Planning of the Energy Efficiency Management

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Nov 9, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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MARPOL, Annex VI, Chapter 4 requires that every ship shall have a Ship Energy Efficiency Plan
(SEEMP) on board as from 01.01.2013.



The purpose of the Shipboard Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) is to

establish
procedures
to improve the energy
efficiency of a ship's operation.



Increased energy efficiency remains the cheapest and most abundant form of new energy
available today. SEEMP lays the foundation to put processes in place to optimize operational
processes and improve profitability through

the efficient use of people and assets. It is a resource
guide for all personnel to increase energy efficiency in vessel systems and operational processes.



The Energy Efficiency Management follows the Plan
-

Do
-

Check
-

Act (PDCA) cycle of a
modern manag
ement system. It follows a similar structure as ISO 14001, the international
management standard for environmental management systems. This enables the option to
combine energy efficiency management into an environmental management system.


The four phases

of the PDCA cycle include:


Plan



Identification of energy consumers on board



Establishing of monitoring an measurement (KPIs)



Establishing of objectives and targets to reduce the energy consumption



Planning of shipboard operations and equipment to achieve

the objectives and targets


Do



Operation of the vessel by use of plans for key shipboard operations and further
instructions relevant to energy efficiency


Check



monitoring of the shipboard operations relevant to energy efficiency



measuring the energy
consumption and calculation of the KPIs



energy efficiency audits


Act



assessment of the results of the checking phase



review of the elements pf the planning phase


Planning of the Energy Efficiency Management


Identification of energy consumers on board


The management of FIRMA has identified the following areas of energy consumption on board:




Propulsion



Heating of bunker



Electricity supply for

o

Accommodation air conditioning, heating and ventilation

o

Cargo refrigeration (reefer containers)

o

mooring and
cargo operations

o

Illumination



Establishing of monitoring and measurement (KPIs)

To monitor and measure the energy consumption the following KPI has been established:


The Energy Efficiency Operational Index (EEOI) according to the Guidelines for the
Voluntary Use of Ship
Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator, as published in MEPC 59/24/Add.1


As it is the objective to reduce the emission of CO2 the EEOI is calculated as the amount of CO2 per ton
cargo carries and per nautical mile sailed:





where
:

j

is the fuel type

i

is the voyage number

FC
ij

is the mass of consumed fuel j at voyage i

C
Fj

is the fuel mass to CO2 mass conversion factor for fuel j

m
cargo

is cargo carried (tonnes) or work done (number of TEU)

D

is the distance in nautical miles corresponding to the cargo carried or work done




Establishing of objectives and targets


The most important factor of fuel consumption is vessel's speed.


This vessel is being operated by the charterer who decides on



the speed of the vessel



the quantity of cargo transported



the distance to be sailed



the fuel quality



The only remaining measures relevant to energy consumptions are:



trim optimization



combustion control



weather routing



propeller and hull inspection and m
aintenance



boiler performance



electricity control


Operations


Fuel
-
Efficient Operations

The strategy of SEEMP is to achieve maximum fuel efficiency while maintaining organizational
effectiveness. The plan focuses on the systems and processes with the
highest energy conservation
potential and implements procedures without placing unnecessary burdens on ship's command and
Charterers.


Speed Control Orders

Reducing the vessel's speed offers the best possible chance for fuel savings. The Master should work

with Operation Planners of the Charterer to fully understand what speed orders they are being given. The
following definitions should be considered as the standard operating procedures when discussing speed
orders.


Speed order

explanation

speed (kt)

WSN
P

Weather safe navigation permitting


Full Service Speed

XX

RPM's weather neutral (vessels actual speed will
fluctuate basis weather/currents etc.)


Most Economical Speed

This is the minimum speed that the vessel can operate at
on a continuous basis
(e.g. where you have sufficient
steam generation to be able to heat the fuel oil and make
water, and you do not need to run the main engine
auxiliary blower.)


Super Slow Steaming

A speed below the most economical speed where you
need to run an additional

boiler and main engine auxiliary
blowers.


Proceed basis xx.xx
knots

Vessel permitted to adjust RPM's basis WSNP and
min/max rpm's as needed to stay within +/
-

.5 knots of
ordered speed.

given by

charterer

Adjust speed for timed
arrival

Adjust RPM's
closest to most economical speed in order
to arrive prior to or at a specific time.

to be calculated
acc. to ETA



Performance Trials

The purpose of the performance trial is to ascertain the consumption at a given speed so that the
predicted consumption c
an be accurately estimated for future voyages. The trials can also identify
possible causes of changes in efficiency. In the future, these trials may be used to schedule propeller
cleanings and hull fouling assessments. The ship's command can also look at
loss of performance for hull
and propeller surfaces.


Performance trials should be conducted over a period of four hours (one watch) while the ship sails with
unchanged speed and course and at similar wind and current conditions. Performance trials should

be
conducted at least one time on every long trip voyage or every 2 weeks.


The computer software PCM Power and Consumption Monitoring shall be used for this purpose. At the
end of each month the vessel shall transmit the data to the shore based company f
or analysis.


Weather Routing System

Vessels using Weather Routing have demonstrated potential for efficiency saving on specific routes. This
allows the Master to plan routes, when possible, to take advantage of favorable weather and avoid
adverse weather
to obtain the best performance in speed or consumption.


Voyage Planning and Speed Control

Communication and team work between the Charterer, Customer, and Ship Owners can yield significant
savings in energy usage. Unexpected delays, timely arrivals, and
wait time are all key factors that
contribute to energy consumption. Proper voyage planning, continuous calculating and monitoring of ETA
allows the Master to optimize the speed




Propeller and Hull Inspection

Ship resistance is improved by keeping the propeller and hull clean. Hull and propeller cleaning
(polishing) is a very effective way to reduce hull resistance and improve overall efficiency. In general,
propellers are cleaned on a
six month

basis. Hull Cle
aning is carried out based on a condition
assessment.


Marine growth on the hull and the propeller will increase their resistance. Regular in
-
service propeller
polishing is required to reduce surface roughness caused by material organic growth and fouling.

This
can be done relatively quickly without disrupting service operation by using divers. Regular scheduled
cleaning of the hull can reduce drag and minimize total fuel consumption.


At an interval of 5 to 7 months from previous propeller polish or dry
-
do
cking, the vessel managemenet
team is to coordinate with the Superintendent for propeller polish during the next available port visit.


The interval between polishes should not exceed 7 months unless there is compelling documentation to
support longer inte
rvals and approved by the Hull and Coatings Engineer.


In conjunction with every propeller polish, the hull is inspected for damage and marine growth as follows:

A.

Within one year of new build:


Divers assess the entire hull

B.

Less than 2 years after dry
-
docking:

Divers assess stern and rudder

C.

More than 2 years after dry
-
docking:

Divers assess the entire hull


If there is significant growth on the hull, an immediate decision to clean the hull can be made by the ship's
command in conjunction with the Su
perintendent.

The divers are to compile a detailed report containing the fouling condition details before and after
cleaning. Forward two copies to the Superintendent. Records are maintained onboard and in the office.


Best Practices



Monitor the propeller
ship and overall efficiency of the vessel to look for possible hull fouling signs
and schedule cleaning ahead of regularly scheduled cleaning. This performance loss can also be
highlighted during the performance trials.


Engine Performance Management (Opti
mization)

By regularly monitoring the performance of the main engine and generators and keeping the performance
of the engines optimized, FIRMA can attain fuel savings. The energy optimization program consists of
visual inspection and performance
monitoring using the monitoring equipment.


The engine optimization program is made up of two parts: Visual Inspection and Engine Performance
Monitoring.


The engine performance monitoring allows the engineers to optimize the cylinder pressure by adjusting

the Variable Injection Timing (VIT). These two programs ensure the engine is optimized for peak
performance.


The vessels use
PERFORMANCE MONITORING EQUIPMENT
, which is equipment that measures
exhaust pressure. The ship's crew takes readings and forwards
the results to
ENGINE MANUFACTURER

so that they can generate monthly reports. The reports contain the following information:



A.

Number of engines monitored as 100% of the engines available

B.

Vessels submitting reports within 48 hours after obtaining data onbo
ard

C.

ENGINE MANUFACTURER

performance evaluations accomplished within 5 working days of
receipt of data

D.

Fleet wide and vessel specific status of outstanding open conditions

E.

Number of unplanned major engine maintenance activities per individual vessel

F.

Number
of planned/requested maintenance where work order was generated

Best Practices



.
Stop M/E LO + Camshaft LO Pump in port if M/E notice allows. Many terminals
require
the M/E on short notice so it is not possible all the time, but when
possi
ble this should
be done.



Boiler Performance Management (Optimization)

Improving onboard steam management and improving overall boiler efficiency can improve reliability and
reduce operational costs. Managing the boilers and new techniques for air modell
ing, improved steam
controls, oxygen trim combustion controls and burners can improve efficiency.


Boiler optimization can increase the overall boiler efficiency, increase reliability, and reduce operational
cost.

When operating boilers, the engineering
staff should survey and optimize original boilers installed
onboard to look for inefficiencies. When working with a boiler optimization company, the following steps
should be taken.


Boiler Operations and Optimization

Significant fuel conservation can be a
chieved by minimizing overall steam consumption onboard. The
correct boiler should be used for the expected demand. When boilers are needed, the operator should
ensure that they are not started too far in advance from the time they are needed. Vessels shou
ld avoid
dumping steam to avoid getting alarms throughout the night. Pipe and valve laggings are to be
maintained in good order to minimize thermal losses.


Boiler optimization is a new service that can take the ship's existing boiler and increase the over
all boiler
efficiency using modelling to look for inefficiencies in the current system. After modelling, inefficiencies
can be corrected by installing special ducting and improved boiler electronic controls.


Steam Control

Convert the existing differential

atomizing steam pressure system to a
constant 6 bar steam pressure

system. This will allow greater fuel flow turndown and reduce the operational maintenance cost. Please
note that retuning of the combustion controls at the lower firing rates would be requ
ired.


Combustion Control

Upgrade the existing combustion controls to fully metered, cross limited with oxygen trim combustion
controls using the modern
Yokogawa YS1700

loop controllers.


High Efficiency DFO Burner

Change out the existing rotary cup burner

on the Donkey Boiler with a modern high efficiency DFO
burner. This package burner comes complete with DFO pump and fully automated controls (BMS and
combustion controls) with a 6:1 turndown.


Air Modelling

Air flow within the boiler combustion chamber ca
n be modelled to look for inefficient air flow. Actual scale
models of the boiler are constructed out of plastic. Air flow is simulated across the chamber. Air baffles
are then added to improve the air flow achieve optimum combustion.


The goal of the mode
l is to lower the excess air requirements; decrease fuel gas emissions, increase
boiler/burner turndown which will allow the burner to light
-
off with the air registers full open; increase
carbon burnout; and greatly reduce the visible opacity at the lower
excess air rates on the auxiliary boiler
onboard. Air modelling can yield at least 10% fuel oil savings from present levels.


Best Practices



Use composite boiler


during anchorages and other relevant opportunities;



Do not start auxiliary boilers too far i
n advance of intended use;



Minimize steam dumping when possible;



Maintain pipe/vale laggings in good order to minimize heat loss;



Maintain steam traps in good order;



Use steam tracing judiciously;



Optimize bunker tank heating;



During loading operation, if
no ballast pump is running, stop auxiliary boiler and operate only on
composite boiler. Also start auxiliary boiler prior to starting the ballast pump. This comes down to
good communications between the departments;



Auxiliary boilers should only be shut do
wn if they are not needed for a reasonable amount of time;
and



Check the O
2

analyzer and the piping system prior to every operation. Most ships do not clean the
sensing/sample line and condensation/dirt in the line prevents good flow of sample to the analy
zer
and hence the O
2

comes down very slowly. This causes a lot of fuel wastage as engineers increase
load on the boiler to produce better O
2
.


Onboard Bunker Management

Managing bunkers is important in improving reliability and reducing the chances of inco
mpatible fuel
related incidences. The crew of a ship should have well developed stowage plans and be familiar with
each parcel of fuel and the specifications of that fuel.


Bunkers come in a wide variety of quality, levels and are blended in various ways t
o meet the ISO
specification 8217. As per charter party, the charterer currently buys all our fuel on the
XYZ

specification.


Various blend components can keep heavy material in suspension that could precipitate out over time or
when mixed with dissimilar

bunker fuels. These heavy particulates can fall out of suspension and cause
heavy sludge generation in the purifier. For this reason, good onboard bunker fuel management is
essential.

As a minimum, vessels should have enough onboard to complete the curren
t voyage maintaining the
following:



HFO
-

3 days (maximum consumption)



MGO


10 days (minimum generator load)


The VMT should consult with the operations planner if the above cannot be met.


The decision to carry excess bunkers above the inventory limit is

to be justified by economic and
operational considerations. Factors that can influence this decision include bunker cost, quality, the
absence of firm orders, and cargo heating requirements.


Best Practices



Vessels should carry the most economical amount
of bunker in inventory.



All fuels are purchased on an internationally recognized standard known as ISO 8217.



Every precaution should be made to try to avoid comingling of parcels of fuel. Incompatible fuel is the
most common problem with the incompatible
fuel leading to clogged filters and in the worst case
scenario, engine shut down.



Fuel should be consumed in a first in, first out fashion. Avoid carrying fuel that is over a few months old.
The longer fuel is kept onboard, the longer the solids in the fue
l are likely to drop out, and the more
potential for reliability problems the ship is likely to face in terms of filter clogging and other problems.
Fuel that cannot be used for any reason should be de
-
bunkered off the ship as soon as possible.



Power G
eneration

The generation and consumption of power onboard represents an opportunity to save fuel and minimize
running hours on the power generators. The crew of a ship should be conscious of the high electrical
consumers and try to reduce their use as much

as possible or operate this equipment when additional
generating capacity is required for other uses.


Power generation comes from the running of auxiliary engines. The cost of running such engines can be
reduced by efficient use of these engines in their

optimum condition
.(load on the generators to be kept
85
-
95%)


Onboard management of the power load can result in significant fuel oil savings (i.e. only run the
generators needed for safe operations).


The Department of Energy (DOE) of America has a stand
ard to which household appliances must be
constructed to have an energy star rating. This standard known as the Energy Star Standard with a prefix
of 3.0 and now 4.0 (being the latest) gives the manufacturers of these appliances clear guidance on the
watta
ge consumption of these appliances.


For example, take a LCD television. The average ship has approximately 15 television sets onboard. With
an energy star rating of 3.0, one such TV consumes 318 watts. The same sized TV with an energy star
4.0 rating, con
sumes a maximum of 153 watts.


Replacing the TV's onboard from 3.0 to 4.0 energy star could lead to a reduction in kilowatts consumed
resulting in a decrease of fuel cost. If this were to be applied to all household appliances used onboard,
(e.g. refrigera
tors and microwaves), then the savings could be significant over a period of time.


Where appropriate, this principle can also be applied to simple things such as incandescent light bulbs,
as CFL lamps are 75% more efficient.


The replacement of onboard co
mputers from old cathode ray screens to more energy efficient flat
screens may also be considered. The company has demonstrated this principle ashore by replacing all
the computer screens. Other things that can easily be done are: use compact fluorescent l
ight bulbs, turn
off computers when not in use, turn off/plug out items such as DVDs/TVs/audio systems and microwaves
as these use several watts when in standby mode. Wise and not excessive use of washing machines and
dryers to save water and watts.


Bunke
r Heating

A voyage
-
specific bunker heating plan can greatly reduce emissions and heating costs. Bunker should be
heated in the most economical way possible and a heating plan thereof should be implemented shortly
after departure. Once en route, the heating

plan should be reviewed and updated daily, taking into
consideration the various factors that affect the heating and voyage requirements.


Draft and Trim Optimization

Operating the vessels at the optimum trim and draft can significantly improve efficiency
. The Master and
Chief Mate should have plans to manage the trim of the vessel to compensate for fuel consumed and
maintain the vessel at the most fuel efficient draft and trim consistent with operational requirements.


The resistance of the hull through the water and the overall efficiency of the ship changes with the draft
and trim of the vessel. The most optimum draft and trim is dependent on vessel shape, operating speed,
and cargo weight.

Tank arrangements, hull gir
der strength, and minimum propeller immersion often limit the ability of the
ship to sail in the most optimum draft and trim.


Trim trials will be performed as a part of Performance Trials to test and validate the trim optimization
efforts.


Process

The
ship's command should be familiar with the safe and correct sailing draft and trim of their vessel. A
Ballast Exchange plan is to be developed in advance of each voyage and updated as needed. This plan
is to show the planned ballast movements during the vo
yage to keep the ship at or near the optimum trim
and draft as fuel oil is consumed. When possible, gravity transfers should be used to reduce hours on the
generators and ballast pumps. At no time shall the plan exceed the allowable bending moment and shea
r
force for the hull girder, or allow the propeller immersion to be reduced to the point that the propeller
cavitates or causes significant vibrations


Crew Familiarization and Training

As the operators of the vessel, each crew member plays a key role in m
aking the vessel and each voyage
more energy efficient. As part the of initial vessel familiarization, each crew member should have a
complete understanding of the specific vessel's operations and how the crew's interactions with that
specific piece of equ
ipment has the potential to waste or save energy. A key component of the vessel
familiarization process should be a discussion on energy conversation and consumption.

Best Practise Guidance


As far as practicable, follow these guidance to reduce the use of

energy:




The Operational Index should be calculated for each voyage. Large variations of planned versus actual
fuel consumption will be addressed and diagnosed.



Use of composite boiler during anchorages and other relevant opportunities.



Do not start auxil
iary boilers too far in advance of intended use.



Follow reliability program to optimize performance of main engine and auxiliaries.



Minimize steam dumping when possible.



Maintain pipe/valve laggings in good order to minimize heat loss.



Maintain steam traps

in good order.



Use steam tracing judiciously.



Carefully monitor the propeller slip and hull condition.



Optimize vessel trim.



Use auto pilot settings effectively.



Seek advice for weather routing.



Minimize the use of unnecessary machinery


e.g., deck
hydraulic, fire pumps, engine room fan etc.



Deck department is to communicate better with the engine room on ballast and cargo pump usage to
avoid rolling pumps unnecessarily for long periods


a more robust plan.



Ship's crew should meet and discuss the im
pacts of running various pieces of machinery and how to
use them most efficiently.



Maximize D/G load when possible to run on one generator when it is safe to do so.



Ships are to communicate economical impacts and choices of voyage orders to Voyage Managers

and
Operations Planners.



Voyage Managers are to provide desired ETA at ports to allow more judicious use of the ship's power.



Operations Planners to advise each voyage if it is possible to transfer engine slops to slop tanks to
avoid diesel consumption in

incinerator.



Minimize water in sludge by settling not intense heating when transferring to slop tanks (when
possible).



Optimize bunker tank heating.



Switch off lights in unused spaces in accommodation.



Avoid using the washing machine and dryer with only o
ne or two items.



Ships are to discuss on the judicious use of pumproom fans, bosun store fans etc.



Careful use of gravity for deballasting can save fuel.



Ballast water exchange should be reviewed for energy efficiency


but not at the cost of exchange
obje
ctives



Stop M/E LO + Camshaft LO Pump in port if M/E notice allows. Many terminals require the M/E on
short notice so it is not possible all the time, but when possible this should be done. The Chief can use
his discretion on this practice.



During loading
operation, if no ballast pump is running, stop auxiliary boiler and operate only on
composite boiler. Also start auxiliary boiler prior to starting the ballast pump: This comes down to good
communications between departments. Auxiliary boilers should only
be shut down if they are not
needed for a reasonable amount of time



Check the O
2

analyzer and the piping system prior to every operation. Most ships do not clean the
sensing/sample line and condensation/dirt in the line prevents good flow of sample to the
analyzer and
hence the O2 comes down very slowly. This causes a lot of fuel waste as engineers increase load on
the boiler to produce better O2.