National Guidelines for Water Recycling:

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National Guidelines for

W
ater

Recycling:

Managing

Health

and

Environmental

Risks





Natural

Resource

Management

Ministerial

Council
Environment

Protection

and

Heritage

Council
Australian

Health

Ministers’

Conference




































November

2006

2

National

Gu
i
d
elines

for

Wat
e
r Recycling


Web co
p
y
: ISBN 1

921
1
73 06 8

Print co
p
y
: ISBN 1

921
1
73 07 6





A publication of the Env
i
ron
m
ent Protection and Heritage Council, the Natural Resource

Manage
m
ent Ministerial Council and

the Australian Health Mi
n
isters’

Conf
e
rence.


© Nove
m
ber 2006


This work

is

copyright.
It
m
ay be reproduced in part

subject to the inclusion of
acknowledge
m
ent of the

source and no commercial sal
e
.


The contents of this
doc
u
m
ent have been co
m
piled

using a range

of source
m
aterials, and, while
reasonable
c
are has been

taken in its co
m
pilation, the
m
e
m
ber
g
overn
m
ents of the Envir
o
n
m
ent
Protection and Heritage
C
ouncil, the Natural Reso
u
rce Manag
e
m
ent Ministerial Council and
the
Australian Health Ministers Confer
e
n
c
e and the

or
g
anisations a
n
d individuals involved wi
t
h the
co
m
pilation of this doc
u
m
ent shall
n
ot be liable for a
n
y

cons
e
quences which
m
ay

resu
l
t from
using the co
n
tents of this

docu
m
ent.











































Editing by

B
iotext Pty

L
t
d, Canberra

3


Contents





Abbrevi
a
tions and acr
o
nyms

...................................................................................................
.
x
vii
Ackno
w
led
g
ments

...............................................................................................................
.
......
.
x
x
i
E
x
ecutive su
mmar
y
.............................................................................................................
.
..........

1

1

Intr
o
ducti
o
n

.......................................................................................................................

5


1.1



1.1.1

Overview

.....................................................................................................

5

Safe and

s
u
s
t
ainable use of rec
y
cled

water

................................................

5


1.1.2

The need for water re
c
y
cling

......................................................................

6


1.1.3

The need for national guidelines

................................................................

7

1.2


Scope of the

guidelines

...............................................................................

8


1.2.1

Sources
o
f water

.........................................................................................

8


1.2.2

Risk
m
anage
m
ent fra
m
ework

.....................................................................

9


1.2.3

Aim

of the fra
m
ework for
m
anag
e
m
e
n
t of rec
y
cled

water quality

and use

......................................................................................................

10


1.2.4

Flexibility

and application of the fra
m
ework

...........................................

10


1.2.5

Elements of the fra
m
ework

......................................................................

11


1.2.6

Specific uses

.............................................................................................

12


1.2.7

Existing uses

.............................................................................................

13

1.3


How to

use
t
he guidelines

.........................................................................

14


1.3.1

Step 1


R
i
sk
m
anagement fra
m
ework and
plan

....................................

15


1.3.2

Step 2


H
u
m
an and environ
m
ental
h
ealth risks

....................................

16


1.3.3

Step 3


Monitorin
g
................................................................................

17


1.3.4

Step 4


C
o
m
pletion of the
m
anagement pla
n
........................................

17


1.3.5

Consultation and com
m
unication

.............................................................

17


1.3.6

State and territory

contac
t
s

.......................................................................

17


2

Frame
w
ork

for manag
e
ment of recycled
w
ater
q
uality and use.................................

19


2.1


Com
m
it
m
e
n
t

to respo
n
sible use and
m
anage
m
ent
o
f rec
y
cled

water quality (Ele
m
ent 1
)
..........................................................................

19


2.1.1

Responsible

use of re
c
y
c
l
ed water

...........................................................

19


2.1.2

Regulatory

a
nd for
m
al require
m
ents

........................................................

20


2.1.3

Partnerships

and engage
m
ent of stake
h
olders (incl
u
ding the
public
)
.......................................................................................................

21


2.1.4

Rec
y
cled

w
a
ter policy

..............................................................................

23

2.2


Ass
e
ss
m
ent of the re
c
y
cled water system

(Ele
m
ent 2)

.............................

25


2.2.1

Source of re
c
y
cled

water,

intended us
e
s, receiving
e
nviron
m
ents

and routes of exposur
e
..............................................................................

25

4

National

Gu
i
d
elines

for

Wat
e
r Recycling


2.2.2

Rec
y
cled

w
a
ter s
y
stem

anal
y
sis

...............................................................

27

2.2.3

Ass
e
ss
m
ent
of water qua
l
ity

data

.............................................................

31

2.2.4

Hazard iden
t
ification and risk ass
e
ss
m
en
t
................................................

32


2.3

Preventive measures f
o
r rec
y
cled wat
e
r
m
anage
m
e
nt (Ele
m
ent

3)

..........

41

2.3.1

Preventive measures and

m
ultiple barriers

...............................................

41

2.3.2

Critical cont
r
ol points

...............................................................................

45


2.4

Operational procedures
a
nd process
c
ontrol (Element 4)

.........................

49

2.4.1

Operational procedure
s
.............................................................................

49

2.4.2

Operational
m
onitoring

..........................................................
..................

50

2.4.3

Operational corrections

............................................................................

52

2.4.4

Equip
m
ent capability

and
m
aintenance

....................................................

54

2.4.5

Materials and che
m
icals

...........................................................................

55


2.5

Verification of rec
y
cled

water quality and environ
m
ent
a
l

perfor
m
ance (Ele
m
ent 5)

..........................................................................

56

2.5.1

R
ec
y
cled

w
a
ter quality

m
onitoring

..........................................................

57

2.5.2

Application site and receiving environ
m
ent

m
onit
o
ring

..........................

58

2.5.3

Docu
m
entation and reliability

..................................................................

59

2.5.4

Satisfaction of users of r
e
c
y
cled

water

.....................................................

60

2.5.5

Short
-
term

evaluation of results

...............................................................

60

2.5.6

Corrective respons
e
s
.................................................................................

61


2.6

Manage
m
ent of incidents

and e
m
ergencies (Ele
m
e
n
t 6)

.....................
.....

61

2.6.1

Com
m
unication

........................................................................................

62

2.6.2

Incident and e
m
ergency

response
p
ro
t
ocols

.............................................

63


2.7

Operator, c
o
ntractor and

end user

a
w
a
reness and training

(Ele
m
ent 7
)
................................................................................................

65

2.7.1

Operator, c
o
ntractor and

end user
a
w
a
reness and i
n
volve
m
ent

...............

65

2.7.2

Operator, c
o
ntractor and

end
user tra
i
ning

...............................................

66


2.8

Com
m
unity

involve
m
ent

and awaren
e
ss (Ele
m
ent 8)

..............................

69

2.8.1

Consultation with users
o
f rec
y
cled

water and the com
m
unity

................

69

2.8.2

Com
m
unication and edu
c
ation

.................................................................

70


2.9

Validation, research and

develop
m
ent (Ele
m
ent 9)

..................................

71

2.9.1

Validation of process
e
s.............................................................................

72

2.9.2

Design of e
q
uip
m
en
t
.................................................................................

73

2.9.3

Investigation of studies a
n
d research
m
onitoring

.........
............................

73


2.10

Docu
m
entation and repor
t
ing (Ele
m
ent 10
)
..............................................

74

2.10.1

Manage
m
ent of docu
m
entation and record
s
.............................................

75

2.10.2

Reporting

..................................................................................................

77


2.11

Evaluation and audit (Ele
m
ent 11
)
............................................................

78

2.11.1

Long
-
term

evaluation of result
s
................................................................

78

2.11.2

Audit of re
c
ycled water quality

m
anage
m
en
t
...........................................

79


2.12

Review and

continuous
im
prove
m
ent

(Ele
m
ent 12)

.................................

80

C
on
t
e
n
ts

5


2.12.1

Review
b
y

senior
m
ana
g
er
s
......................................................................

80

2.12.2

Rec
y
cled

w
a
ter quality

m
anage
m
ent i
m
prove
m
ent

pla
n
..........................

81



3

Managing

health risks

in recycled wate
r
.......................................................................

83


3.1



3.1.1

General pri
n
ciples

.....................................................................................

83

Tolerable ris
k
............................................................................................

83


3.1.2

Health
-
based

targets

.................................................................................

85

3.2


Risk ass
e
ss
m
ent.........................................................................................

85


3.2.1

Hazard iden
t
ification

................................................................................

86


3.2.2

Dose r
e
spo
n
se

...........................................................................................

89


3.2.3

Exposure
a
ssess
m
ent

................................................................................

90


3.2.4

Risk characterisation

................................................................................

91

3.3


Calculation of health
-
based perfor
m
ance targets

......................................

93


3.4



Preventive measures to a
c
hieve perfor
m
ance target
s
................................

93


3.4.1

Preventing
e
ntry of hazards into re
c
y
c
led water

......................................

93


3.4.2

Re
m
oving hazards using

treat
m
ent processes

..........................................

94


3.4.3

Reducing e
x
posure

thr
ou
gh preventi
v
e
m
easures at site of use

...............

95


3.4.4

Reducing o
c
cupational exposur
e
s to rec
y
cled wat
e
r

................................

98

3.5


Treated sew
a
g
e
..........................................................................................

98


3.5.1

Microbial hazards in treated sewage

........................................................

98


3.5.2

Calculation of
m
icrobial

health
-
based

targets for
r
e
c
y
cling from

treated sew
a
ge

..........................................................................................

99


3.5.3

Preventive measures to
m
anage
m
icr
o
bial risk

......................................

101


3.5.4

Che
m
ical hazards in treated
sewage

.......................................................

109


3.5.5

Preventive measures to
m
anage che
m
ical risk

.......................................

111

3.6


Treated sew
a
ge as a sour
c
e of re
c
y
cled water for use with

livestock

..................................................................................................

111


3.6.1

Taenia sagi
n
ata

......................................................................................

112


3.6.2

Taenia solium

.........................................................................................

112


3.6.3

Bovine Joh
ne

s diseas
e
...........................................................................

112


3.6.4

Conta
m
ination of
m
ilk via rec
y
cled

water use

in d
a
iry

o
perations

........

113

3.7


Gr
e
y
wate
r
................................................................................................

115


3.7.1

Microbial and che
m
ical
h
azards in gr
e
ywater

........................................

115


3.7.2

Calculation of
m
icrobial

health
-
based

targets for greywater used

as a source

o
f rec
y
cled

water

..................................................................

116


3.7.3

Preventive measures to
m
anage
m
icr
o
bial and che
m
ic
a
l risk from
greywater

................................................................................................

117

3.8


Monitoring
i
n rec
y
cled

water treat
m
e
n
t and us
e
.....................................

119


4

Managing
e
nvironm
e
ntal risks in r
e
cycled
w
ater

......................................................

121


4.1

General pri
n
ciples

...................................................................................

121

6

National

Gu
i
d
elines

for

Wat
e
r Recycling




4.1.1

Focus
o
f ap
p
roach...................................................................................

121

4.1.2

Environ
m
ental guidelines

.......................................................................

121

4.2


Environ
m
ental risk assess
m
ent

...............................................................

122


4.2.1

Water sourc
e
s, us
e
s, users and routes
o
f exposure

.................................

123


4.2.2

Hazard iden
t
ification and risk ass
e
ss
m
en
t
..............................................

124

4.3


Preventive measures to
m
anage risk

.......................................................

143


4.4



Treated sew
a
g
e
........................................................................................

146


4.4.1

Quality

of treated sewage

.......................................................................

146


4.4.2

Environ
m
ental risks asso
c
iated with rec
y
cling

water from

treat
e
d

sewage

....................................................................................................

147


4.4.3

Microbial hazards to the
e
nviron
m
ent in water re
c
ycled from

treated sew
a
ge

........................................................................................

148

4.5


Gr
e
y
water

within a single proper
t
y
.........................................................

148


4.5.1

Quality

of untreated greywater

...............................................................

148


4.5.2

Environ
m
ental risks asso
c
iated with greywater

.....................................

150


4.5.3

Microbial hazards in gr
e
ywater

..............................................................

150

4.6


Monitoring

..............................................................................................

150


5

Monitoring

....................................................................................................................
.
151


5.1


General pri
n
ciples

...................................................................................

151


5.2



T
y
p
e
s of
m
onitorin
g
................................................................................

152


5.2.1

Decentralised s
y
ste
m
s still require centralised
m
onitoring

....................

153


5.2.2

Baseline
m
o
nitoring................................................................................

153


5.2.3

Validation monitoring

............................................................................

154


5.2.4

Operational
m
onitoring

..........................................................................

155


5.2.5

Verification
m
onitoring

..........................................................................

155

5.3


Monitoring for
m
anagement of health risk
s
............................................

156


5.3.1

Validation monitoring for

health risks

...................................................

156


5.3.2

Operational
m
onitoring
f
or health ris
k
s

.................................................

161


5.3.3

Verification
m
onitoring
f
or health ris
k
s

.................................................

162

5.4


Monitoring
o
f
m
anage
m
e
nt of enviro
n
m
ental risk
s
................................

164


5.4.1

Baseline and validation monitoring for

environ
m
ental
risks..................

165


5.4.2

Operational
m
onitoring
f
or environ
m
ental risks

....................................

166


5.4.3

Verification
m
onitoring
f
or environ
m
ental risk
s
....................................

166

5.5


Quality

control and quality

a
ssurance

.....................................................

172


5.6



Laboratory

a
nal
y
s
e
s

................................................................................

173


5.6.1

Selection of anal
y
tical methods

..............................................................

173

5.7


Data analysis and interpretation

..............................................................

173

C
on
t
e
n
ts

7




5.8


Reporting a
n
d infor
m
ati
o
n disse
m
ination

...............................................

174


5.9



Review

....................................................................................................

175


6


Consultati
o
n


and communication

................................................................................

177



6.1



Factors that influence com
m
unity

attitudes to wat
e
r rec
y
cling

..............

177



6.1.1

Influence of

proposed

use

on level of acceptance

..................................

177



6.1.2

Effect of instinctive and e
m
otional re
s
ponses

........................................

178



6.1.3

Effect of credibility

of the organisatio
n
..................................................

178


6.2


Essential features of successful co
m
munications strategies

...................

179



6.2.1

Ai
m
s of com
m
unication strateg
y
............................................................

179



6.2.2

I
m
portant features of a s
u
ccessful stra
t
egy

............................................

179



6.2.3

K
e
y

m
essages to stakeho
l
ders

................................................................

180


6.3


Establishing partnerships

and engagi
n
g stakehold
e
rs

.............................

180



6.3.1

Stakeholder

participation

in plannin
g
.....................................................

181



6.3.2

Operational com
m
unication and educ
a
tion

............................................

182


6.4


Public crisis

com
m
unication

...................................................................

183



6.5



Frequent
l
y

a
sked questi
o
ns

.....................................................................

185


App
e
ndix

1

Case

studie
s
............................................................................................

187



App
e
ndix

2

Calculation

of microbial

health
-
bas
e
d perform
a
nce target
s
.............

225



App
e
ndix

3

Preventive measur
e
s

......................................
.......................................

231



App
e
ndix

4

Detailed risk ass
e
ssment for key
en
vironmental

ha
z
ard
s
..................

241



App
e
ndix

5

Reference tables for environmental

risk assessment

.........................

291



App
e
ndix

6

Nutrient

tr
a
nspo
r
t and

buffer

strips

...................................................

343



App
e
ndix

7

Communic
a
tion case

studies

................................................................

345



Glossary

.......................................................
...............................................................................

351



References

....................................................................................................................
.
..............

365



Index

........................................................................................................................
.
................

379

8

National

Gu
i
d
elines

for

Wat
e
r Recycling



Tables



Table 1.1

Exa
m
ples of rec
y
cled

water uses curr
e
ntly

und
e
rtaken and

considered
i
n these

guid
e
line
s
...................................................................

13


Table 2.1

Characteristics of re
c
y
cl
e
d water syste
m
s ................................................

29


Table 2.2

Potential hazards found in sewage

........................
....................................

35


Table 2.3

Exa
m
ples of sources and

potential hazard
s
...............................................

36


Table 2.4

Exa
m
ples of potential hazardous even
t
s

...................................................

36


Table
2.5

Qualitative
m
easures of likelihood

...........................................................

39


Table 2.6

Qualitative
m
easures of consequence

or i
m
pact

.......................................

39


Table 2.7

Qualitative risk esti
m
ation

........................................................................

39


Table 2.8

Exa
m
ples of potential critical control points and op
e
rational

criteria

.......................................................................................................

48


Table 3.1

Microorgan
i
s
m
s of concern in raw

s
e
wag
e
...............................................

87


Table 3.2

Dose

r
e
spo
n
se relationships for r
e
fer
e
nce organis
m
s

..............................

90


Table 3.3

Intended us
e
s and associated exposur
e
s for re
c
y
cl
e
d wate
r
......................

92


Table 3.4

Indicative log re
m
ovals of enteric pathogens and i
n
dicator

organis
m
s

..................................................................................................

95


Table 3.5

Exposure re
d
uctions prov
i
ded
b
y

on
-
site preventive
m
easures

................

97


Table 3.6

Nu
m
bers of

m
icroorganis
m
s in raw s
e
wage

.............................................

99


Table 3.7

Log reductions for
p
riority

u
ses
o
f re
c
y
cled

water from

treated

sewage

.....................................................................................................

100


Table 3.8

Treat
m
e
n
t processes a
n
d

on
-
site controls for d
e
signated uses of

rec
y
cled

water from

treated sewage

........................................................

103


Table 3.9

Treat
m
e
n
t processes a
n
d

additional controls for
u
se

of re
c
y
cled

water in ass
o
ciation with
livestock (ex
c
luding pigs)

..............................

113


Table 3.10

Co
m
parison of gr
e
y
water

quality

and

sewage

........................................

116


Table 4.1

Constituents

potentially

found in re
c
ycled water, which could

pose

a risk to the

environ
m
en
t
.........................................................................

127


Table 4.2

K
e
y

environ
m
ental hazards, environ
m
ental endpoints and co
mm
on
effects on the environ
m
e
nt when using rec
y
cled

water for

agricultural,
m
unicipal, residential
and fire
-
control
p
urposes

................

130

C
on
t
e
n
ts

9


Table 4.3

Sum
m
ary

of

environ
m
ental hazards identified in these guidelines

........

131


Table 4.4

Qualitative
m
easures of consequence

or i
m
pact

.....................................

133


Table 4.5

Standard risk

assess
m
ent sheet for identif
y
ing e
x
posure pathw
a
y
s

and i
m
pact
o
f a particular hazard

............................................................

134


Table 4.6

Com
m
on effects of k
e
y

hazards in re
c
y
cled

water

on the

environ
m
ent

............................................................................................

136


Table 4.7

Exa
m
ple of an environ
m
ental risk ass
e
ss
m
ent for s
o
dium

...................

1401


Table 4.8

Factors to be

considered
i
n a full risk
a
ssess
m
ent proces
s
......................

142


Table 4.9

Sum
m
ary

of

preventive measures and
c
ritical control points

.................

145


Table 4.10

Che
m
ical c
o
nstituents of

sewage that

could be used as a source of

rec
y
cled

water

.........................................................................................

147


Table 4.11

Che
m
ical c
o
nstituents observed in greywater in Australia and
internationally

.........................................................................
................

149


Table 5.1

Purp
o
se of
m
ain t
y
pes

of

m
onitoring

......................................................

152


Table 5.2

Exa
m
ples of validation monitoring for

health risks

................................

157


Table 5.3

Microbial
indicators

................................................................................

160


Table 5.4

Exa
m
ples of operational
m
onitoring and sup
p
orting progra
m
s for

health risks

.........................................................................
.....................

161


Table 5.5

Exa
m
ples of verification
m
onitoring

......................................................

162


Table 5.6

T
y
pical sa
m
pling progr
a
m

for operational
m
onito
r
ing of health

protection barriers and verification of health
water quality

targets

........

163


Table 5.7

Exa
m
ples of how
m
axi
m
a
l risk ass
e
ss
m
ent relates to
m
onitori
n
g
require
m
ent
s
............................................................................................

165


Table 5.8

T
y
pical sa
m
pling progr
a
m

for

verification
m
onit
o
ring of
environ
m
en
t
al water quality

targets for assess
m
ent of

environ
m
ental allocation

of re
c
y
cled

water

............................................

168


Table 5.9

T
y
pical sa
m
pling progr
a
m

for verification
m
onit
o
ring of

environ
m
ental
hazards in

soil

.................................................................

169


Table 5.10

T
y
pical sa
m
pling progr
a
m

for verification
m
onit
o
ring of

environ
m
ental hazards in

groundwater

...................................................

170


Table
5.11

T
y
pical sa
m
pling progr
a
m

for verification
m
onit
o
ring of

environ
m
ental hazards in

surface wat
e
r

..................................................

171


Table 5.12

Com
m
on quality

assurance and quality

control activitie
s
.......................

172

10

National

Gu
i
d
elines

for

Wat
e
r Recycling


Table 6.1

Factors found to affect com
m
unity

acceptance of water rec
y
cling

sche
m
es

...................................................................................................

178


Table 6.2

Factors fo
un
d to
m
axi
m
i
s
e trust where

risk is perc
e
ived as high

...........

179


Table A1.1

Fra
m
ework ele
m
e
n
ts applied to a sche
m
e using rec
y
cled

water
from

a

m
ajor

m
etropolit
a
n sewage treat
m
e
n
t plant

to irrigate

com
m
ercial crops

....................................................................................

191


Table A1.2

Fra
m
ework ele
m
e
n
ts applied to the use of re
c
y
cled

water throu
g
h

a dual
-
reticulation system

................................................................
.......

201


Table A1.3

Fra
m
ework ele
m
e
n
ts for the use of re
c
y
cled

water

produced from

a s
m
all rural

sewage trea
tm
ent plant

to irrigate a golf cours
e
.................

209


Table A1.4

Fra
m
ework ele
m
e
n
ts applied to the use of re
c
y
cled

water for

irrigation of

m
unicipal (landscape) ar
e
as

................................................

216


Table A1.5

Fra
m
ework ele
m
e
n
ts applied to use of

greywater in

an apart
m
ent

co
m
plex for toilet flushing and subsurface irrigation

.............................

221


Table A2.1

Potential risks from

irrigation of lettuce using treated sewage

...............

226


Table A2.2

Deter
m
ining

health
-
based

targets from

volu
m
es of water

consu
m
ed

................................................................................................

230


Table A3.1

T
y
pical nitr
o
gen and ph
o
sphorus c
o
ncentrations in sewage
effluent
s
.............................................................................
......................

233


Table A3.2

Effect of so
m
e advanced

processes on the che
m
ic
a
l

quality

of

sewage effl
u
ents

......................................................................................

236


Table A4.1

Boron: control points, pr
e
ventive
m
ea
s
ures, target
c
riteria and

verification

..............................................................................................

243


Table A4.2

Chlorine disinfection residual


terr
e
strial: control points,

preventive measures, tar
g
et criteria a
n
d
verification

..............................

245


Table A4.3

Chlorine disinfection residual


aqu
a
tic: control points,

preventive measures, tar
g
et criteria a
n
d their verification

......................

247


Table A4.4

H
y
draulic l
o
ad


water
l
ogging: control
points, preventive

m
easures, target criteria and verification

................................................

251


Table A4.5

H
y
draulic l
o
ad


water
t
able rise and

secondary s
a
linit
y
: contr
o
l

points, prev
e
ntive
m
easu
r
es, target criteria and their
verification

..........

253


Table A4.6

Nitrogen


nutrient i
m
b
alance: control points, pr
e
ventive

m
easures, target criteria and their verification

........................................

256


Table A4.7

Nitrogen


t
errestrial eutrophication: control
points, preventive

m
easures, target criteria and their verification

........................................

257

C
on
t
e
n
ts

11


Table A4.8

Nitrogen


conta
m
inati
o
n of gro
u
n
d
water: contr
o
l points,

preventive measures, tar
g
et criteria a
n
d their
verification

......................

259


Table A4.9

Nitrogen


eutrophication of surface

water: control points,

preventive measures, tar
g
et criteria a
n
d their verification

......................

261


Table A4.10

Phos
p
horus



nutrient i
m
balance or

toxicit
y
:

control points,

preventive measures, tar
g
et criteria a
n
d verification

..............................

265


Table A4.11

Phos
p
horus



terrestrial eutrophication: control p
o
ints, preventive
m
easures, target criteria and verification

................................................

266


Table A4.12

Phos
p
horus



eutrophi
c
ation of waterw
a
y
s: control points,

preventive measures, tar
g
et criteria a
n
d verification

..............................

267


Table A4.13

Soil salinit
y
:

control points,

preventive
m
easures, target criteria

and verification

.......................................................................................

270


Table A4.14

Groun
d
water salinit
y
: co
n
trol points,
p
reventive
m
e
asures, target

criteria and verification

...........................................................................

273


Table A4.15

Chloride and

sodium

toxicit
y
: control

points, prev
e
ntive
m
easu
r
es,

target criteria and verification

...............................................................
..

276


Table A4.16

Sodicit
y
: control points, preventive
m
e
asures, target

criteria and
verification

..............................................................................................

282


Table A4.17

Environ
m
ental risk assess
m
ent for agricultur
al,
m
u
n
icipal and

residential use of water r
e
c
y
cled from

treated sewa
g
e
............................

284


Table A4.18

Environ
m
ental risk assess
m
ent for fire control use
o
f water

rec
y
cled fr
o
m

treated sewag
e
..................................................................

287


Table A4.19

Environ
m
ental risk assess
m
ent for environ
m
ental allocation of

water re
c
y
cled from

treated sewage

........................................................

288


Table A4.20

Environ
m
ental risk assess
m
ent for untreated greyw
a
ter from

a

single hous
e
hold used on

sit
e
..................................................................

289


Table A5.1

Guideline values for con
t
a
m
inant co
n
centrations of heavy

m
et
a
l
and
m
etalloids in (a
) soil and biosolids, (b) drinking

water and

irrigation water

........................................................................................

291


Table A5.2

Guidelines for fresh and

m
arine water

quality

........................................

293


Table A5.3

Maxi
m
u
m

boron concen
t
rations in irrigation or soil

water tolerated

by

a

variety of crops,

wi
t
hout reduction in
y
ields

...................................

301


Table A5.4

Maxi
m
u
m

boron concen
t
rations in irrigation or soil

water tolerated

by

a

variety of orna
m
entals, without r
e
duction in
y
i
elds

........................

302


Table A5.5

Guidelines
v
alues for ca
d
m
i
u
m

in rec
y
cled water

..................................

303

12

National

Gu
i
d
elines

for

Wat
e
r Recycling


Table A5.6

Relationship between irri
g
ation water
chloride concentration or

salinit
y
, and

risk of incre
a
sing crop up
t
ake of cad
m
i
um

........................

303


Table A5.7

Relative cad
m
i
u
m

uptake and conta
m
ination risk groups f
o
r so
m
e

fruit and ve
g
etables

.................................................................................

304


Table A5.8

Approxi
m
ate nutrient uptake in vegetable crops

....................................

304


Table A5.9

Nitrogen and

phosp
h
orus

re
m
oval (kg/ha/crop) wi
t
h harvesta
ble

portions of
c
rops from

specific locati
o
ns

................................................

305


Table A5.10

Mean nutri
e
nt concentrations in harv
e
stable portions of cr
o
ps

..............

308


Table A5.11

Conversion

factors for el
e
ctrical conductivity

m
easure
m
ents

................

311


Table A5.12

Relative soil salinity

tolerance thresho
l
ds of turf

grasses to

salinity

in soil extract (ECe) and
e
sti
m
ates for irrigation water (ECi)

................

311


Table A5.13

Water salinity

criteria for

salt tolerance thresholds
o
f turf grasses

.........

314


Table A5.14

Salinity

tolerance of so
m
e Australian
n
ative plants

................................

315


Table A5.15

Approxi
m
ate salinity

tolerance of fruit,

vegetable, grain and

pasture crops

...........................................................................................

322


Table A5.16

Approxi
m
ate salinity

tolerance of so
m
e orna
m
ental

plants

....................

325


Table A5.17

Approxi
m
ate sodium

and chloride concentrations that
can cause

foliar injury

i
n crop plants from

saline sprinkling wate
r
.........................

331


Table A5.18

Tolerance of so
m
e fruit crop cultivars

and rootstocks to chloride in

soil water (from

saturati
o
n paste extr
a
ct
)
...................................
.............

331


Table A5.19

Tolerance of agricultural crops to soil extractable chloride

....................

332


Table A5.20

Approxi
m
ate values for

soil saturated hydraulic conductivity

(K
s
a
t
)

and i
m
pacts

on utility

..............................................................................

333


Table A5.21

Effect of so
d
iu
m
, expressed as sodium

adsorption ratio (SAR),

on

crop growth

and quality

under non
-
saline conditions

.............................

333


Table
A5.22

Potential sodicity

hazards

from

irrigation waters of

var
y
ing
sodium

adsorption ratio and salinit
y
,
e
xpressed
a
s
e
lectrical

conductivity or total disolved salt
s
..........................................................

334


Table A5.23

Phos
p
horus (P)
status in

soils (extractable


m
g/kg)

............................

334


Table A5.24

Relative phosphorus (P) sensitivity

of

a range of

Australian native

plants

.................................................................................................
......

335


Table A5.25

Phosphorus sensitivity

of

so
m
e South African Proteaceae

.....................

341


Table A5.26

So
m
e phosphorus
-
sensitive Australi
a
n native plants

..............................

341

C
on
t
e
n
ts

13


Table A5.27

Maxi
m
u
m

available
phosphorus

(DTPA
-
extractable) tolerance of a

range of Australian native plants at two levels of iron availabilit
y
.........

342


Table A6.1

Ass
e
ssing t
h
e broad risk

of sedi
m
ent and nutrient transport to

surface wat
e
rs via runoff

.........................................................................

343


Table A6.2

Ass
e
ss
m
ent of the risk of nutrient transfer to gro
un
dwater
s
...................

344



Figures



Figure 1.1

Elements of the fra
m
ework for
m
anage
m
ent of recycled water

quality

and use

..........................................................................................

12


Figure 1.2

How to

use
t
he guidelines

.........................................................................

15


Figure 2.1

Potential syste
m
s
for use of re
c
y
cled

water from

treated sewage

or
greywate
r
...................................................................................................

28


Figure 2.2

Critical cont
r
ol point decision tree

............................................................

47


Figure 3.1

Process of r
i
sk ass
e
ss
m
ent

........................................................................

86


Figure 4.1

Detail of the s
y
ste
m
s analysis and
m
anage
m
ent c
o
m
ponent

(Ele
m
ents

2,

3, 4, and 5)

from

the framework f
o
r
m
anage
m
ent
o
f

rec
y
cled

water qualit
y
.

............................................................................

126


Figure 4.2

T
y
pical env
i
ron
m
ental ri
s
ks to be ass
e
ssed and
m
anaged for
rec
y
cling

w
a
ter from

treated sewage f
o
r residential,
m
unicipal,

agricultural and environ
m
ental uses

.......................................................

139


Figure 4.3

T
y
pical env
i
ron
m
ental ri
s
ks of r
e
side
n
tial use of single househ
o
ld
greywate
r
.................................................................................................

140


Figure 4.4

Factors to be

considered
i
n environ
m
ental risk ass
e
ss
m
ent

....................

143


Figure 4.5

How

preven
t
ive
m
easures and critical control po
ints relate to

target criteria and critical limits

..............................................................

144


Figure 5.1

Characteristics of differe
n
t t
y
pes

of
m
onitoring in a rec
y
cled

water
sche
m
e
.....................................................................................................

153


Figure A
2
.1

Log reductions required
a
s a function

of volu
m
es exposed

....................

229


Figure A
3
.1

T
y
pical bio
c
he
m
ical oxygen de
m
and (BOD)
and

suspended

so
l
id
concentrations in s
e
wage

effluents

.........................................................

233


Figure A
4
.1

Relationship between average root zo
n
e salinity

(
E
Ce) and
electrical c
o
nductivity

of irrigation water (ECi), as a function
o
f
leaching fraction (LF) and plant salt tolerance (source: adapted

from

Rhoades et al 1992)

........................................................................

274

14

National

Gu
i
d
elines

for

Wat
e
r Recycling


Figure A
4
.2

Relationship between sod
i
um

adsorption ratio (SA
R
) and electrical
conductivity (EC) of soils and likelihood of soil structure

breakdown

...............................................................................................

280


Figure A
4
.3

Relationship between sod
i
um

adsorption ratio (SA
R
) and electrical
conductivity (EC) of irri
g
ation water and likelihood of soil

structure br
e
akdown (so
u
rce: ANZE
C
C and A
R
MCANZ

200
0
a)

.........

281


Boxes



Box 1.1

Principles of

sustainable
u
se of re
c
y
cl
e
d water...........................................

6


Box 1.2

Relationship between the

national guidelines and s
t
ate and

territory

gui
d
elines

......................................................................................

8


Box 1.3

Sources
o
f r
e
c
y
cled

water

...........................................................................

8


Box 1.4

Risk
m
anage
m
ent approach to water quality

and

use

...............................

10


Box 2.1

Exa
m
ples of agencies that
m
ay

be inv
o
lved in water rec
y
cling

...............

22


Box 2.2

Exa
m
ple of a policy

f
o
r a

rec
y
cled

water supplie
r
....................................

24


Box 2.3

Cross
-
conn
e
ctions and
m
isuse of re
c
ycled water......................................

26


Box 2.4

Exa
m
ples of useful so
u
rces of infor
m
ation for assessing syste
m
s

...........

30


Box 2.5

Exa
m
ples of infor
m
ation

needed for assessing

risks

for re
c
y
cled

water s
y
ste
m
s

............................................................................................

33


Box 2.6

Exa
m
ples of preventive measures f
o
r rec
y
cled wat
e
r s
y
ste
m
s

.................

42


Box 2.7

Exa
m
ples of
m
ultiple barriers to
m
icr
o
bial pathogens

.............................

44


Box 2.8

Exa
m
ples of process
-
c
o
ntrol progra
m
s

.....................................................

50


Box 2.9

Possible corrective actio
n
s

........................................................................

53


Box
2.10

Reliability

of dat
a
......................................................................................

59


Box 2.11

Hazards and

events that may

lead to
e
m
ergency

situations

......................

62


Box 2.12

Rec
y
cled

w
a
ter incident com
m
unication
and notification protoco
l
..........

64


Box 2.13

Contractors

................................................................................................

68


Box 2.14

Com
m
unica
t
ions and responsibilities


Tatura Rec
y
cled Water

Reuse Sch
e
m
e

...........................................................................................

70


Box 2.15

Possible are
a
s for applied

research and

develop
m
ent

...............................

71


Box 3.1

Disability

adjusted life
y
e
ars (DALYs)

................
....................................

84

C
on
t
e
n
ts

15


Box 4.1

Exa
m
ple of specific environ
m
ental e
n
dpoints

........................................

123


Box 4.2

Exa
m
ple of

deter
m
inati
o
n of target criteria

............................................

144


Box 6.1

Guiding pri
n
ciples for p
u
blic crisis com
m
unications

.............................

184


Box 6.2

Elements to include in com
m
unications resp
o
nse to

a crisis

..................

185


Box 6.3

Questions li
k
ely

to be as
k
ed frequent
l
y by stakehol
d
ers

........................

185


Box A1
.
1

Total log reductions

................................................................................

189


Box A1
.
2

Total log reductions

................................................................................

199



xvii


Abbreviations

and

acronyms



AA
T
SE

Australian Acade
m
y

of
T
echnological Sciences a
n
d Engineering


ABS

Australian Bureau of Sta
t
istics


AD
W
G

Australian Drinking Water
Guidelines

(NHMRC

NRMMC

20
0
4)
AES

alkane ethoxy sulfonate

ANZECC

Australian
a
nd N
e
w Zealand Enviro
n
m
ent and Conservation
C
ouncil


ARMCANZ

Agricultural and Resour
c
e Manage
m
ent Council of Australia a
n
d New

Zealand

(Note: in 20
0
1, the
functions of

ARM
C
ANZ and

ANZECC w
e
re taken up
b
y
the Environ
m
ent Protection and Heri
t
age Council and the Nat
u
ral Resource

Manage
m
ent Ministerial Council)


ASR

aquifer stor
a
ge and reco
v
ery
BNR

biological nutrient
reduction
BOD bioche
m
ical o
x
y
gen de
m
and

BO
D
5

bioche
m
ical o
x
y
gen de
m
and over 5
d
ays


CCL

cu
m
ulative conta
m
inant loading li
m
it
cfu

colony
-
for
m
ing unit

CP

control point


CRC

cooperative research centre


CRCWQT

Cooperative Research C
e
ntre for Water Quality

a
nd Treat
m
ent


CSI
R
O

Com
m
onwealth Scientific and Ind
u
strial Research

Organisation


Ct

term

used in disinfection to describe t
h
e product of

disinfectant concentration

(C, in
m
g/L) and contact ti
m
e (t, in

minutes)
DAFF

dissolved air

flotation and filtration

DALY

disability

ad
j
usted life
y
ear


DA
L
Yd

doses equiv
a
lent to 1
0

6
D
A
LY


EC

electrical c
o
nductivity

(
d
eci
-
Sie
m
ens/
m
etre, dS/
m
)
ECe

electrical c
o
nductivity

of a soil paste

extract

ECi

electrical c
o
nductivity

of irrigation water

x
viii

National

Gu
i
d
elines

for

Wat
e
r Recycling


EDC

endocrine disrupting ch
e
m
ical


EIL

ecological investigation level


EPA

Environ
m
ent or Environ
m
ental Protection Agen
c
y
o
r Authori
t
y


ESP

exchangeable sodium

percentage
FSANZ

Food Stand
a
rds Australia New Zeala
n
d
HACCP

hazard
analysis and critical control point
HD

health depart
m
ent

HIL

health
-
based

investigation level


LAS

linear alk
y
lbenzene sulfonate


LC
5
0

lethal concentration of a substance that kills 50% of test ani
m
a
ls in a given
t
i
m
e


NATA

National Association of Testing
Authorities


NDMA

nitrosodi
m
eth
y
la
m
ine


NHMRC

National He
a
lth and Med
i
cal Research Council


NOEC

no observ
e
d

effect concentration


NRMMC

Natural Res
o
urce Manag
e
m
ent Ministerial Council


NTU

nephelo
m
etr
i
c turbidity

unit


NWQMS

National Water Quality Manage
m
ent

Strategy


PAH

pol
y
c
y
clic aro
m
atic h
y
dr
o
carbon


PCB

pol
y
chlorina
t
ed biphe
n
y
l
P
i
n
f

probability

of infection
QA

quality

assurance

QC

quality

control


RO

reverse os
m
osis


RSC

residual sod
i
um

carbonate
RSCL

receiving soil contaminant li
m
it
SAR

sodium

adsorption ratio

SS

suspend
e
d s
o
lids

A
b
breviati
o
ns

a
n
d

ac
ro
nyms

x
ix


TDS

total dissolved salts


THM

trihalo
m
ethane


USEPA

United States Environ
m
ental Protection Agen
c
y


UV

ultraviolet


VCH

volatile chlo
r
inated h
y
drocarbons


WHO

World Health Organization



xxi


Ackn
o
wledgments



The Natural

Resource

Manage
m
ent Ministerial Council and the Environ
m
ent Protection and
Heritage C
o
uncil acknowledge the
c
ontributions

of the individuals listed
b
elow to the
develop
m
ent of these gu
i
delines.



Joint

Steering

Committee


C
h
air

Mr Peter S
u
t
h
erland

New S
ou
t
h Wal
e
s

D
e
part
m
ent
o
f

N
at
u
ral Re
s
o
u
rces

Members

Ms Jo

Beatty

De
p
a
rt
m
e
n
t
o
f S
u
s
t
ai
n
a
b
ility & E
nv
iro
n
m
e
n
t, Victoria

M
r

C
h
ris

Bell

E
n
vir
o
n
m
ent Prote
c
tion A
u
t
h
o
rity
(EPA),

Vict
o
ria

M
s Jan

B
o
w
m
an

Dep
a
rt
m
ent of Hu
m
an

S
e
rvi
c
es,

Vic
t
oria

Prof

D
o
n Bursill

C
o
o
p
erati
v
e
R
esearch Ce
n
tre (CRC)

for

Water Q
u
ality &

Treat
m
e
n
t

Ms Christine

Cowie

National

Heal
t
h

a
n
d Medical

Research Council

Dr D
a
vid C
u
nliffe

Dep
a
rt
m
ent of Healt
h
, S
o
uth

Aus
t
ralia

Dr D
a
vid Dett
r
ick

Dep
a
rt
m
ent of I
n
fras
t
ruc
t
ure,

Plann
i
ng & E
n
vi
r
on
m
ent,

No
rthe
r
n Te
r
rit
o
r
y

M
r

J
oh
n D
o
h
er
ty

Dep
a
rt
m
ent of

Tra
n
s
p
ort

&

R
egi
o
n
al S
e
rvi
c
es

M
r

L
e
on E
n
glish

Dep
a
rt
m
ent of Water,

W
est
er
n Aus
t
ralia

Dr

Hel
e
n

F
o
a
r
d

National

Water C
o
mm
ission

M
r

R
o
b H
o
g
a
n

Dep
a
rt
m
ent of E
n
vir
o
n
m
ent &

C
o
ns
e
rvati
o
n, N
e
w

So
uth Wales

M
r

T
h
eo
Ho
oy

Aus
t
ralian G
ov
ern
m
ent D
e
pa
r
t
m
ent of

t
h
e

E
nv
i
r
o
n
m
ent a
n
d Heritage

(
D
E
H)
Dr

G
reg Ja
c
k
s
o
n

E
n
vir
o
n
m
ental Protection Agency,

Que
e
nsl
a
nd

Dr K
a
rin Led
e
r

National

Heal
t
h
a
n
d

Medical

Research Council

M
r

Peter
M
ar
c
zan

Dep
a
rt
m
ent of E
n
vir
o
n
m
ent &

C
o
ns
e
rvati
o
n, N
e
w

So
uth Wales

Dr

Ka
y
e
Po
w
e
r

Dep
a
rt
m
ent

of

Health,

N
e
w

S
ou
t
h

Wales

M
r

Neil
Po
wer

Dep
a
rt
m
ent of Water,

L
a
nd
a
n
d Bi
o
d
i
v
e
r
sity Cons
er
vati
o
n
,

S
ou
t
h Aus
t
ralia

M
s Nina

R
o
g
e
rs

Aus
t
ralia Loc
a
l G
o
v
e
rn
m
ent As
s
o
ciation

Ms Chris

Schweizer

DEH

M
r

I
a
n

S
m
ith

Dep
a
rt
m
ent of I
n
fras
t
ruc
t
ure,

Plann
i
ng & E
n
vi
r
on
m
ent,

No
rthe
r
n Te
r
rit
o
r
y

Mr R
o
ss Yo
u
n
g

Water

Ser
v
ices Ass
o
ciati
o
n of A
u
stralia


Risk

Management

Frame
w
ork

a
nd

Integration

Wor
k
ing

Group


C
h
air

Prof

D
o
n Bursill

CRC for

Water Q
u
ality & Trea
t
m
e
n
t

Members

Dr D
a
vid C
u
nliffe

Dep
a
rt
m
ent of Healt
h
, S
o
uth

Aus
t
ralia

Dr

Da
n
iel Deere

CRC for

Water Q
u
ality & Trea
t
m
e
n
t

Mr Peter Do
n
l
o
n

Water

Ser
v
ices Ass
o
ciati
o
n of A
u
stralia

M
r

T
h
eo
Ho
oy

DEH

Mr
Alec

Perc
i
v
al

Con
s
u
m
er He
a
lth Forum

Prof
B
rian Priestley

M
on
a
s
h
U
n
i
v
ersity

Ms Chris

Schweizer

DEH

Mr Peter Sc
o
tt

Mel
b
o
u
r
n
e

Water

Dr Mart
h
a

Sinclair

M
on
ash U
n
i
v
ersity

xx
ii

National

Gu
i
d
elines

for

Wat
e
r Recycling


Health

Risk

Working

Group


C
h
air

Dr D
a
vid C
u
nliffe

Dep
a
rt
m
ent of Healt
h
, S
o
uth

Aus
t
ralia

Members

Pr
o
f Nick A
sh
bolt

Un
i
v
ersity
o
f New
S
ou
t
h

W
a
les

Mr Peter Do
n
l
o
n

Water

Ser
v
ices Ass
o
ciati
o
n of A
u
stralia

Dr Jim

Fitzgerald

Dep
a
rt
m
ent of Hu
m
an

S
e
rvi
c
es,

S
ou
t
h
A
u
st
r
alia

M
s A
m
elia Savage

Dep
a
rt
m
ent of Hu
m
an

S
e
rvi
c
es,

Vic
t
oria

Dr Melita Steve
n
s

Mel
b
o
u
r
n
e

Water

Dr Si
m
on

To
z
e

C
o
m
m
onwealth

Sci
e
ntific a
n
d

I
nd
u
strial Research
Or
gani
s
ation

(CSI
R
O)

La
n
d

&
Water


Environmental

Risk

Wor
k
ing

Group


C
h
air

Mr
T
h
eo Hooy and
Ms Chris

Schweizer
Members



DEH

Dr

Hea
t
h
er
C
h
a
p
m
an

CRC for

Water Q
u
ality & Trea
t
m
e
n
t

M
s Ner
i
da

D
a
vies

DEH

Dr

A
n
a

Deletic

M
on
ash U
n
i
v
ersity

Dr

Peter

Dillon

CSIRO

Land &

W
ater

M
r

T
e
d

Ga
r
d
n
er

Dep
a
rt
m
ent of

Nat
u
ral Res
o
u
r
ces,

Que
e
nsla
n
d

M
r

G
e
o
r
ge

Ga
t
es

Dep
a
r
t
m
ent of

I
n
fras
t
ruc
t
ure,

P
l
ann
i
ng &

N
at
u
ral Re
s
o
u
rc
e
s,

N
e
w

S
o
u
t
h

Wa
l
es

Dr B
e
n

G
a
wne

Murray
-
D
a
rling Fre
s
hwat
e
r

R
esearch Centre

Ms Kaia

Hodge

Sy
dn
ey

Water

Ms Annie
J
o
sl
i
n
e

DEH

Dr

Stu
a
rt

K
h
a
n

Centre

f
o
r

Wa
t
er

&

W
aste

T
e
ch
n
o
l
o
g
y
,

U
n
iversity
o
f N
e
w S
o
uth

W
ales

Dr Rai

K
o
o
k
ana

CSIRO

Land &

W
ater
Dr

A
n
u
K
u
m
ar

CSIRO

La
n
d &

W
at
e
r
Pr
o
f Sam

Lake

M
ona
s
h
U
n
i
v
e
rsity

M
r

Ch
a
rles L
e
wis

DEH

M
s Th
e
rese

M
ann
i
ng

Dep
a
rt
m
ent of E
n
vir
o
n
m
ent &

C
o
ns
e
rvati
o
n, N
e
w

So
uth Wales

M
r

R
u
ssel

M
a
r
tin

Dep
a
rt
m
ent of Water, L
a
nd &

Biod
i
versit
y
, S
o
uth
A
u
stralia

Dr

M
i
ke

M
cL
a
u
g
hlin

CSIRO La
n
d &
W
at
e
r

Dr

Grace Mitchell

CSIRO M
a
nufacturing

& Infrastructure
T
e
c
h
nology

M
s L
o
uise

Oliver

DEH

Dr

Ha
m
ish

Reid

EPA

Victoria/So
u
th East

W
a
ter

Dr

Ste
p
h
a
nie

Rinck
-

Pfeiffer

U
n
ited

W
ater

I
n
ter
n
ati
on
al

Ms Suzie

Sark
i
s

EPA

Victoria

Dr

D
a
r
y
l

Stev
e
n
s

A
r
ris

Pty Ltd

Dr

John W
h
itti
ng
t
o
n

De
p
a
rt
m
e
n
t
o
f Pri
m
ary I
n
d
u
s
t
ries,

Water

&

En
v
iro
n
m
e
n
t,

Tas
m
a
n
ia

Proje
c
t

C
oo
rd
inat
i
on

and

S
c
ientific Se
r
v
i
c
es

f
o
r

the

E
nv
ironme
n
tal

R
i
sk

C
o
m
p
o
ne
n
t

of

the

N
a
t
i
o
n
al

Guidelines

on

Water

Recycl
i
ng

Dr

D
a
r
y
l

Stev
e
n
s

A
r
ris

Pty
Ltd


Chapter

on

consultation

and

communication


M
s Lis

G
e
rr
ar
d

Bluebi
r
d

C
o
m
m
unication

Dr

Stu
a
rt

K
h
a
n

Centre

f
o
r

Wa
t
er

&

W
aste

T
e
ch
n
o
l
o
g
y
,

U
n
iversity
o
f N
e
w S
o
uth

W
ales

A
b
breviati
o
ns

a
n
d

ac
ro
nyms

xx
iii



Public

comments


The councils also wish to

thank all those who

prov
i
ded

com
m
e
n
t during pub
l
ic consultation on
the draft guidelines