Perception And Cognition

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Environmental Perception And Cognition


Environmental Perception And Cognition


CH3

March. 2009


Teacher
:黃章展

Student
:賴俊良

AN INFORMAL MODELOF SPATIAL COGNITION


空間認知
的非正式
模式

cognitive map

is a mental framework that holds some representation for the
spatial arrangement of the physical environment.



Is the cognitive map something a research participant draws to represent his
or her spatial memory?



Is it a stored image that roughly corresponds to the actual spatial
environment?



Is it simply a metaphor: a mental structure that is used as if it were a
physical map?



AN INFORMAL MODELOF SPATIAL COGNITION


空間認知
的非正式
模式


No matter what the status of these "maps," it does seem clear that they are
not the same as a cartographer's in either physical form or in content.



They are sketchy, incomplete, distorted, simplified, and idiosyncratic.



We might think of them as composed of three elements: places, the spatial
relations between places, and travel plans



place refers to the basic spatial unit to which we attach information such as
name and function and perceptual characteristics such as affective quality or
affordances



place may be a room, a building, a town, a nation, or a planet.



cognitive maps reflect spatial characteristics, such as the distance and
direction between places and the inclusion of one place within another

AN INFORMAL MODELOF SPATIAL COGNITION


空間認知
的非正式
模式


Finally, Garling et al. (1984) propose the concept of action plans as
important bridges between the mental world of cognitive maps and the
navigation and other behaviors that they support.



We have already suggested that a primary use is to facilitate
wayfinding
.



Wayfinding

is the adaptive function that allows us to move through an
environment efficiently to locate valuable items like food, shelter, or meeting
places within the environment

AN INFORMAL MODELOF SPATIAL COGNITION


AN INFORMAL MODELOF SPATIAL COGNITION


wayfinding

cognitive map


視覺化圖像

(
某人給予之方向
)

個人化圖像

(
熟悉
/
記憶
)

P70.14~20


Cognitive Maps


認知地圖

Cognitive maps are a very
personal

representation of the
familiar environment that we all experience.

HISTORY OF COGNITIVE MAPPING


認知地圖的歷史

Modern study
o
f these maps has its most direct roots in the
w
ork of E. C. Tolman (1948)

Tolman
c
oined the term
cognitive map
.


圖片來源:
www.comnet.ca/~pballan/section5(210).htm

An Image of the City: Kevin Lynch


城市的影像:

Kevin Lynch

urban planner Kevin Lynch (1960)

The Image of the City

he
i
dentified different elements that seemed com
m
on across
the three different cities.

Elements of Cognitive Maps


認知地圖的元素

paths, edges, districts, nodes, and landmarks.



Paths

are shared travel corridors such as streets, walkways, or riverways.




Edges

are limiting or enclosing features that tend to be linear but are not


functioning as paths, such as a seashore or wall.



Districts

are larger spaces of cognitive maps that have some common


character such as "Fraternity Row," or the "Chinatown" found in many


cities.



Nodes
are major points where behavior is focused, typically associated


with the intersections of major paths or places where paths are terminated


or broken .



landmarks

are distinctive features that people use for reference points.


Additional Early Observations


其他的早期觀察

Donald Appleyard (1970). The maps
s
eem to fit into one of two categories:

(1)
those predominantly made up of elements that one might encounter


sequentially in traveling from one place to another, such as paths


(sequential maps)


(2) those that instead emphasize spatial organization (a common term for
this type of birds
-
eye view is survey knowledge) such as landmarks or
districts


spatial maps

(see Figure 3
-
10)



Apple
y
ard reported that most maps were
sequential
,
t
hat is,


rich in
paths

and
nodes
.

CURRENT PERSPECTIVES


當前的觀點


One might think of an individuals finished cognitive map as representing a


personal understanding of his or her environment.



Certainly some features of the physical environment possess


characteristics that are likely to cause them to be perceived as more


important or distinctive, and thus, more likely to be stored in memory.



Often the features of concern to these researchers are those that make an


environment legible (see Figure 3
-
11).



Clearly,
legibility

is important in facilitating travel within a building or


outdoor environment, but it may also influence our affective reactions to


the environment
.


圖片來源:萬能科大鳥瞰圖

(
攝影:成漢
)

METHODS OF STUDYING COGNITIVE MAPS


研究認知地圖的方法

對所記憶之環境的繪
圖反應

Mapping Reactions to Remembered Environments


Geographers like Peter Gould and Rodney White (1982) present a different
approach to mental maps.



Gould’s approach recovers not a persons cognitive map, but rather,


characteristics or qualities assigned to places within a persons environment


that are compiled and subsequently represented graphically on a map.


METHODS OF STUDYING COGNITIVE MAPS


研究認知地圖的方法

識別任務


Recognition Tasks



In his early investigations of residents' images of Boston, Kevin Lynch
also asked participants to report whether they recognized photos of
landmarks that were interspersed in a collection of pictures of unfamiliar
locations.




Milgram and Jodelet (1976) revived this approach because it avoids
many of the problems inherent in having people with varying abilities draw
sketch maps




this technique emphasizes recognition (the ability to recognize a place
you have seen before) over recall


METHODS OF STUDYING COGNITIVE MAPS


研究認知地圖的方法

距離估算及統計的地
圖建置

Distance Estimates and Statistical Map Building



One well
-
known statistical approach to assessing cognitive estimates of
euclidian distance is multidimensional scaling (MDS)



MDS is a statistical procedure in which participants estimate the
distances between a number of buildings or other locations in the
environment
.



Given the distance between each point and each of a number of other
points, a computer can generate something resembling a map by optimally
placing each location on a two
-
dimensional map so as to minimize errors
in distance estimates.

ERRORS IN COGNITIVE MAPS


Types of Errors


認知地圖的錯誤


錯誤類型

Cognitive maps are rough approximations rather than perfect representations
of the physical environment.



First, cognitive maps tend to be

incomplete
.




Second, we often distort our representation of the environment by placing


things too close together, too far apart, or aligning them improperly.



A third type of error involves augmentation, or the addition of features to a


map that are not there.

ERRORS IN COGNITIVE MAPS


Familiarity and Socioeconomic Class


認知地圖的錯誤


熟悉度與社會經濟階級


As you might expect, a number of studies have shown that the more
familiar you are with an environment, the more accurate and detailed are
your cognitive maps of it .



Several authors report that familiarity probably explains the frequent
observation that people from higher socioeconomic status groups draw
more thorough maps than the poor



Evans et al. (1981) reported that the basic path and node structure
appears to be learned first, and then as an individual spends more time in
the environment, he or she fills in other details such as landmarks.

ERRORS IN COGNITIVE MAPS


Gender Differences


認知地圖的錯誤


性別差異

Do males and females differ in their cognitive mapping abilities?


Several researchers (e.g., Maccoby &: Jacklin, 1974) have reported that
males may possess superior visual and spatial skills, at least on paper
-
and
-
pencil tasks.



Appleyard (1976), for example, found mens maps to be slightly more
accurate and extensive than women's but attributed this difference to the
higher exposure of men to the city.



Appleyard’s early investigations; females seemed to be somewhat more
spatially oriented than males.

ERRORS IN COGNITIVE MAPS


Gender Differences



Other researchers have concluded that females are as accurate overall as
males in their maps, but that women emphasize districts and landmarks,
whereas males are more likely to emphasize the path structure



McGuinness and Sparks (1979) found that women included fewer paths
between landmarks, included more landmarks, were less accurate in
placing buildings with respect to the underlying spatial terrain, but were
more accurate than males in the placement of buildings with respect to their
distance from one another.

認知地圖的錯誤


性別差異

記憶與認知地圖

圖像的形式

MEMORY AND COGNITIVE MAPS


The Form of the Representation


One of the fundamental issues is the form of the mental representation of
spatial knowledge.



One view is that we have an image or mental "picture" of the environment
in our memory. This view, termed the
analogical

or
analog representation
.



Another view, the propositional approach, advocates more of a meaning
-
based or
propositional storage

of material.



The environment is represented as a number of concepts or ideas, each of
which is connected to other concepts by testable associations such as color,
name, sounds, and height.

記憶與認知地圖

距離

MEMORY AND COGNITIVE MAPS


Distance



Some understanding of the distances between locations is
necessary if we are to use a cognitive map for wayfinding.



If maps are analogs of the real world, distance may also be
represented in the stored memory itself.



An analogical storage of spatial information is not the only
explanation for many of the observed distance effects, however.



Perhaps a longer pathway also provides more opportunities to
acquire the bits of knowledge that make up propositions.


記憶與認知地圖

結構

MEMORY AND COGNITIVE MAPS


Structure


There is considerable evidence that landmarks within the same cluster are
judged to be closer to each other than to a third, equidistant point outside their
cluster


Moreover, each cluster may itself be represented by a
reference point
, a
s
ort
of "best example" that symbolizes all the lo
c
ations within the cluster

記憶與認知地圖

結構

MEMORY AND COGNITIVE MAPS


Structure


Col
l
ins and Quillian (1969) demonstrated that the
r
etrieval of information from
semantic memory
(
memory for concepts) sometimes acts as if it
i
s based
upon a hierarchical memory network.


T
hat is, information may be stored according to
s
ome organizational system
that is based on or
d
ered categories.

找路

Wayfinding


One of the most profoundly troubling expe
ri
ences we can
face is being lost.


找路

行動規劃與找路

Wayfinding


ACTION PLANS AND WAYFINDING


階段一:決定地點

階段二:找出目標

階段四:決定運輸工具

階段三:選擇路線

找路

行動規劃與找路

Wayfinding


ACTION PLANS AND WAYFINDING



that the model emphasizes an internal psychological process that lets us
anticipate or rehearse what will eventually be our actual behavior in moving
through the environment.



Thus, Garling et al. have adopted the concept of
action plans

(Russell &
Ward, 1982) as links between stored environmental information and
wayfinding behavior.

方便找路
的環境特


SETTING CHARACTERISTICS THAT FACILITATE WAYFINDING


Garling et al. (1986) and Abu
-
Ghazzeh describe three characteristics of
physical settings that are likely to affect wayfinding:


Differentiation
refers to the degree to which parts of the environment look the
same or are distinctive.


degree of visual access

This is the extent to which different parts of the
setting can be seen from other vantage points.


complexity of spatial layout

refers to the amount and difficulty of information
that must be processed in order to move around in an environment.

SETTING CHARACTERISTICS THAT FACILITATE WAYFINDING


地圖

MAPS


a map provides direct access to global relationships of distance and
location.



for complex environments with many nonperpendicular paths, maps may
remain the most efficient method of route learning (Moeser, 1988).

SETTING CHARACTERISTICS THAT FACILITATE WAYFINDING


目前所在位置之地圖

You
-
Are
-
Here Maps


One problem with maps is that people sometimes have difficulty translating
maps into usable navigation tools (Butler, Acquino, Hissong, & Scott, 1993;
Levine, 1982; Thorndyke & Hayes
-
Roth, 1982).



For example, have you ever consulted a you
-
are
-
here map in a shopping
center, museum, or subway terminal?



Structure Matching

The first problem faced by a you
-
are
-
here map user is
structure matching, that is, the need to pair known points in the environment
with their corresponding map coordinates.



Levine argues, two known points on both the map and in the terrain provide
the minimum amount of information necessary for a person to relate any
object in the environment with its map symbol.

SETTING CHARACTERISTICS THAT FACILITATE WAYFINDING


目前所在位置之地圖

You
-
Are
-
Here Maps

Levine, Marchon, and Hanley (1984) propose that wayfinding maps are best
when what is forward on the ground is up on the map (Figure 3
-
23).


THE AND


THE END


March. 2009